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THi art M 

VAooy e.r ^vArxdi. 








Under QoveTTvtnent Orders. 





Tax names of contribators are giren tn tlie body of the book. 
Special acknowledgmeats are due to Mr. J. W. P. Mair-Mackenzie, 
C. S. whose valuable contribationa form the balk of the Tolums. 


Much help was also received from Messrs. J. King, C. S. 
Collector, H. B. Cooke, G. S., Sorgeoii-Major W. McCosE^hy, and 
the Deputy Collectors Rflv Bah&dor B&t&ji Gaiig&dhu Sdthe aad 
Mr. B. T. Bichardflon, 

October IS84. 



S A T A' R A . 
'Clupteir I.— DueHi^tiMt- rMB 

I'osition mid Area; Boundaries; 8ub-I>ivi«i«ns aad State*; 

Aspect l-i 

Hills; RiTors;Wat*T;G«>logy 5-X6 

ScnsoQs ; Winds ; Clouds ; Olimkeo ; EUinfull ; Heat ; Hail- 
storms 17-37 

Cliapt«r II.— Produetioik 

Muicr&Ia ; Foreota 28-38 

Domestic Auiiuals ; Wild AoiniAla ; Snakm ; Fish ; Birds . . 36-42 
Chapter III. — Peopte- 

Census Details ; TillogM ; Houses ; Dress ; CoiutuunitiM i 

Movoioaits , . 43-00 

Hixuus : 

Drihiuiuis ; Writers ; Tnulen 61 . 63 

Husbaadmon 64 • 7S 

OmftanxHi 79-96 

Musiciaos; Sorvwits; Khvpbmxls; toshers; Ldtbourars . . 97-107 

Unsettlud Tribes ; Dopromcd Olssstw 108-111 

BeBgars 115-133 

MeaALU-vus ; CsKtsTUira; Pixaa 13t ■ 117 

Chapter IT.— Agikttltnn. 

Huiihsiidin«ii \ Soil ; Aiubl« Area ; Holdin^^; Plough; Stock ; 

Fiuld Tools U8-1W 

Water Works; Wells ISl-lM 

Manure ; Wood^wb Tillago ; Oropa 159-167 

I^imiiMM 168 . 177 

; Chapter V. - Capital- 

CnpitoliaU ; Banks ; Bills ; Gurrency ; Saving Olassea ; Inx-eat- 
miMiU ; Moneylenders ; Interest ; Borrowers : Aj-raritui 
Kiobi ) MortgsgiM; Wagtm; IVices; Weij^hls and Uoosurui. 176-193 

Chapter VI.-Tradc- 

BoiuU ; PaasM ; Railways ; Tollii ; Bri<l^-«« ; TVavetlers' Bun- 

galovs ; Beat-houara ; ForrtM ; Post and Telegraph Offices . 194 - 213 
Trade Centres ; Markets ; Fain ; Shopkccpcm j Peddlers ; 
OUTi«n i In'port! ; EsporU 211-219 


Crapts : now 

Uold and Silver ; Ooppor and BiSJS ; Tron ; SbMut ; Po4tory ; 

Wood ; Cottou-weaving ; Oyeii^; ; BljinkctK ; Luther . 320 - 223 
Clupter vn. ~ Hiitory. 

Early niiKius {i«.c.200-A-li-129i) 39 

JH'SALMiKK (laai ■ 1720) : 

Dclbi Gox-crnora (1318 . 1347) ; Bahintinis (1M7-1489); 
Adil Shihi« (U89-1686); AdU Shdlii InHtitutions ; 
MorAtbn Chief); Sbiv&ji {1627 - Ifi^BO) ) Afrul Kbun's 
murdiT (1659); Shiriji's Itigtitatiom ; Sombb^ji (1680- 
1680); the MoKhaU (16136-1720); RijilrAai (1689- 
ITOO); Tar4Wi'« Ri-gency (1700.1708); Shiliu (1708- 
1749); BAliiji Viahvanith Penhiwi (17U- 1720) ; Impe- 
rial Onmta (1720) 226-2( 

MARATHia (1720- 1848): 

Mi»naKeui*nt (1720) ; Nijtfim iad«poiu]«nt (1720); Bijirftv 
BaU&l Pt>ahwa (1721-1740); BAMii BAjii^v Fcshwa 
(1740- 1761} ;SI)&hti's death (1749) ; SfLUracdftses (17fiO) 
to be tlw Madllhn Capital ; lUmriija (1749-1777); 
AUdlwvMv P««hva (1761 • 1772) ; Nir&jranrtiv Fcshwft 
(1772. 177S) ;Sh4bii II. (1777 - 1810) :Pr«.t£psmh (ICIO- 
1939); 'rrinibakji Dengliu's inMinvction (1K17); Buttlu 
of Kirkco (1817); Stltiira Gurrmidcred to tlw British 
(1818); Mr. Elphinstone's Mnnifutn ; PrntipDJnh nstorad; 

I>rfLt(I]>Ginh's Plots; t^hihiiji (m39- 1818) 263 • 314 

TiisBbitisr (1848 -1884): 

AiinexiittO[i(1849);Ut<! Mutitiiea (1857) S15-311 

Chapter Till- - The Land. 
Acquiuiioa; Ctiongisi; Staft'; Tenures; Alienated Land; 

AIieimt«d ViilogeB 320-328J 

Fonm^r Surwya ; Former Rateii ; Revenue Offio<;r« ; Rcvcnuo 

Au«ouute ; Beveuue Systnu ; Collc>ctiona 339 - 343^ 

British Management (1848- 1851) ; Oeaatu (1851) ; Surrey 

(1863-1863); Sursey Result* (1864-1882); Season 

Reports (1819.1883) 343-38ft^ 

Chapter IZ- - Juatlca. 
Justice under the PcshwAa (1749 . 181?), under Pratipaiiih 
(1818-1839). undor Appa SAlieb (1839- 1848), and luidw 
llie British (18*9- 1863) ; Civil Courts (1870- 1893) ; Civil 
Suits (1870 1882); Arbitration Courts; Regiatratioii ; 
MagUtrttcy ; VillajfU Police ; Criminal Glaeses ; Police ; 
0eteiwe>;JaU8 390-402J 


Chapter X- — Fbuuiee- paoi 

Land Bevenae ; Excise ; AEaeesed Taxes ; Balance Sheet ; 
Local Funds ; Municipalities 403 - 408 

Chapter XI. — Initmction. 

Schools ; Stafi ; Cost ; Instruction ; Private Schools ; Progress 
(1855-1883); Girls' Schools; Readers and Writers; 
School Returns ; Town and Village Schools ; Libraries ; 
Litereiy Societies ; Kewepapera 409-416 

ChaptBr XIL— Health- 
Climate; Hospitals; Dispensaries; Infirm People; Vaccina- 
tion ; Cattle Disease ; Births and Deaths 416-422 

Chapter XIII- — Snb-Dirisioiu. 

Boundaries; Area; Aspect; Climate; Water; Soil; Stock; 

Holdings ; Crops ; People 423 - 446 

Chapter XIV. — Places 447-816 

States 617-624 

Appandix A 

Botany *. . . 625 - 646 

Appendix B. 

Mah&baleahvar Plants 647 , 663 

Appendix C. 

Camps 654-667 

Appendix V- 

Dasara Procession 658 - 660 

Index 661-672 






Sa'ta'ra.*t tho wMtcra limit of Uie Decean tableland, lie* 
between 16° 60* and 18° I tf north Intihido and 78° 45' and 75" 0' 
MMt longitado. It hu nn lu^a of -1792 square milea, a population 
in 1881 of 1,062,350 or 221 to tho Mnaro mile, and n land revenue 
in 1882 of £231,139 (Ra. 23,I1,9P0). 

Tbu district of S&t&ra iBcladcti part of tho stAte of S^tdra which 
lapsed to the Britiith in I84S, tc^ether with the eah-dirision of 
Til^raon which was formorljr in Bolgnum. Hiit&re, is bounded on the 
north by the Nira river and tho etatOB of Bhor and Pbaltan, and 
beyond thom by Poona; on the east by ShoUpur, tlie Atpddi sub- 
dirinion of tho Pant Pratinidlii state, and the utatu of Jath ; on the 
Houth by the lands of the S^o^li bnnch of tho Patrnrdhan family, 
a few vilUgos of Bclht\uin, thu Vfirna river, and, beyond tho Yllma 
river, by Kalhipar ; and on the w&st by tho SiUiyfidris, and beyond 
the SahyMria by tho Konkiia diatricta of Kolitbu and Ratu^giri. 

\ Fop administrative purposes SitAra is distribnted over eleven 
j^b-divii^ionx. Of thcHO kovou, WtLi, Jt(vli, S&tira, Koregaou, P&tivn, 
^jnnUI, aud Vdilvaarointbe west; and four, M&n, C3iaUir, Kh&iUlpar, 
•nd Tdsgaon an in tlie cast: 

filfrirw AdmlKutratat Ddail* tSSSSS. 












AlftA.i r~^ 





































s 1 u 





^ o 













J till 






































11 .0*0 












■ I1.4U 
















V*1tb .„ 












010 'M 















UuUt ... 





























TUtMO _ 













Total _ 





«3 jiKI 








£11 DS 



Ohnpt«r I. 




of Silt4r» Ui lb 
io tke 
SalijAiiri lands ia 
ix nileaet 
of Pea in 
:«<lnd to Um aortii 
I M Oa Nn. ABBdb ■ 
a( Ik* Mim Koragwm, 
TiMMB M i l air iM i M , Md f rtlj Ibna* i 
I UoA of Ike Atptdi aA-finnaD hi the nnrlli tmi ol 
wfcieh divM aortk-cMt ale Ike Mitt. OkA&par adb 
I iioAi ia Ike ■ wilh . «M> of EWba^pv, ud Jath ad^ bepnl 
Difl^mr • loMliaot aC eamatxj ikat MmufcL e eMi eod tkea mrlk 
lolke MiawidBhijne wboOt treaty aflw iifHi lit rf Btadlmpm 
Tte^MdaUOBoCikteMnr - '^ 



tanoT, SilAra conn eboot a handred miles imn oortli to sootii, ud 

•boat eigktj milee from eett to wmI. Ezomt * aoMU kres in tks 
north ud north-east that dnias into the BUnw, the distnet <i 
BAUra is the bead of tho Tslley of the Krishna riror. Down tka 
csntre, with a gaDemI slope to tho ttyaih and eouth-east^ along s 
vtl\ey which slowly open* into a plain, the gwatin* flows first le 
the Moth Bod then to the east, peesiog acrosa the whole disbiei 
from its BOrtk-west to its aoatO'eaBt eoraer. From the cootnl 
plain of tho Krishna eight vallejs brsnch to the hills. Six of tbem 
on tke right mn west or north-west, flacked b; spurs from Uie 
BekjAdris, snd two of tbem on tho left ma north, flanked by spun 
from the northern Malu&dev range. In the west the district il 
fOggwl and well watvrod ; in the cast it is flatter but pnrchod and 
barren. Between the two etretcbes the Eriabna valley, which, 
with the months of *omo of tho side Talleys. forms one of ths 
riche«t tiacte in tho Bombay Deocan. Except near Uah&baleeknr 
and tho Koyns TAlley in the west, little of the distriei is tkieUf 
wooded. Kveo in tho rains the Mahidov hills whiob lie across ths 
nottk of the (listriot are scantily covered with green, and durinfl 
Ike bot months tnmt of tho country is |itirchc<r nnd bare. Bwi 
•ran in the stoniest and barrenest parts, the eje la often relieved 
by tbe green of watered crops and by groves of lofty troee. lie 




ire!item hilla are resMrkabI; bold witb nbarp oatlum. Hie tops 
of mnny uro Rat-, niteed on lofty black ecarpa whiob in the dietonce 
lofik like fortress walls. The hilla am luyiirM of Hoft or am/gdnloid 
trap separated bj Sows oE bard basalt aad topped by iroD^stone or 

The Sahyidri range in the extrsme west, the Mahfider rango 
paaaing at right angles from tlio Kiiliyiiilnn cu«t across the north of 
the distriot, and the spure of the Sahy&dria chieSy stretching east 
and s(;utli-awt and tho souUi-miiDiu^ Hptirs of the Mah&deT hills 
divide S&tdra into three belts, a western, a oentr^ and an eastiirn. 
Tbo WMtom or Sahy&dri belt includes tho western parte of WfU, 
Jivli, S&t&ro, PtUan. and V&lva. It inclades tiie narrow rngged aad 
stoop crf«t of tho SahyAdriD and thv nuighbouring ton to fifteen 
miles in the extreme weat of the Koyna and V^na valleyi. It 
incladeit tho bulk of tho Stltira foro«t laud and is throaghont hilly 
and thickly wooded with erergreen trees. The Koyna and Vama 
rise in the Sahy&dns and ran soath-eoat till they join the Krislioa. 
On both side* of these rivers tho bills rise titecp from tho river 
banks, leaving little room for tillage. The line of hill top is 
RvMutn brokun iulo diMtinct Hummittt and is gonorally baro as the 
rock ia too smooth and steep to give troe^ a footbold. Ou the hill 
slopes the rogutntion is dense ; and in the val!i;ys whero the Vosh- 
ings of the hills hare gathered, the tree growth is luxuriant 
formint^ high forosts cbioily of jamMiul Syxigiam jambolanum, 
a}\Jan Memecylon tinctoHam, j>ita Aotiao daphne, jack Artocarpiia 
inl«grifoliii, vifl Ficus indicH, mango Mongifora indico, and A4rcla 
Tenninalia cbebula. Except lilabjiMleabvar, M&ndhardev, and a 
few others whiob end in largo plaloans, the flat tops aro not more 
than fifty to 300 acres in area. The bilU are crossed by many 
footpaths and by two important oart roads with large traffic, 
the FitsOorald pass in J&vli leading from Maltithal«abvar to 
Aruhiiil in Koliba and tbe Kambbdrli pass leadin? by Kar&d and 
Fiitim to Chiplunin Ratn^irL Scattered over the bills, alwaya close 
to a spring or litream, on the flat tops, on sido terraces, and in the 
valley bottoms are small hamlets of rude ill-made hut« whoao timbers 
are rough forest posts, whoeo walla are of wattle and daub, and whose 
roofx aro of thatch. Kvery iiprin^ i.t diKDnied aad the eiidea of many 
of the hilla are clevei'ly terraced for the ^owtb of rice and garden 
crops. But tbu bulk of tbu soil is red tron-oharged and puor, 6t 
only for ndchiU vari and other coarse bill grains which on some oE 
the appor slopus oro grown by coppice-cutting or kumri. Except 
a daas of IklusalmAn iron<sm«UerA called Dhavads who are now 
laboarers, most of tbe bill people are Mantthi Knobis, In the hot 
season tho climate of tho bills ia cool and hoalthj ; in tlu> damp chilly 
rains the people auffer from fever and ague. 

Tbo oontrul bolt stretches from tho eastern border of tbe Sabyildri 
belt about thirty milea to the Vordbangod-Machindragad hills whicli 
run from tbe Mahfidev range soath tbroogh tlio whole length of the 
district nearly paiallel to ue Sabyddns. This central belt includes 
the mstem parts of W£i, JiivU, SaUira, PAtan, and Vdlra and the 
whole of Kariid and Koregoon. It is a tract of rich wolUwatered 
valleys nearly parallel to each other, stretching and widening to the 

Chapter I.' 


SaAlpidri BtU, 

Central BdL 


«aal kA lOBth OMt, and wpanted bjr abarp 
u>d UBtkHaut from t^ mwii line of tlte Si^tf^ris. 
TBlhjf ■■• begiBBiiiff Eroin tbe oortli, tb* ICmagai 
Kojm*, Bad V«fm nUqra. The Eorenoii nDey ia |W aortk 
tbe d^rict if ftlnost mroandsd bjrbilu, tboM «■ Ae ««■« tlal|f 
woodid, sad tkw OD tbe OMt bttnu Tlie Kiidua and lb* Kant 
ralUy* uv ia the centre of tbe diatricL Tbs Kaikam nQaf, 
fiwatnlW in tbe district, botweeo tbe Kuaalgad «ir ta the DOffl 
•ad tbe VsinUgad spar in tbe aoatb, mane b^m tb« ctmI 
linb^Aidedivar pbteMi tkroagb W&i, S&lin, luMtd. mad YOtk 
Soalb of tba Kmboa Talk;; ilie Koysa valley lin betwcoa Ibe nais 
UiiA uf tbe SabT&dria on th« west aiid the Pniiirmli fiiir<ila*ii|| 
OD tbe euL Lilur the Kri&bna rftUey it etorts hois tb« 
balaafanu- bilU, and, after etratchiog Booth aboat fort; nilea llinN^ 
JivU aad PilaA, lunu vast for furty miles fiinh^r aod t^mia iiM 
tbe bntiul Kriahna vaUejr at Kanid. To tbo sootbof the KojM 
valley with ttio Bbaiiar^d-Kandur bills on tbe norlb. sad tU 
MaliiiniLlgail lulls in Kolh^par on tbe sontb, the VAtsb ralkjr, 
grnduitlly opening, pawM-n cant 111], about sixteen tnilce sooth of 
vAlrn, it merge* in tbe great Kriahna plain. In the weat tk 
bogitiiiiugs of ihcMi rallojii are little more thita rariDea beinmcd la 
by hif^h 8t««p billii. The noil is a bright barren iron clnjr, the sauU 
hanleta are perched on knolla or aot oo high etroaoi ImuiIm, ibt 
paople are poor, and mOHt of the crops are m>wn with tbo help wL 
rah or wood ashea. Further cast tho flanking hilla erow lonr 
rounder and barer. Patcliiv nnd l>e]tH of vulualik* t<-Blc gradnallT 
giro irar to tillage ati the dales open into broad level vnUcys wtta 
Edt'lrut-mnged Btroam banks and lines of road shaded bv lol^ 
traea. Theae broad Tsllevs are the ncbest part of the atabriet. 
Kear tbe cvntro of the i-alloy, gcn<>isllj on tho hanks of tho ntaia 
■troatn, aometimes two or three miles apart, are lur^ru and ofug 
kitady villages, peopled by caraful aad skilfal hiiEbaniluioTi. Ketf 
tlio villagea, along both lunka of the c«ntfa] river, tho de€>p and 
well wut«rcd blacK soil yields a socccssion of rich cropft nbirh ksip 
green till February. In tbo rains all in gru«u, and the fields yam 
to tho foot of tbe hilla and sometimes climb the lower sIopM. 
Aft^rr October when tbo min crops are reaped tho outer fringe d 
the valioy lies bamon and bare. 

The eastern belt include^ tlt« fonr snb-dirisions of H&a, KhaUv, 
K&bnApur, and TAsgaon. Except in tho extreme .luuth near tla 
Kriahna tbe oastoni belt is barren. Much of Rhatiiv and KlUln£|Mr 
in the centre is a waving plateau al>oul 250 feet above the Kruhas 
valley. Tli<^' pintoan slopes cast to tbo Ycrla which croaaea it on ill 
way Honth to the Krinhua. Uoyond tbo Yerla it riaee ffeotly aad 
again dips into the deeper valioy of tlte Vila. East of tbo Viu lb> 
oonntry rises about a hundred feet and pabsoa into tlie hills which lead 
to MAndesh, tbecoontry bordering on the Ulln river inclnding tb* 
Uiin, Atpddi, and SAngola sub-di visions. In tho weat of Khatii 
are a few scattered teak, and iDAtiy of the «]oprs have thick patches ut 
scrub aQ<l <-(ippicOj obiofly karanj, Mti, and dkiivda. Though the RotI 
is poor millet and other dry -f-ropN Arc grown over a large areo. Mia 
is a hollow nearly surrounded by Ion hills. Tbe low luids are fuB 


! TOok iscl the soil ia poor. The hill slopos, wliich nrc FCamod 
lb itrMins, ore generally coTored witli gcrah fori>st c)uett>- aa !a 
KhuUtv of karanj Ponffiuai* glabra, and dhdvda ConocarpDS latifolia. 
Most of tbe tillage in il&a i& oa the slopes and tt>p of the platcuu ; 
the bulk of tbu low binds are waata This M&n coantry has for 
long been and atill is a pastors land for Ibo (tattle of the riolutr 
vaUejs further to the vro«l. lu thu soittb of lliis easlem belt, 
bejrood Uie ceotral plateau of Kbat&r and Kliiini&par, along the 
Doorse of tboYorla, thu landn of T^ttgnon fall i^lowty to the Krishna. 
In the north and eait TdisgaoD is barren tuid rocky, cut by linoti 
of low bills that ittriko out from the XbdniLpur pl&t«nu. In tlie 
eolith luid vreat, near tlie meeting of the Vcrla and tfao Krishna, ib 
turns into a rich well woodod plain. 

The SAtitm digtric-t containa two main systems of hills ; the 
Sahyfldri range and its offshoots, and the Mah^ev range and its 
olTshoots. Tlio Siibyildri tiyHtvm includeit the main range of tho 
Babyiidris which, through its entire leDgth of sixty milM 
from north to south, forms the western bonndary of the district. 
Within SiLtJlra limits the main rango of the Sahy^dris, from 
about eight miles north of PratdpgAd passes Honlh-west for about 
twenty milra. The crwit tlicu tnmtt to tho east of sonth, .and, 
in au irregular line, continues to stretch south by east about forty 
miles till It cntorjt K'lUuipiir nitwr Pr.ichitgiid about fifteen miles 

Ifiouth'west of P&tan. In the siUy miles within S^t^ra limits tho 
crest of tbo Sohyildria ia guaided by five forts. From the north 
thow are PraUtpgad in tho north-west of the district, Makaraudgod 
following tho Une of tbo hill crest about seven miles south of 
PntApgad, Jauglixlayg&d abont thirty miles seotb of Makrandgad, 
Bbairavgad about too miles couth of Jangli-Jnygad, and Praohitgad 
about seven miles sonth of Dhairavgad. Within S^tdra limits tho 
main line of the SahyHdriB in crofiHod liv eight pasf^s. Beginning 
from the north theac are the FitzUerald or Anihinali pikii^a in thu 
Dorch-wesl of the district, about ton miles west of MsIiAbleshrar; 
the PAr pats about thrre miles south-west of the Fily.(ionild pass ; 
the fliitlot pass about six miles sonth of the I'&r pass ; the 
Aiuboti pass, about U>n niilett south of the- Hiillot pass ; tho 
Korlh Tiviik pass about ten miles south of the Amboli pass; the 
Kumbh^rli pass about fiftuon miles sonth of thu north I'lvra pass; 
the Mala pasH about eight miles Bouth of tho Kumbhiirii pass; and 
ibo Sonth Tirra pass about six miles South of tJie Mala pasa Of 
hese eight pftMOS tho FitKUerald and the Kauibbdrli are Rt for 
»rt«, the Amboli, North Tirrs, .South Ti\T», and Mala are bullock 
iracks, and thu rest are footpatlis. 

Five spurs pass east and south-east from the Sahy&Iris. Deginntng 
rotn the north these spurs may be named the Kamnlgnd, Vaii-iitvad, 
Iatgegad-Ar1«, Biiinneli-Ohertldat«gad, and Bliaii-avj^ad-Eandur ; 
ho two last are large rangeH each with throe minor spurs. 
Camulgiid is a short spur which starts about five miles north of 
if nhrth-nlrihrnr and mimrn ihent ten mites oiLSt ending in the hill- 
art of Eamalgad. It forms the water parting between the Vnlki 
)U tho left or uoi'th and tbo Krishna oa tbo right or south. The 

Outpter I. 




IBombay Oaiettew. 



(fe^r I. 



fif>(x>nd is the Vairiit^Ml spur np a bntacfa of wtiich the W^< 
Muliiilitcshvsr inniti ro«d climl». It leaves the Saliy^ritt oloso M 
tho villc;^ of Mah^balealivKr Bud etretcliua eouth-eAftt about twontj 
inilc)> vmlitig It litllo hojoud the hill-fort of VaJnitgxi. Tliia spur 
forms the wster-partiofr between the Krishna on the loft or nortli'i 
out and the KnuAli a feeder of tho Krishna uii tlio right or sont 
WBBt. It has one fort VairdtRsd about six miles Bontb^eost <A\ 
Wii. The third or Untgegiid-A'rlo spur startii tike the Vairi^id ' 
■par from Mahibaleahrar rilla^, and etretchca sontb-^aet newly 
parallel to tho Vair&t^d range to the north of IkftiUiu about thirtf 
miles to Xrle near the meeting of the Krishna and Vena. U 
ia tho water-parting between the KudiUi feeder of tho Kris 
on the loft or north-east, and the Yenna or Vena on the rtghb 
south-west. This spur has no hill fort. The fourth the Bi 
Ghentdalegad is the chief of the SahyiUlri apurs. It 
from Malcolmpebh on the Mahiibnieshvar plateau and for a die 
of about forty miles runs south nearly parallel to the main lii 
the B^y&dria. It forms the water-partiug between the Vena «j 
feodcr of tho Krishna on the left or uorth-ea«t nad the Kejma] 
another feeder of the Krishna on the right or west. This Ic 
range is us high and massiTO as the main crest of the Sahyi 
Besides by sereral small pasaes it is crossed by n goiKl ba 
track from Mociha and BAmnoli. In tho extreme south is the 
fortified peak of QberdJategad. From tho eastern slopes of the 
Bimnoli-bheriidategad range three chief spura stretch oaet and 
liouth-eiut ncrusH the plain. Tho first of these, the SAt^ra Bpnri 
starts at Kelghar about three miles north-east of Biiinnoli and 
about fifUicn miles south-cost of Malcolmpeth, and Btretcboa 
fourteen miles to S&tArs, and, from SliUlra, about twelve milea 
east to Vitniaand Phutyitpur near the meeting of the Uriuodii 
Krishna. It forma the wntcr-iiarting bolweon tho Vena on 0x4 
or north-east and the Urmoai on the right or south-weet, bofi 
feeders of the Krishna. Its only fortified hill is S&ULro aboati 
the middle of the range. The second spur, whiclt may be called th*] 
KelT&U'Sonlipar spur, is short scattered and of irregalnr shi^ial 
It leaves the main range near Kelvili about eight mileB south off 
BlUnnoli, and, with many short side shoots, stretches abont tweln 
miles gontb-eost to NdgiMnn. It forms the water-partin|f bot««a- 
tlio Urmodi river on tho left or north-east and the Tiirli also a i' 
of the Krishna on the south-west. Its only fort is Sajjs 
Parli on an outlying branch to tha north of tho main spur." 
third or J^u-Va«antgad spur starts from the li&mnoli-Gbcridat 
range about nino miles south of KelvAli and with several oGtsl 
passes about twelve miles south to near Pdtan ; about two raSe 
norlh-oast of P&tan it tarna soaUi>eii»t, and stretchee about fonrtwal 
miles to Vaaantgnd about four miles north-west of tho meeting 
the Kc^na and the Krishna at Kar&d. During ita twelve mil«i] 
south tho Jdlu-Vustintgad spur forms tho water-parti no: betw««) 
tho Tirli stream on the left or east and tho Kora a feeder of tisj 
Koyna on the right or west. In its fourteen miles to ttio south-«Ht 1 
the spor forms the water-parting between tho Krishna and iuj 
feeder tho M&nd on the left or north-eastj and the Koyna oo tb[ 


f right or eonUi-wmt. Tho only fort on the sptir is Ynsftntgnd ne*r 

I itit extreme south-east end. lu the extreme south of the district, 

I starting from the main lino of the Sahyidri)) near Bhairavgitd ftbout 

fourteen miles Bijtitk< of P^lan, agreat belt of htlU etrefchea 

I south-Qiwt parallel to and n Httlo north of tho V&ma about 

ll^irty-six miles to near Kanduraud Vadibb^tli fire milee Routh-weat 

IJP&hirila, forming with the V^lms tho buondnrf botwoon SAtAnk 

and Kolhtlpui'. From this range Beveral spars ron north'eaHt and 

eaat, and bll tho iioath-wmt corner of tho dintrict with hilk. Of 

tlwH spnn there are three chief lines, Ganvaatgad about firg 

miles sonth-vcat of Piltiui, tho n'atur-partiog between tho Koyiia 

on tho left or north and the Moroa on the right or south ; 

the KAhir-Eirpa spur raouing eatit and sopumting the Moma on the 

loft or north from the ICole or Vdng river on tho right or sonth ; 

and the K^gaoQ-JakinTidi spur running QortlM>a>tt to near Kapit 

about throo utilofi aouth of Kantd and separating the Kole river 

on the left or north-west from tho NitndgaoQ struam on the right or 


The second system of SfitAra hills is the MahAdov system. In 

tho north of tho diittrict the Mahidov range starts abont ten 

miles north of Mahdibaleshrar and strotchcs cost and sontb-oast 

norosa the whole breadth of the district. The course of the range for 

tho first thirty miles, to a little beyond tho KIiAmiitki pisson tho 

S^tAra-Poona road, is east. About Vela, four miles cast of the 

Khdmatki pass, it tarns soath-oast. Near Tadviklii, twt-lro miles 

south-east of Khilmntlci, through two brc-aki; in the range, the 

I Wiii-Pimltan'and the old SiUu-a-Poona roads pass. Beyond Tadvala 

the hills again strrtoh in an irregular linv cEutt to the. extreme east 

. of the district at Kothta about twelve miles north-east of Dahivadi. 

' Though its south-running spur:* have many fortti, tho main cro»t of 

L tlie MahitdeT t»nge has only three forts, Gher&kelanja in the north- 

I west aboat foorteon miles north-east of MabAbaloelivar, TAthrada 

f about twenty miles north-west of Dahivadi, and \'&rugad in the 

Dorth-eost about olovvn milos north of Dshivadi. Beside* many 

■mail openings the Mahildev range ia crossed by three important 

pMMM, the KhAniatki pass on the Foomi-SatAm rond about 

twenty-eight miles north of SftfAra, and the two breaks uoar 

Tadrnla, about twelve miles sonth-eiuit of Khitmatki, through whieh 

the Wai-^darki and the old Sdtto-Poona roads ran. 

From the main range of the MahAdev hills three spars stretch 
«onlh, the Chandnn-Yandan spur in tho west which runs about half 
scri^.td tho diAtrirt, and the Vardliimgnd-MachiDdnigad and tho 
^Uahimangad-Pnnh'tla spars further east which atretoh right across 
tho district, llie Chan dan -Vandan spur is tho wator parting butwoou 
the Krishna valley on tho west and the VAsna valley on the east 
!rhe spur starts from the Mahildev hill nt HArIi about a mile and a 
Btalf oast of the KhAmatki pass and about twelve miles north-east of 
Y^ii. It atretchea south about twelve miles to the twin forts of 
Ohandan and Vandan, and, from thnin, about ton miles further to 
boar the meeting of tho Vilsna and Krishna about three miles south- 
east of Sangom-U&huli. The VunlhoDgad-Maohindragad spar begins 

Chaptw I- 

The SalkyiiilrU. 




iwfUt I- 


kc Malutdar. 

tnfm Mol ID KliaUv about aixteea miles oaet of tl>e starting PlB*^ 
of tho Cbandaii-Vnndan 8pur nntl passes tsoutli throiigli thcvi^ft'^ 
length ol the district about fifty mUee to the IvriBlma near the ^Bieari 
of £^uncUl. It forms the wntvr-pnrHiig bctirrvn Uic V&saa, Vn^KiB 
and other direct feeders of the iCriskna on tho west and the b^^^BmJ 
that drain into Iho Ycrlu n largo tributArv of tho Kri^hnu oa^H^H 
ctwl. Tho iipnr has three fortified hills \ardhangftd in the DoflH 
about eight inilos <?i>-st rif Knrcgiion, 8&d(lshiv^'n<| n(-iir Kartd ibj^^H 
thirty miloa eouth of Vardhangad, and Machindraj^ad about tm^^^j 
miles south of E^iulAMhirgnd. Tho third or Mahiroiingsd-I^ii'l^^^ 
Spur bogiua from the KlauAdev hills abont nino miles east of ^^E 
■tortinff point of (he Viirdhangiid-Mnchindnignd nuigv iind ctnslai^^H 
SOutli-eaat to KhfinApur. At Kh&a&pnr it splits in two, (^^H 
branch pnssing twenty miloK south till it ends in the old Punli^^| 
fort in tbe extreme south of the district, and tho other stretcU^^B 
sooth-efMb and Icjiving the ditttriiH at Dhalgaon and beyond (1^^| 
continuing about sixteen miles soath-east to Bilur aboat five ^^^^1 of Jitth. It formn tho wit tor- par ting bi^twuoa the H^^^H 
of the Voria, a tiibatary of the Krishna on the right or E<ooth-i^^^| 
and tliu valluy of Iho Mi'm a tribatarr of the Bhim& on the l«i^^| 
north-east. It has two fortified hills Mahimangnd about t«o nu^^| 
Kouth of whore the snur .itarta from the MohAdov hills, und BhuplUg^^J 
about ten miles south-eoet of Khdofipur. ^H 

The tojiA both of the Sohy&dris and of the Mah^tder hilln, ospedafl^l 
in the aorth-wcstom sub-divisions of W£i, Jdvli, and P&tan, lo^^| 
like asucoeitsion of fortresses raised on a series of plateaus pilc^H 
one over tho othur, the wbolo siiraiount^d by a wall of roolc. ll^H 
top of Mah&IialeshTar, the highest point in the distriot, iet abo^^J 
4710 foot abovo tho son. Prvni tho high Dcccan tabltvland on tlfl^H 
east the Sahyftdria seem somewhat low and lame. Dut from t^^| 
western edge of their oreiit grent formK stand out from tho Eonld^H 
with bold wild outlines and cliffs which in places hare a sheer drd^H 
of over 8000 feet. Fomhuut tliirty miles after leaving tho Sahyidi^H 
the Mah&dev hills keep a height of about 4000 feet abore the se* u^H 
about 2000 feet abovo the plain. The mirth face of tho MahAd«^H 
range falls sharply into the Nira ralley, the distance from the orei^H 
of the range to the river being not mure than ten or twelve mila^H 
To tho 80QU1 the hilts fall much more gently to the valley of tli^| 
Krishna. ^H 

Within Sittdrn limits there are fifty-six notable hills and hill^| 
forts, fourteen in W&i, four in J&vM, Kovon in Siitim, iivo i]^H 
Knn-gtwn, Eve fn Pitan, four in Kar Ad, three in Vdlva, seven £^H 
ii6.a, four iu Khat^v, two in Khdn^pur, and one in T^gaon. ^| 

Tho names of the fonrtvon Wili hills are, B£leghar, Dhimna, Hari^H 
Kamalgsd, Kenjalgad, Miudhardev, Pinchgani, IMndaTgad, Pipli^^ 
BonjAi, VlSgdoni, Vnmlan, Vair&fmul, and Yeruli. Of Uteee hilla 
Sonj&i tho lowest is ^287 feet and Yornli tlin highe^it is Viti\ fuet 
above the sea. One of (hoin PAuohgani is n hwilth resort, and five 
of them Kamalgad. I'andavgad, Vairsitgad, Vandsn, and Kenjalg»d 
are hill forts. Karaalgad, 451 1 feet above Uie son, stands alone teo 
miles west of WtU, ana has an ascent of about throe mUec The 

Deccftn 1 


Bides are covero<! witli !thral>s and trees, nn<l tho loj) m flnt, and is 
altout tifty acres in aren. It baa one approach bjr a rongli Drgfat 
of st«p«, and insido are a deep well, a rosorvoir, and a c«v«. 
Pfindavgad, about 4177 foct nburo tho soa and tbreo milos north of 
Wtii, has an aacoiit of aliout a mile and a linlf, and is thinly coTor«d 
with wnil). Its flat top has an area of onlj thirty acres, surroDndcd 
hj na almost ruinod wall with tn-o gntoH. Inside, at a small ruined 
tetnple of I'^udujfii, a yrarly fiur ur t/dtra i» lu'ld. On tho Hide are 
two or threo water ciat«ms and a cave, and at the bottom of tho hill 
aru two inoro caves called P&iidaTkrat%ii or tho Ptfndavs' worlc. 
VairAtgail, 3939 foot above Ut« itoaand six miles Hoiith of WAi, has 
an ascent of abont a mile. I'he top, which has an aroa of nboiit 
tliirty aori;», has two reservoirs, bat neither temples nor cavea. It 
is aurrouuded by a wall with two gatex, oiio of which i« Approached 
by steps, titwides the main onlranco there ia a secret path or 
cnorviL Yandan, about 3^41 feet above the sea aud ten miles 
noiitH.'aHt of Wd>, is a flat-topped hill with an area of about seventy 
acres, and an asK-ciit of a milu and n half. Tho top, which has five 
small miiLiques and two rnorvoirs, is titrengthened at the crentti of 
Tftvineii witJi two gfilea. Kenjalgad, 4'2ti8 feet above tho sea and 
twetve milflH west of Wiii, is a Hul-toppod hill with an area of abont 
6(ty acres and au accent of about two niilca. Tho top, nliieh hiM 
four roservotm and onu or two mined temples, is snrroiinded by ait 
almost ruined wall with a gate nrtpruaohed by a flight of about a 
hundred steps. The village of Ubora Konjola on the top haa abont 
100 people. 

The four hills in Jivli are Mab^balonhvnr, JTakrUDdgod, Pmt^pgad, 

«ad V^aota. Of, Mah&boleabvar, 4710 feet above the sen, in a 

ih resort and theother threo are hill forts. Ktakrand^^, about 

■I fei^t nl>ovo tho sea and eight miloK 80Ut)i-wc«t of MHlcolni|>eth 

o MabibtUeahvar market, is commonly known as tho Saddleback. 

The (op is small and uneven. A few Jangam shrine-servants an<l 

niabandmon live on the top, which has a roscrroir, a spring, and a 

mplo of MallikAriui). Pnrtdngad hill, n» tho orow lliiM in four or 

Its miles westof Maloolmpeth. It ia 3543 feet above the sea and 

(itnds alone with steep grnsa and scrub-covered sides, and ia a 

laoe of gn.>at natural slrongth. It can Ikj climbed oithur from Vdda 

Petb P^r, but has only one g&te. The top plateau which ia about 

If a mile long, ia flat and is sarrounded by an inner and an enter 

liuo of walls each with ono gate. Tho fort, which is said to havo 

■eeu built by Shivfiji, iti still in fair repair. The citadel has an aren 

if 300 by 400 yanU. About seventy people, chiefly pujdrint or 

brino servants, live on the hill top wbioli bu some reftervoirs and 

;wo large h^-mples, one dL-dicatod to BhavAni and the other to 

edireahvar. The tomb of the Bij^pur general Atsul Kbiin who 

raa slain by Sbivfiji in 1G59, ia still shown on the hill. Visota is a 

>t-toppod hill on the main range of the SabyiidriN, about sixteua 

lilea aouth of Malculmpeth. It is climbed by a steep footpath about 

mile and a half long with steps at the top. The top, which is 

irrounded by a wall, cootaioa tho rutnaius of a mooston, a small 

jinplo, and two ruBcrvoirH, 

a isas-s 

Chapter I. 



[Bombay Ot 







Tbo seven hilU in the S&Um sub-division are S£ULm fi 
Ajimntiini, Yavtefthrar, Parii fort or Sajjaogad, Petova, 
P&teshvar, ami Sliulpdni, varying from SOUO to 4O0O foot Bl 
sea. 8&tira and i'ltrli nro foititiud. The SitAra hill, aboal' 
feotabovD tliu sm and I20Qfeot ubore theplaia,standa imm< 
over the town of Sflt^ra. The hill is climDed b; & pnth nbonfci 
mile long. Tho fort includes n fliit hill-top nlx>iit 1300 yink 
400. It JH HiiiToiiiiilod by m wnll with nn entrance in the 
Ttvat, Htid ft second blocked entrance in the 8outh-eaBt>. The 
buildiuga on the top are two bungalows and a few tomploa 
Hiuatl roservoira. Two low nucks join it to the spur. The 
are eteep and bare with il little xcriib, and, except at tlia 
gate, tho top ia sun'oundcd by an unbroken wall of rock. The 
or Sajjan fort, abont SuOO fcx^t abovo the i-ou, itianda alone al 
seven miles sonth>wCKt of SAtAni. It in xteep and may be dim' 
by three footpaths, all of which lead to the same point of cnf 
^he flat top, which ia about 600 yards by 250, is siirrouadod bf 
wall in fair order with an inner and an out«r gate both bearii 
inscriptions. I1ie fort is famous for the footprints of RAmd^ Sr&ml 
tlie teacher of Shivdii. The footprinta are visited every HiUTadaf 
by ijumben of pilgnnu, and a groat fair or i/iilra is held in honour 
of Ramdiia Sviimioa themotliof the dark lialf of Mdgh in January- 
February. Besides the footprinta, the top contains sm'eml templus, 
two mosqnes with Persian inscriptions, five water roaervoirs, aai 
coniiiderabte population. 

Tho five Koregaoii hilla, Harneahvar, Chavneahvar, JaraaA^I 
Nindgiri, and Chandan, vary from ^500 to 4fJO0 foot abovs 
sea. Three are hill forts of little importance, Nindgiri abont Iwdvs 
miles north-east, Chandan about ftfti^on miles north, and Jaranda 
about eight miles east of Sitira. All are surrounded by walla eodi 
with one cntranoo. Niitid|^iri has a plateau abont-^OOyardsloogaud 
800 broad, and the top of C'liandaii in 1000 feet by KOO. These han 
no special temples or buildings but have one or more reserroim 
The slopes aro bare and steep and are climbed by di&icult footpaths. 

Of the fivePitan hills, Chandli.Dfttognd.Gunvantgud, Bhairavgad, 
and Jaogli<Jaygad, all except the first aro fortified. Chandli, about 
six miles south of Piitan, ia of an irregular sugar loaf -shape and ishaU 
cat from the rest of the ridgt* by a depression or pas*. Except for 
a Cew teak trees tho hill sides are bare. Uiit^tgnu is a tlat-topped 
eminence at tho southern end of a range of hills in the west of P&tan. 
The sides are Imre and rocky. The ascent, which is some three miles 
from Pitan, though steep, ia fairly easy. Gunvantgad or Morgiri, a 
striking hill from many points on the Sahyltdris, looks like a lioo 
crouching with its head to the south-eastv The ascent is oasy, not 
more than half a mile from the village of Morgiri, Tho top has an 
area of about 200 yards by fifty. Tho forts of Bhairavgad and Jangli* 
Jaygnd tire both on spurs which jut into the Konkan from the edge 
of the Sahyddria. Both are difficult ot access, tho path paaaing 
throngh masses of trackless forest. 

The four Kar^ hills are, Agil^hiv, PA1, Sadisfaivgad, and 
Vasautgad, of which the Sad&ahivgad and Vasaatgad aro fortified. 




Agilaliir, alanding ft1)0ut 1200 feot above the plain, hua a pointed 
top, and is a prominent olHect Hbout four miles soutli-west of Kar^ 
Tho sidos nro steep anil scantily covered with scrub. On the 
Boutb-en»t of tbo bill is n grouj) uf KuddliiHt cnves. I'Al sUnds alone 
uboat tivo tuilea south-citut of the village of tlint name. It is round- 
topped find rises about 1 000 feet firom the plain. On the top is a 
81U&II temple. Tho sides nro nut et^^up and in many parts are 
under tillage. SadjiKhiT»ul, a hill fort built by ShivAji, Atanda about 
tltreo miles cast of Kar^. It is a round-topped hill at the western 
end of (> Kpnr whieb jnts from tho eastern wall of tho Tallcy. The 
sides are bai-o and rocky, eatsily ebinbitd by a path about n 
mile Ions. The top which is about tOO yards by 200 is surrounded 
by a ruined wall. VaAant;^d, about four miles north-wext of 
KAT&i, a prominent object from both the Kanid-tjiitfira and the 
Kartld-Kubhjlrli road«, is a place of great strength. A footpath 
leads from Talbid to tho east of the fort, and the old gnn road 
wait from Khodshi about two milos to the soutli-mst. On tho top 
are two gateways and somu li-iuples and other buildinga. 

Of the three V^Iva hilU, Malliktlrjun, Prachitgad, tnA 
Mschindragad, the two last are fortified. Mallik&rjun, nbont eight 
miles Koutb-oast of Potb, has a One Br&hmanical cwvo temple. 
Prachitgad is on a spar which stands out into the Koukan in the 
extreme west of the Sahy4dris. Maobindmti^iid, a Hotitury round- 
topped hill in tho north-east of the sub-divtniou, is the southmoab 
of fthiv^ji's forts. 

Of the seven MAn hitis, V^rugad, Khokada, Sbikhar-Shingndpur, 
Ttithvada, Jire-PadbAr, Kulakjfii, and Mabimaugad, three, ^'ArDgad 
TitthviuliL and Abihimongad ore fortified. Vdragad, about ten miles 
north-west of Duhivadi, rises oone-shaped from the main spur. From 
the north the ascent is difficult and about a mile long ; from tho 
soutli llie phiteau leads to the ba-ti; of the cone and the nacent is 
not mora than 2J>0 feet. Its grassy lop which is about a milo 
long by a mile broad, b fortified on the crest* of the ravines by a 
ruined wall witb five gateways. On tho top stands the village of 
V&mgad with an old temple of Bahiroba and with five haiulets vt 
Konbis, R^mosbis, and Mhfirs. Khokada, fifteen miles north-west 
of Diiliiviuli, is flat-topped, mgged, and bare, anil has one spring. 
On the lop i.t the vilWge of Khokada mostly of Kuubi hnsbandmea 
who raise a-opa of millet, Indian millet, wheat, and gram. Wolves 
and pAnthors occasionally visit tbo hill. 8hikhar-8hingnttpiir, 
thirteen mites nortli-oost of IMhivodi and 3010 feet above the sea 
is flaUtopped, nigged, and partly covered with grass and trees. On 
the top aro the vilLage of obingniipur, a temple of Maliildov, and 
m hamlet of hnsbnndmvn and shopherdt*. T^thvada, about twenty 
miloa Dortb-west of Daliivadi, is rugged and partly covered with 
HhrulKt and grass. Th« top, which is about a qnarlor of a mile lonff 
and broad, is fortified along the creels of ravines by a partly ruined 
wall with one gateway. On the top are a paved apartment, a 
reservoir, and a woll, but no temples or caves. Wolves and 
pantbers occasionally visit the failL Jire-Padbitr, ten miles aootb- 
eost of l>ahiviidi aud 3138 foel above the sea, is fiat-topped, 





onbay OutttMi. 



CliBpt«r I- 






rupff'J. auti covcrdl Vfitli shmliH niul gmcs. On the hill 
two hiuiilolA (if Kunbia and alieplierdR. Ka1akj4i, eloren milal| 
iiorth-weiit of Pahiradi, ia flat-topped. ruftKod, and covcrod wilk , 
shrubs Btid gross. It hiw two springs, »m) iho villnf^ of Knlalqiii ' 
and two biunk-t« of litiMl)midni<>a iind ttlteiibonls. The 'ISta, ikl, 
und Vnkjiii pu^^nox go cloao hy the hilL Mahimanga<l hill, 3210 fi.'rt { 
above the sua and fivo mi!c« wont uf Dithivwli, is hnru and flnt-toppod I 
with rocky 8tdt;«. It hat ait aasjr aaoont and in joiuod to a Bpcrj 
of tii« Mabidvv ranee. The top ia grassy and alwut <JO0 feet lon^l 
from eoBt to west and 600 feet broad from north to south. It Ml 
pairtly fortified by a ruinod wall with one Kotoway. It oontuiaa tvoi 
dry rmorvoirH and an old temple of Miniti. 

Of the four KhaULv hills, Solakn&tb, Bbtlpshfih, Vitrdhanf^, uill 
Bhnebangad, twoVnrdhaii^'wl ntid Bhiuhiuignd luv fortilioil, SoIalcH 
nAtb, I'igliti'on niiU« north of Vitdoj, the source of the Vorlu meiA 
riwos 2000 to 2500 fi-nt above the plain. The top is pointod, and tW] 
aidea are steep and bare, without trt-OB or tillsgu. BhApsha, four nitlc<] 
eonth-woet of Vaduj, ia a pointed hilt with stvi-p hare sides. Vaid* 
baiignd, 3502 fmit above tlio sea and foarteon miles west of Vadnj^ 
is round-topped and easy of ascent, and is joined to a spnr of ih 
MahAdov range. The top, wbiirh is about 30O yards long hy 
broad, in surrounded by a stone wall with oueeutnutoa Tho 
i:t entire Uiwardn the east and south and is rained towards 
north and west, The SUtdra-Pandbarpur road pnKKca by tho sodUi 
of tho hill which has a grassy top with four woIIh, four rust'rvoir*, 
and an old temple. Tbc hill-sides are too bare to give cover luj 
wild animals. Bhusbangad stands alone, eight miles sooth of Vadnj,| 
Ktocp, hart', and flat-topped, Tho top, whioli 18 almot 200 _ 
long bySOOyardM bri>a<l, i.t Hiirrouuded by a mined atone wall will 
one entrance. The hill, which has a dry spring and no tilli 
either on the top or the sides, hu8 two old tempIoM on the U 
one to a goddcHH and tho other to Mitruti. The hdl is Qot infoal 
by wild animals. 

Tho two Khdn&pur hills are Rovdgiri and an onnamed hi 
Kerdgiri four miles cast of Vitn rises 1500 to 2000 feet above' 
plain. TheKarAd-Bijiipur roa<1 payees by the hill which is nig 
and bare or partly covered with ehrobs. Crops are grown 
fiat hill-top. It wa* fonnorly infested Iw tigers and wolves, 
unnamed hill about fifti-en miles west of Vita, is pointed and 1( 
to I&OO feet above tho plain. The hill is rugged, partly ooverod wjl 
BhnibB, and without tillage. The KanUUBij^pnr rood powea over i 
About ten miles oast of TAsgaon is Dandoba, a pointed hill of < 
Asoont and bare of trees. 

Within Sftt/ira limits there are two n'vor systems, the Bhima By 
in a small part of tho north and north-east and the Krishna gj 
thronghout the rest of the district. Of tho Bhima eysteni 
are two brooches tho Nira and tho Man. A narrow boll beyond' 
Mahltdov hills drains north into the Nira which flowa L<n8t 
iho Bhima and tho north-east comer of tho dislriot beyond 
ftlahiuiangad-fanhiita spur drains Honth-oast ulouc tho Han whi< _ 
afterwards fiowa east and north-cnst to join the Bhima. The total 
area of tho Bhima system, invlading part of Wii and (ho ythola of 




■ad M&n, is probaMy about 1100 miles. ExclndJDg nbonb 
400 rnitefi of (he Plinltan stnto, this IcavvM for the Krixhim s^^t4<iii 
4000 milos ur nbniit fivu-sixtliM of tho district. The draiuago aj'at«m 
of iho KriHhna includea, besides tho draiaajfe of tho cetitnd slrcnm 
the draiange of six fcodcrs from tho right mdo tho KudAli, Yviiiut, 
Urmodi, l^rti, Koynn, aad VArnn, Knd of two from the left side 
the VilAiia ttod tJio York. 

The Krishna is one of tlio three groat rivore of Soothorn India. 
Like tho God&viun and K^Tori it Bows ncroHS MmoKt the otitiro 
bretidth of tlw peninsula £roni west to oast and falls into the Buy of 
Bengal. In sanctity tho Ki-iaboa is §<irpaased both bv tho God&vari 
and by tho R&vori. la length it \b \cba than the GodAvari, but its 
drainage nroA, including tho dminago of its two gro-at tnbnt«rivH thu 
Bhima and 1'ungbhadra, is larger than thut of eitttor tho OodArari or 
of the Kdveri, Its U'ngth is about HOO milos and its drainage area 
IB about !>4,.^00 square mWan. Of ita 800 milos about 150 He within 
SAtnra liniitH. The Krishna rises on the oiuttorn brow of Uio 
Afabibaleshrar plateau four miles west of the village of Jor in the 
extromo wost ot WAi. Tho source of tho river is about 4500 foot 
above tho Reain.18'^ V north l»titudo and 73° 4L' vast longitude^ On 
the pleateaa of tlie Mah^baleshvar hill near tlie source of the river 
Btands an anciont tvmpic of MahJidov. Inside of the temple ia a small 
roticrvoir into which a Htreaiu pours out of n stone oow-mouth. Thin 
is tho traditional sourco ot tho river which Hindua lovingly call Krish- 
Diibiii tlic- Lady Kriaboa. Numbers of pilgrims crowd to the spot which 
is cnition-orvd in trees ruid flowering ahrubs. From H» aourV'O tho 
Kriitliua runs east CoraboutJiftecn miles till it reaches the towaof W&i 
From WeIi tho course of tho rivur is south. About ten miles from 
WAi it rocoives the KudiiH from tho right about two milvs south 
tiE PAnchvad iu South Wai. After meeting the Kudrdi, the river 
continues to run south through tho Siit&ra sub-division by Nimb 
and V'arnth, and after fiftoon miloa rocoivos the Yeuna on the right 
noar Mahuli about three miles east of Sdt^ra. As tlie meeting of 
the Krishna and Yenna, MfUiuli is sacred. A bur is held five times 
in tho year, once in Kdrtik October-Novvmbor, in Chailra March« 
Aprilj and in .ilxAtuf June -July, and twice in SArdvun July -August, 
Alter meeting the Yenna the Krishna curves to the south-east 
and eoparatet) S&t^iis from Kore^wtn for about ten miles till it 
roadios tho border of Kar^d. In Korcgaon, nftvr a conrso of forty 
miles, about a mile east of Mangalpur, the Krishna rocoivea the ^^^na 
from tho loft, and after a course of about fifty-tive miles in tho 
cxirrme south of tlu: f^iitiiru sub-dirisionj nbunt two miles soutJi-wost 
of Vanegaon, it receives the Urmodi from the right. In Kardd the 
river runs nearly south. It receives from the right two tributaries, 
the THrli near UmbrAj after a course of about sixty-five mQM 
and tho Koyna near Kantd after a course of about seventy-fivo 
miles. From KarJd the Krishna nina south-east by ViUva and 
Bhihivdi in Tiingiion. About nix miles south of Bhilavdi it roceivcB 
tbo Yerla on the left after a cour»o of 120 milee, aadaboat throe ruIm 
south of S^gli iu tho extreme soutJi of the district it receives the 
VArna on tLo right after a course of 135 milos. After its meeting 
with Ihu V^rna tho KrtHhoa ceotiuucs to run soulh-oaat lowanJb 

Chapter L 



(Bombay Quett 



ChftpUr X. 







Bvlgaum. Within S.'iUtrA limita the Knabns is auGt for narigation. 
IHio chiinuol ia too rocky aud the stream too rapid to allow even g( 
ani&ll Dfttire craft. Tfao bAnke aro twenty to tliirty foot higli tai 
{^nomlly sloping earthy and broken. The Hver bod, though in 
pnrM rocky, ns a nile ia sandy. In Wdi and S&tiira in the ourth- 
wuHt, except that melons are grown in its bod, the water of the 
Kriabna is littlo used for irrigation, except horo and t^ore b; 
bhitdkia or pits Hiiukon deep river banks. In Kanld, Vilra, waA 
TAagnon in the south, crops of sugarcane, gronndnot, cbilUea, aod 
wheat are raiaod by watortng the tioil from rococtly mado caiuli. 
Daring t1»o fair mnuion the Kritihtui ia eveiywhore easily furdod, but 
during the rains there is a considerable body of water, and ferriM 
are worked at Mahnli three milwt eact of Slttiira, nt Dhimoer a 
thu Hoiith of KoTgaon, at Umbrtli, Kantd, and K^rvo in KKrtd, at 
I}^ho and Boregaon in Vtiva, and at Bbilavdi in Tdagaon. Witbfi 
S^tllra liants the Krishna ia bridged at Bhninj on the Pooua-Uelgua 
road, at Wdi oti the Poona-FitzGcnUd road, and at Vadath on tbt 
old I'oona road. 

The Kndilli, a small feeder of the Krishoa in the north, riaa 
near JCedamb in JArli, and after a sooth-eoeterly conrse of alxwt 
eixteon mJIua throngh JAvli luid Wili, ilaukod by the Vair&tgad 
range oo the left or north and the Uatgegad-Arlo range on tba 
right or south, joins the Krishna from the right aboat two inilol 
south of PiLnchrad in Wili. 

The Vena or Yenna, one of tho Krishna's chief feedors, rises 
the MaliAhaleshrar plateau and falls into the Yenna valley be 
the Liuf^alla biiugalow and plantation, on the east point of i 
Mah&baleshvnr hills about tlinv miles east of Maloolmpcth. 
1M8HS along the valley between tho Hatgogad'iirte range oo t 
left or north and the Sltdn range on the right or south, and, 
a sonth-CfUitorly course of about forty milea through J&vli 
Sat^nt, it dowa into the Krishna at M&liuli about tiircc miloa 
of S^t^ra. In the hot season the stream stops and tlio 
stands in pooU. It is croH«otl by do ferries. Bceidcs a foot h 
atMvdha iu JAvli, it ha;* (our mad bridges, one on the IV 
Belgauui road at Varya three milea north of SiltJtra, two 
SAtfLm-MalcoliDpoth road nt Kanbora eight milea and at Ko!^ 
twenty mileit uurth>wc8t of Siit/ini, nnd one on the old Poona roall 
at V&dha-Kheda three miles north-east of Sdt&ra. 

The Urmodi, a small feeder of the Krishna, riaea near Ku 
J&vli, It passes south-cast along a vullcy Hankod by the S<lb 
range on tho left or north and the KalvjUi-Sou^pur range on 
right or ttouth. After a aouth-easterly course of about twmty 
miles, mostly through S^t&ra, it Mis into the Krishna aliont twdl 
miles south-west of Vanegaon in the oxtremo nontli of the Saiinj 
aiib-divtdton. I'he banks of the Urmodi are high and abeop. Tie 
flow of water ceases in tho hot season. Thoro is no ferry, ami 
only one bridge on tho Poena* Kolhltpur mail-rood at L^oa niali 
mileo south of S^tdra. 

I'he T&rli, a small feeder of the Krishna, rises in the north-* 
ot Pfttan about ten miloa above tho village dE Tjirli. It flows i 




enat ftlong & rallcy flnukod b; the KalvAli-Sonipsr mnge on tlic 
left 01- Qorth-«aAt aud the J^u-Vasautgad range on the right or 
flouth.weat After a euuth -easterly coarse of about twon^'-twu 
miles through PAtau nnd Kitnid, it joioB the Kriehuii fTx>in the right 
>t Unibntj ill KarlLd. 

The Koyna, Uie largest of the S4t&ra feeders of the Kmlina, riscg 
on the west side vf the MahiihiilosliTar plateau near Elpliinstonu 
Point it) 17° t>H' north latitude and 73^ 43'eant tongitodo. (H itn 
course of eighty miles within S^lAra liinila, during the first forty 
it runa nearly south, and during tho next forty it mos nearly i-aet. 
During its forty miles to tho »rinlh the Koynu tlows along nlM-autiful 
valley with the main line of the Sabyitdria on tlie right and on the 
left the lUmnoti-GherfLdategad branch of the Bafayiidris which runa 
parallel to tho main line at an eqniit height. In J&vli tho river piutsen 
by H&iiiuoli Slid T&mbi and receive-s the Sotshi from the loft al>ont 
three iniies north of Bdmnoli and the Kfind&ti from the right about 
two miles sonth of B^imnoli. At Helr^k in Piitan, after u conrso 
of forty niiit-s, Mic river suddenly turiiM east, and, aft«r a furtjier 
course of forty miles, by the town of Ptitan where it receives the Kera 
from the north, it falls into the Krishna at Karad. In tho first forty 
miles the Koviia is seldom moro than 100 fuct broad ; but in the Iiutt 
forty niilea the bed iii SOO to &00 feet across. Especially in tho 
first forty miles tho banks are broken and muddy and the bed is of 
^nivel. In the but months Ibe stream often oeattea. but tho water 
Ktatids in deep pools throogb the drycst years. During the r^ns it 
fills from bank to bank, und small ferry boats work across it ab 
B^l^nd und YerAd in Pittttn. 

The Vdma in the south, separating Sdbtra and Kolfaipnr, rises 
close to tho western crest of the Sahyfidria in the eitreme north- 
west of Viihii. It runs Muth-fisst for nbont eighty milos by Charan, 
Itil^i, and Dhudhgaon in ViUva, and falls into the Krishna about 
three miles south of Sftngli. Its banks are steep and broken, and, 
in the southern twenty miles, it overflows its banks every rains. 

The Vi«ua, a small feeder of the Krishna, rise* in tho Kfab^cv 
rsoge near Solshi in the north of Koregaon. It flows south along • 
valley flanked by the Chandan-VandaQ range on the right or west 
and by tlio VnrdhaEigud-MnchindrmgMl mnge on the left or east. It 
runs south far about twenty miles, and, from tho left, falls into tho 
Krishna about a mile east of Mangalpur in Koregaon. 

Tho Yoria, the largest of the left-hand or northern feeders of tho 
Krishna, rises in Solaknitth hilt in tho extreme north of Khatjir. It 
6ow3 along a valley Hanked by the Vardhangjid-Miichindragad mngo 
on the right or west, and by the Mahitnangad-Panh^ln niugo on the 
left or east It runs south tor nbout seventy-live mites through 
Khat&T, Kbilnipur, Tdsgaon, and tliu lauds of SAngli. In Klintitv 
it passes by L&tgnn, Kh&tdv, Vaduj, and Nimsod, in KhinApur by 
Danleshvar an<l Bhiitvitni. in TAsgaon by Turchi and N^itgaon, and 
in Sdugli by Kflndre. At Uhanleshvar in Kh&npnr it receives 
the Ndnd&ni from tho right a stream aboot !J00 feet wide. After a 
sonth-westorly course of about seventy-five miles the Ycrla fulls into 
the Krishna within .S^ugli limits about six milos eouth of Bhilavdi. 

Chapter I. 






oaibay QaiettMr 




Cliftptcr I At lUi meotin)^ with tlio Krialina, tlio Yei-Ia is nhniit 600 toet brca4 

IliMTivtion. ^^ '"^ '^ si»t»ly, «i«i il« Uuiks am Hluping eai-thy aiid riiiuldy. Tlie 
Btroiui IioIiIm wak-r ttirougliout tlio ^oar Had crops of KUgarcAiu^ 
grouudnut, wltent, Potatoes, aad omona are nuacd by O/imUeitm 
wells sunk near tlio bauks. 

Of tho Bbima H}rstvm of rivors Uio twocliiof Slitdra roprescmtatirM 
are tli« Nira id tUo north and tbo M^n in tko nortci-unst. Tbo 
Nira, which supurnton SdUira from Poona ia the uurth, ri!«M on 
the SAhyiidri ruiigu within tbc landa of tho I'ttot Sachiv of llbtjr. 
Of a tot«) length of 130 inilea, about sixty miles lio on tbn border* 
of Poona to the north and of Hitttm and Pbaltan to the (toutjt. 
Fniin its aourco in Uhor the river runs Mutt to tbe north of tin 
Bulnlivimoti of Wiii and tbo state of Phallan. Aftor loavtufr I'baltan, 
it rnnB north of Mitbiras in Sholapnr and fatU into Ibu Ubitaft abool 
fivu tnilofl eMt of Tninbvo in tho oxtnnut; north-east of 2i4]>iiras 
Within tho limits of tho Uhor stato tho N'im ia bridKod ou the 
Poona- Kothflpur mail road at Sirral in the north of WAx. 

The MAnpanRa, a tributary of tbeBhima, rtsosiu tbeTitn bill in tbe 
north-ooatof MAti. Of a total Iciifrt-h of about 100 niilcw, nlxjut fortj 
lio in<MflD within Ni\t(im limits. In Miin tbo river runs soutb-uaatbf 
Malvadi, Andhii, Uahivadi, and Mlta.iv(ul. Boyoud 8it&ra ItmilR 
tho M&ueanga continues to run suulb-enat through AtpAdi, and twn 
Atpiidi it turns north-i-sisl through S(ln<*ola and P&tidbnqmr in 
IShoUpur, and fnlls into tlio Hhiina at ^rkoli about ton niilM 
BOuUi-ooitt of Paudharpnr. During the rains within tho Mia 
eub-dirision tJio water of the Miingauga runs two to six ftoot deqt 
In the fair ^oiLson it is about two foot defp in somo pla(x*« aaJ 
alinoHt dry in others. The bed is sandy and tbo banks oartbr 
and sloping. In somo parts nvar tbe river bauks crops of suffarcaiuv 
crronnduut, wbont, sweet potaloos, and onions aro nuMod by pais or 
fair-wuatbur cbanncls. 

In tho west wator is fiiirty abuiidaut. In thu Linst, hot weathst 
after hot woathiM-, want of wnrer causes mnch Biilloring. Tho nupplr 
ooinci< partly from rivers and streams, partly from reservoirs, aad 
partly from wells which aro numerous but in many cattus ran irj 
during the hot season. In 1882 for thu stontgo of water thun 
were 189 pouilit and reservoirs, of which three wcro l&kes ot 
couKiderablo ni»e. Tbero wero 23,810 wulla, 17,411 of thom witb 
and 6309 without st<-pH. Bosiiles throo water supply works for Uw 
towns of St'ttiirn, Karad, and Isliimpnr, (tix water works an 
complotvd, tliu llvviU'i canal on thi> Vitsna, the Yeria canals on iht 
Yurla, tbe Goudoli oanal on thu M&n, the M^yui rosorvoir on ih» 
yioa, the Chikbli canal ou tho Niindtii, and the Krialina caualoo 
the Erisliua. A sovcuth work, a large reservoir at Ubasvad in tb* 
M&a sub-division U being built.* 
GKuuMir. The whole of S.'itira fails within the Deccan tmip areA. As It 

other partt* of tho West Deccan tho hills aro layers of eoftur 
amygdaloid trap soporatod by Bows of bard basalt and capped 1)f 
latente or iron clay. 


1 Detail* ol timv nam « ork« uv glvoa ia Agrleulluiv auAtt IrrigaiMii- 



' The amal Indiaii dirtsion of llio seaeonB into cold, hot, aixl 
iwiny is not niittiHl to H&Uira. Tli* ywir may bo butter divided 
into five Boasona, tbe rainy from about the tenth of Juno to 
Uie end of Septombor. a closo enltry time from the end of 
I Sfptcmbor U> tb« middle of Novemhor, n coH tintofrom the middle 
of Novvmbor to the eud of Januarv, a dry hot time in which 
easterly winds prevail from tbo beginnmg of February to tho end 
of &Isrcb, and tho hot w<>Ath<.-r from tho beginning of Avril to about 
thu tcntlt of June. Tho climate of the thron and • hnit months of 
Ills soiith-wcAt rain!!, from the middle of June to tho end of 
September, aa a rule ta nereeablu. The air is gonial and soft with a 
freeh westerly brooxo. 'rho rninfivH vitricH greatly in diSercut parts 
of the district', tho chitd cnnite of difforcnco beiii^ diatanco from the 
Sabyfldrta. Itatri falls in Novoraber and December iu tho early 
months of the north-east mouHuon, and rain, which is known as 
mangoe Khowers, falls in May, and is im|K>rtaiit to tho hnsbandmaa 
enabling him to row his earliest crops. From tho cloito of the 
Bonth-weat rains at the end of Septemberto the middle of Novombor 
tho atmosphora is close and Rullry. Comparing thin period with the 
period!* which fro bufuruaiid follow it, though the temperature is not 
much higher, the air is more oppressive and the soaaon more fivkly. 
The cold weather begins abont tho middle of November, and the 
sudden change from the moist warm month of Octobor to tho cold 
dry air of November often cansoa diecase. About the middle of 
November tho mornings and evenings bocomu cool and pleasant 
and continue cool till the beginning of February. f)iiring thvso oool 
montlut occasional showera gToally help the vegelables which grow 
in abundance. The hilly parts are rcl'rcslicd by heavy dewa and 
river fog» «pn}«ul for sovcrnl miles hL^yontl their bauks. I'hoagh 
tho most invigorating time of the year, the cold Beaeou ia often 
the most unhealthy. The thermomoter bflgina to rise early iu 
February and as a rule with tho increatte of warmth sicknees grows 
less. During the hot months of April and May, thetempemturo is at 
the highest and the atmosphere ia cloHC and dry. In tne early part 
of the day tixo air is still, not a breath blown, not a leaf is in motion. 
Towanls the afternoon a faint air Beta in from the west which in an 
hour or two fre&faenR toa breeze. The west wind blows all night, 
and in the early morning gives plooo to an east wind which 
continues till nino or ton. The hot weather, though exhausting, is 
not t>o trying a« in most parts of tbo Presidency. In a cool 
house with the windows darkened and tho doors sbat at seven iu 
the morning and opened atfivo in tho evening, tho mean heat at two 
in tho afternoon was 85" and the mean daily variation 4*. Tlio 
temperature did not reach its maximum at two, but continued to 
rise till fire whoa it was 86*5°. On the doors being opeucd at 
five tho thermomoter rose one degreo. When kept all day ij) an open 
Teranda with a westerly exposure, the thermomotor rose to 92*4 at 
two and from that fell towards tho ovening. 

I Mt. a. Yoniu in TnuttMtloM ot the Bonbay M«<liul and I%Tti<a) SocMy tor 
1839-39 pi«« 211. 




IBombaj OftutiM,] 



Chiipt«r I- 



Daring the sonth-wost nuns ttio prerailtng winds ant from librl 
QOrth-weet and Muth-wesL While tliewioda blow from the south-nail 
on tbu MslUibaleHhTU- bills, ftt SiUArs, owing to tho inlli]eDC«i4| 
Uio mounUuD ranges and the son lb -easterly Ho of tho nll«f,1 
their direction is DOrlb-WLi<t. About the bexiiuu"? "f Sopt«nbir,| 
tjio wind voen U> the east and keeps blowing from the eaMtill| 
tho end of September. During tbe (NOse sultr; period tn 
•nd the first half of NovrinbtT tho wind blows fruDi tho so 
east, but it in generally light and unrefreshing. Id the cold HMotl 
from mid-NoTember to «wly FebruHry westoriy winds prerali 
Daring the hot dry period from Fcbnittry tn March the westerly 
winds and cold nights of the cold tnoiitha oeaae and tho ev 
wost4)rly briNtxijH of the hot season have not begun. Dry enst win 
prevail, and parch tho shin and prerunt perspirntion almost as amtiA 
ha ialense cold. Those winds uro daogorous t» all, and 
be avoided by all who are liable to liver disease. Dorii 
curly hut Boason the easterly tnomiog wind in the after- 
the day veers by tbe north to tho west. In tho lator hot ii 
the wind blows stcailily frv>in tho we«t, beginning gonorally . 
midday and blowing till a late hour. He nights and Xiiuming 
calm and cool. 

During tho south-west rains, tho sky is generally overcast 
camnii or cumulo-strati clouds. At the setting in of tbe aontli-we 
rain the clouds are dense and numerous, but as the ntitis adi 
titer grow partial and Seecy. Prom about the 20th of .luly till 
end of August, thore isuiucb sunHhtnc, and as the cumuli are drir 
orerhead by tho westerly breew, tho more stationary cir 
may nftcn be .seen unmoved, high in the firmament. Towards lli| 
middle of September dark massos again gnlhor and continiw u| 
hide tho sun till the ^^uuth-west rains end nith the Eleph 
stonua in October.' During tbe close sultry period from mi^j 
September to mid-November fogs are few, but tho «ky is uC 
nartially hid by fleecy cumuli. In tho cold wouthor, Irum 
November to the end of Jimuurv, the sky is generally clear L. 
occasional cumuli, and not uufrequently horizontal an<1 obliq 
cirri. The hot dry season from February to March hns generally 
clear and unclouded sky. In Afnrob April and early in May tlrtl 
aky is geiiomlly dear, about the middle of May it becomes 01 
and cumulo-strati clouds gather on the horizon. 

* During January and early Fubmary the air is cool and bracja 
but tbe east winds lire uiipletistiutly dry and tigbton tlicaldn. Tov 
the end of February the air grows perceplibly wanner, and, by till 
middle of March, the hot weather nan begun. About this time <t| 
is usual to close doors and winilow.i to koop out tho hot wind wliki 
bcgiti-1 to blow strongly from tbe west. The licat inoreaHiJ 
gn^ually and is greatest about the middle of May. Then nflil 
uncommonly storms burst and sensibly lesson the intense heat 

> These Btcrtn* are oalUd Elrphautu bMtOM. McionliDK to Hioilu •MroBOmr. ' 
■Dn Is then iu the Kakthaira or gucot-boiue of the Clepliuit coii*(<<lliitioii. 
* Tnui>. Bou. iS*d. aoi Vtij.Sw). New tierj**, ISSl-SS, IV. l(H y 


tbo two procediDg months. If no stomui come, tbe weftther continnes 
sultry till tlw end of the fint week of Jane. Even in the hottest 
weather, after BuiiBet the air Boon ooolt and Uio oiglitit aru seldom 
lithout an agreeable fi-eshnesa from tbe s«ft bre<-20 which does 
Uit lull tilt the early morniDg. At the hottest timeof tbeyear si 
BIX in tho moraiug tbu mercary is seldom liigher than 83°. At six 
in the evening with the house o1o»ed the liigliest is about 86° and 
88° with open doors. These cool nights prevent the heat from 
being M> trying as in other porta of the Presidency, where ths 
leinporatiiro jk lnwcr but damper and tbe nights ore lesefroeh. 
Dui'LD^' the rains the olimtite is peouliarlv soft and agreeable. \o 
groat amniint of rain falls in June, but the sky is thick with clouds 
an<) ihcrti are occasional showers. The first ten days bring a 
percoptibie decreaao of huat. The abatement of beat continues till 
the beginning of July when (lie regular monsoon sets in occasionally 
with violent storms of thunder and lightning. July ia by far the 
wettoiit month in the year ; Augnst is oftvn dry but light drizxling 
intervals till December are not unuaual. A heavy bnrat, often six 
inches, of westerly rain nearly always happens in September. The 
peopio do not regard this as part of the regular sonlh-wcst moneoon ; 
it is known as the fall of the BmU Nah/hatra or tlio t'lvphncit 
Gnost-honso. This is one of the moat important falls both for tho 
.•arly and for tho late oropa. From tho east or Madras monsoon, 
lieavy rain falls towards the end of September and in early October. 
For about a month after the eastern rain ceases tbe air is generally 
bot and clobo. Novumbor nshvm in the cold weather which lasts 
tall the end of January. Ua tho whole the Siitira seosoug Khow 
OODBiderublo nniformity. They are not subject to abrupt changeii 
or to extremes of heat or ootd. Though its olevation, tho 
comparative absence of water, and tho baru surrounding country 
make the fair weather atmoaphere rarefied dry and exciting, its 
noamess to tho coast makes these qualities lees remarkable than at 
other Deccau stations of toss altitude, but further inlam). Tho 
SAtdra. climate iei a marked change from tbe moiat and relaxing 
Konkan. It is best suited to the oerrons, the eimply debilitated, 
and the relajccd, to tbe Jyi>peptic-, and thoso afFecteu with cbroniu 
bronchitis. It is liable to nggravnte or render more acute, fever 
and head derangements by constricting tho surface vessels and 
forcing inwards an iocreosod flow of blood. The inoroasod flow 
of blood cougosta and obstriicts tho orgiuia which have been 
I weakened by disease or climate. These adverse conditions are 
limited to the dry season, or at least are oonsidentbly moilifiod 
during tho soft mild and damp south-west monsoon. The rains 
Bocm xpecially suited to Eunipeans. White they last severe disordera 
are unusual, the' prevailing complaints being slight fevorH and 
pbost and bowel complaints. Among the natives rheumatic and 
leuralgic affections are common and obstinate j Enropeans aro 
ouparotivdy free &om them. After the first burst of tbe south-west 
nonaoon, lain lalU for tha most part in moderate oaaotities and 
D frequent light showers, which oool and freshen tne air without 
a rule preventing outdoor exerdw. 

Oiapter I. 





The Matb.w«rt wo— ooa oa which tbc Sabyiblri mad ea 
taoMf depend, begiaa aboat the miildli.' of Jodo and Iwite till 
eod of Septenber. A«ftr«le,tbeaonth>wcetjsin(kMM ootpeesi 
thko twenty aulee eert of 8£Un. The cm! era belt, for t£ 

of tl« eaH/ cropK, depciw3s cbi«fly oo irrefpilAr storms 
mid-H»7 and mid-Jute, muA, tor the BDwiii^ uf it« late 
October tmd Norember, ^rratn from the iKirth-oket moosoon. 
in October And NoTcmber mmdo north-eest rain ocaHiouUr 
•boat Chnatmea and in Much or April. As a mle^ clo«o to . 
SebjAdrie, and in the Sahj-adri ana omtr&l bultti, tiio rninhll 
bcttrieat, and, in thi? castvm Urlt whiob is (urtbcr from the Sab] 
tbe rninEall is li^htfiKt. At tbo Huae timctbo ntafall clooanoti 
deponi on distanco from tbe Sabjidris. PlaooM about tbo 
dUtancv frvm the Sithj^ris show a great Tariety in rainfall, w 
•ome cases n»»e distant stations bare a betl«r sapplj than st 
[ortber to tlia west. Of Mc4ha and Wili which nru abottt 
noM) distance from th« Sabyidria, during tbe tirc-Dtv-ibrro f<^ 
eodiog 1883-63, at M^dha tfae biKbest recorded fall ia 1 ] ] ii 
18d2-S3,aadBt\V&ifon]r-niDuitiche6in 1K7&-76. At Kbaodilawl 
is only twenlj-Gvo luilui coitl of tbe SahyAdrta, the lowest recor 
fall Ts oigbt inobes in 1871-72, and at Dabivadi, the most diHL 
station from tbe Sabyfldris, tbo liiwcat is oine incfaoa in 186I1*B 
Bxoeptat Malcolm pot h, Medba, i'&taa, and SAtini, the 
avenges lees than forty inchos. At MiilcoliujK-th.dariuji^ tho t* 
throe yean floding 1882-33, the raiufdll avcrased 2.>6 inchwt. 

Fxccpi tliat for KhandiUa, Pitan, ShirAla, Dahivadi, and TA, 
thoy are Hanting for a few years, (or the twenty -throo years en^ 
1882-83 rain returns arc avaiUblc for nine atatiuas in tho Salij 
and cootnii belts, and for five stations io the eastern belt. _ 
tbeae twenty -threw years the hi;tbsst reoordwl fall is 373 iodbot ( 
Malfolmputh in 1^2-83 and tho lowest ia 7 inchett at Vaduj 
lt^7»-H() luid at TAsgaon in 1876-77 ; the total uvorag^ fall of ti 
district varicil from 72 inches in 1S82-S3 to 3A inohea in 1871*7 
and avoraj^ 45 iochcs during tbo ten years endine 1869-! 
and 50 inchVs during tho thirtoeo years ending 18A2<83. la i 
8ubv&dri and central belts, beginning from the northern BobdiTina 
at wAi, which ia about sixteen miloseastof tbeSahyAdris and t«.. 
miles north of SittAra. during the ten years ending I8C9-70 
fall varic4l from 31 itichoe in 1K(>|.62 to 20 incboe in 1865-00 u 
arera^fod 27 inches ; and during thv thirteen years ending tS8S-J 
it vaned from 49 inches in 1(^75-76 to 19 inches in 1871-72 ai 
sveragi^38 inclim. At bChandAla, which iKAl>out twenty-live i 
east of tht! Sahyiidris and twenty-five miles northof S6t4rft, dii_ _, 
tbe three years ending 1860.70, the fall varied from S7 inchM ^1 
1867-68 bo 15 inchim in 1868-69 and avcngod 20 incbett ; and diirinj i 
tho thirteen ytun ending 1882-83 it variwl from 26 inches in 1870-71 
to 8 inches in 1871-72 and aroregod 11 inches. At Milcol 
the highest point of the SaliyAdm 4710 feet above 
and alH>ut twt'nty-eigbt miloe Dortb'wost of SAtfira, during Ik ' 
1*11 years unding 18t»9-70, tbo tall varied from 312 inches iaj 
1861-62 to 156 iacbos in 1869-70 and avcreged 2i8 iuokeej 



dunn^' lliu lliirtoon yet* cndinti 1882-83 it variod from 873 iuotiM Chapter !■ 

iri I.SH2-8;i to IGSinchc* in 1877-78 and nvoraged 262 incliiw. At DeKription. 

Medlut, whiclt is about eixteon miles ensC of tlio Sabyifalris and foiiHoon 

miles north-oast o£ SAtira, daring the ten jeors ending 18(19-70, t**""^"- 

the fall vuriud from 79 inchos iit 18tiUtl2 to 53 inches in 1804-05 

Aud avom^ed 01 iiioheH;niid during th« thirtoon years cndinff 

1882-8a il varied from 111 inches in 1882-83 to 48 inches in 1880-81 

and nvoragcd 7^ inches. At Siitiiro, which is nboiit twenty milm 

oiutt of tliu f^hj&dri)i, during the Ivn yvura ending 18C9-70, tho fall 

varied from 4$ inches in 1861-62 to 29 inches in )66'2<C3 and 

I averaged 3C inches ; and during the Uiirteen years ocdtng 1882-83 
Bib varied from 58 inches in 1862-83 to 29 inches in t^80-Sl and 

■ avsngod 40 incbiHi. At Kopegiwm, which is abont thirty-two 

■ nilea eont of th« Sivtiyadris and twelve miles oast of Sjiuini, 
I daring the ten years ending 1869-70, tie fall varied from 56 

inches in 1861-62 to 18 inches in 1866-66 and averaged 27 inches; 
and during the thirbeeo years ending 18SS-83 it varied from 38 
inches in 1874-76 to 20 inches in 1872-73 and 1876-77 and averagod 
S7 inches. At P&lao, which in abont fifteen miles east of tho 
Snhyildris ami twunty<two miles sonth of Stit^ra, during tho ujght 
yearn ending 1860-70, the fall varied from 85 inches in 1863-64 to 
42 inches m I867-<M and averaged 58 inchw; and durin;; tho 
thirteen veurs ending 1882-83 it varied from 102 inohcu in 188^-83 
ta 39 iuoties in 1880-81 and avora^L'd 65 inches. At Kor^l, which is 
abont tbirtjr miles oaat of the Sahyiidris and thirty-two miles eoath of 
Siitilrn, during tho ton ytdirs ending 1869-70, the fall variod from 
35 incites in 1860-61 and 1867-68 to 19 inclios in 1664-65 and 
nventgud 27 inches; and during the thirteen years ending 1882.83 
it varied from 60 inches in 1882-33 to 17 inches in 18fl-72 and 
avomged27inche!*. At Peth, which is about twenty-fire miles oitst of 
tbo 8ahyiidria and forty-two miles south of SjitArn, during thu 
ten yoara ending 1869-70, the fall varied from 27 inchoa in 1869-70 
to 12 inches in 1862-63 and avcragod Winches; and during tho 
tfairtooD years ending 1882-83 it varied from 41 inches in 1882-83 
to 13 iucbeain 1876-77 and avomged 27 inches. At ijhin'da, which 
18 abont twenty milos cast of tho Sabyildris and 6fty miles south 
of SiUilni, during lliu four years ending 1869-70 tlio fall varied from 
35 iui-hos in 1807-GS to 24 inches in 1869-70 and averaged 29 
inche.H;nnd during the thirtocn years ending 1882-8;J it vnriod 
from 57 inches in 1882-83 to 23 incbcw in 1871-72 and averafod 35 
inches. In the ea:«tern l>oltat Duhivadi, which is about fiity-fivo 
mihM east of tlie Sahytidria and forty miles east of StUira. during 
tbe eight years ending 1S69-70 the ntlt vnriod from 2i inches in 
1862-03 to 9 inches in 186C-67 ami averaged 16 incbos; and during 
tho thirtocn years ending 1882-83 it varied from 33 int-buH in 
1874-75 to 10 inches in 1876-77 and avcragod 21 inches. At Vaduj, 
vrhich is about forty-fivo miles oast of tho SahyiUlri^ and thirty 
tntlos nearly oast of BAtira, during the ten years ending 1869-70, 
tho fall varied from 24 incbos in 1860-61 to 9 incbos in 1866-67 
and averaged 17 incites; and duriiw the thirteen years ending 
1882-83 it varied from 36 inches in 1877-78 to 7 inches in 1879-80 
and avonigwl 21 lochos. At Vita, which is abont fifty miles oaat 

IBomtey QmuMi 





n( the SafafAdris and forty-Cre milea soatb-rast of S&t&ra, dnri 
ten yoara ending 1809-70 the fall varied from 39 inclies in I8i 
to 11 inclica in 18(>6>C7 and Rvcnig<x) 21 tncbM ; nnd during tW 
tbirleen ve&r» unding 1HS2-83 it rnried from 31 inches in 187E[-7t 
to 11 inenes in 187C-77 and averaged S4 incbes. And at Tisgaoo, 
wbicb i« about fifty miles esat of the Sahyltdris and sixty aualk' 
eoat of BitAm, daring tb« oight yean ending 1^9-70 tho fed 
varied fn>m Si inchen in 184>2-63 to IS indien in IStf^-Cfl aioi 
averaged 29 inchon ; and during the thirteen years ending 18i62-8> 
it viiHfd from 17 inches in I8S'2-83 to 7 inches in 1876-77 aad 
averaged "ti inclics. The detailn ar« : 

Sautnt DiMrkt fiaSf/aa, ISeO-ei-ISStSS.l 


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For the twouty-four years ending 1883, monthly ruin rotnrus Kt 
avitilji))ltt for the city of S^tAra. During these twenty -four vcan tta 
rotums ehovr foor montha when rain seldom falls, January l'*ebniarf 

■ Bosidw tli«c, rain return* tor the itatjon «l S&ttra we tirftlUU* tot tfao Btiu miH 
ending ISSa Durinie thcw nine fean the fait variod (rMn C6'68 iadw* in ISpS 1i 
33-03 biolMa la I8U wd wennd 43-17 incliao. Th« ilet4iliare; In ISS2« (lUrf 
SI'IStneh«^bl8B3«t« ISM of 46-31 iaolM. ia 18S6 of SSiXt tDca*, 
En 1SC6 Df 3570 incha*. in 1857 at 47'22 inoliM. in 1858 of 34-06 iacliiM, in ISWtl 
41 IM inchin. .vid in IBQO of 4318 incboa. UomUy OovwiimeBt Sokctiou. HA 




March nntl Dcoembor ; three months during which rain ^nerally 
Ml«, April Mny unci Novomher; nad fivB months of iitifailin); 
miiifnll, JiiTio July Augnnt September and October. U( tlio twvitty- 
tour years, in five rain fell in January, in four in February, iu nix 
in March, and in wvcn in IV-ocmbor ; In I'ighlcoi) in Apri), in twenty- 
two in May, and in nineteen in November; and in all yuars in Jnnu 
July Aaf^st September and October. Vi the twelve moullis in the 
year, February la tho driest month with n fall varying from 1'21 
inclics in 1877 to zero for twenty years and averaging O'OO of an 
inch ; March comes next with a fall varying from 1 '07 inoboa in 
1863 to Bero f or eightevu yfars luid averaging O-JO of an inch; 
Dcocmber in thinl with ft full varying from &'3H inchos iu 1872^ to 
Kero for iteventomi years and averaging O'tiC of an inch; Jannnry 
IB fourth, with a fall varying from 802 inches in 1870 to jicro for 
□inot4.>on years and avorngiug 0'40 of an inch ; April ia 6ftb, with a 
fall varying from 5'2d inches in ISC6 to aero fur eix yeara and 
averaging OS? of an inch ; November ia sixth, with n fall varying 
from 6'57 inchoB in 1864 to Koro for five years and aroniging 1'23 
iuchen ; May i» ecvvntb, with a fall varying from -1'72 inches in 1865 

' to wro for two years and averaging 1*38 inches ; OcU^ber is eighth, 
with a fall varying from 0o5 iochea in 18fI7 to 002 of nn iiA.'h in 
1870 and avcnigitig 314 inchMi Soptomhur is ninth, with a fiUl 
varying from 1717 inches in 1875 to 22 of an inch in 1865, and 
averaging '('S4 inches; August is tenth, with a fall varying from 1936 
inches in ISOt to 1'97 inches in 1880 and averaging 7'S6 indies; 
Jnucijteleventh, with a fall varying from 17-85 invliesin 1863 to 0'4t) 
of an inch iu I88I and averaging 7*58 inches; and July in the 
wotteet month, with a fall varying from 27'81 inches in 1882 to 
4'S3 inches in 1»77 and averaging 1373 iochea. In this order of 
dry months January would come second instead of fourth, had it 
nut been for the eicoptionnl fall of eight inches iu 1871. The 
gotjdness or badness of a year depends less on the fall for the whole 
year than on ita distribution during the rainy montlis. In 18S0, 
though the fall was the loast recorded only twenty-nine inchea, 
the season was not one of famiae^ becanMc the roiu wa.t evenly 
dialributed. 7^ iaohea in June, 0} iu July, two in Angust, and 4\ in 
September and October. Similarly iu 1871, though oi the total fall 
of forty inches about eight inchi« or one-fifth of the whole fell 
in January, 1871 was not a (amine year, because the remaining 
Uiirty-two inches were fairly distributed, eight inchoa in June, ten 
in July, eight in Augnst, one in September, and three in October. 
On tho other hand, the year 1876 with a fall of thirty-one inchea 
was a famine year, because the rain waa badly di.-^tributed, 3) inches 
fell in June, iwunty-threa in July, four in August, and nlinost none 
in Soptoniber and October. Of twenty-four years, for four tho 
yearly fall was moro tliiin fifty inches, fifty-eight in 1876, 571 '"^ 
1882, 54^ in 1870, and 53( in 1 861 ; for eleven yeaia the fall was 

I between fifty and forty inches, and for nine years it was between 
forty and twenty-nine inches. The details are : > 

Chapter I 



■Tbi! yeartjr nicUll girtn in tht* ttat«in«at diCfen tliglilly trom thftt given ia Uw 




Chapter t. 



SMSm Citf ffotitfhU. IBSO-ISSS. 


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Aa' regards tku distribulion of tho ruinfuU.Mr. J. G. Uoore, ' 

oU.t«nMint kt M(o £9. Aatho monthly retnniortaoppUoi] by tlio Civil Snrston.lh 
yearly ti>tftl gnea Id thia aUtomMit is proboUy mora iioounit«, lli« diflorMiM Bif> 
ncrhap*. be owins to on* otatommt boinfi rotumoil for tho oaI«niIai yoar bwio 
trom Janiinr}'. niul tho othrn tor tho olHaial roar beciaiiiiig (TOn A(iril. 

1 IiifoTiuatiou uu] BvUleDoo oolloot«4 ty tho nmine Coimiiiuiou, mh 


1- oE Siit^ra, wrote in 1877 : A f&II of thirty-two inclips, if well 
distributed bptweoti niiil-May and Jiinuary, is enough for the district ; 
leas thnn thirty-two im-hcs (IwiinfMS the crops. Of Ih^so ttiirty- 
two inchiTH threw phoiild fall in May, nine in Juno, five in Jnly, 
flTe in Augunti five in September, four in October, none in 
November, and one between Uwconibor ami J(in<iaty. The Mny niin 
makes tho griwtt spring itnd softens the ttoil so that the fields 
Cttn bfl made reaay to receive the westerly >nooni<oon in June. 
Abont five of the nine inches in Juno should fall between the .'itli 
and the SOth so as to enable tho husbandmen to comph^ta Ibo 
preparation of their fields and to sow tidjri in tho oast, early 
fvdri and pubcs in tho centre, and rice and nacfuii in tho west 
The remaining foar inchea canse the seed to sprout and tho 
crops to grow. The five inches tn July should fall about Ihe middle 
of the mouth, to enable '"i^'ri to bo sown in tboc«ntroof the district. 
Bain in AuguKt and September is required for tho proper growth 
of tho crops, and if an inch or two falls at the end of Seplutnbcr, 
■with four inches at the beginning of October, the late or rahi crop 
can be sown, and will lloarish. Tho void woivthcr crops need au 
inch in December or January, about ChrL^tina8 or Now \ wir's.Diiy, 
to help thorn on. If rain does not ^1 in May or Juno the grass cro[) 
will probably tail in tlio contro and west of the district, and rico 
will probably not be sown. If rain falls early in June and if there 
is a lung break, the rice and ndclmi wither. If rain doea not fall 
in June or np to tho twentieth of July, tho kharif or rain crop will 
not be sown. If gvod rnin fiiUs in Juno and none in July or August, 
tho/.Vmrt/willbelo*t. If Hea^onablorain fnll^at the end of Sfplcmbcr 
and the beginning of October, the raf/i or cold weather crop will 
(hnYO. If no rain falls in September and October, but a fall comiw 
early in Norember, the rtihi crop tfill act ho so good ; if no rain falls 
in Septombw October or November, the rabi crop will fail. The 
worst rotiiilts ore caused by the failure of the easterly raiu in May^ 
Aud by a scanty fall from tho west in Juno and July. 

During tho five years ending 1881, tho extreme ^eutcst heat 
varied from 101' in May 1881 to 76" in August 1879 ; the extreme 
least hcAt from 76" in May 1S78 to oH" iu Novembor and 
IDecember I871I and in January HBO; tho mean greatest heat 
from 96° in April 1879 to 72° in August 1879 ; the mean 
least heat from 79* in May 1881 to 60= in Doccmbor 1879 and 
in Jauunry 1880; th^ mean range from 21*' in February I8S0 
to l" in August 1879; and tho mean toraporatnre from 89° in 
May 1879 to 68'' in December 1879. Of the five years, iu two 
(he month of tho highest greatest beat was May, m 1881 with 
10-1° and in 1877 with 100°; in (wo it was April and May, 
in 1879 with lOT and in 1878 with 98^; and in ono it was April 
with 102" in 1880. In two years the month of the loweitt greatest 
heat was August, in 1878 with 82° and in 1879 with 7C'', in ono 
it wft« October with 83° in 1877, in ono August aud September 
with 80'' in 1881, aul in one July with 79° in 1880. Of the live 
years, in throe the month of the highest least heat was April, in 
1877 with 74' and in ls79 and 1880 with 72°; and in two it was 
Mny, in 1873 with 70" and in 1881 with 75°; of tho five years in 





(Bombay Oaiettoc. 




DUB Uto month of tlio lowest least beat was February witb oH' it 
1877, in one December and Jaaaary with 67° in 1878, in ow 
Kin'erober with 57° in 1881, in one Novombor uii<l Docoiubcr willi 
&6° in 1879, and in ono J«iiu«ry with HQ- in 1880. Of tho Cr» 
yeare, in three tlio month of the bigbeat mean grentent beat m* 
April, in 1879 with 96% in 1881 with 95°, and in 1S78 with 91'; 
in one it was April and May with 95* in 1877 and in ono it mt 
May with 95° in 1880; of the fire year«, in oao thu month of 
lowest mean {i^rcAttrHt heat was October with 77' in 1877, ia 
AuguMt and Doceuiber with 7(5° in 1878, in one July with 74'' a: 
1880, in one July t^optomber and Novombor with 74<° in 1H8I, aod' 
in oDv Au^Dst with 72" in 1879. Of the five youm, in tbrfo tb« 
month of the hiehef<t mvati Itiast heat was May, in 1881 with 7' 
and in 1877 an(riS7d with 78% in one it was April and May wt 
78" in 1879 ; and ia one it was March and May with 77° in 
In three years tbo month of Iho lowest mean ItMut bust w: 
IX>c«mbor,'in 1878 and 1881 witb Gl" and in 1879 with 60'; 
ono it wa« February and November with 66" in 1877; and iu 
it was January with 60° in 1880. Of the five years, iu two 
month cf tho highest mcnn nuigu wtM February, iu 1880 witb 
and m 1878 with 19°; in two it wna March, in 1879 witli 19' and 
in 1881 with 18% and in one it waa April and November with I9'| 
in 1677, in two rears the month of the lowest mean range was Jaly; 
in 1880 with S' and in 1881 with 2% in two it was Ao^at, ia 
1878 witb S'^ and in 1879 with 1% and in ono it was J 
Aiif^u^t with 6" in 1877. Of the live yean, iu throe the 
of Mie higheiit mean temperature was May, in 1879 with 8' 
1877 with 80-6°, and in 1880 with 86"; and in two it was 
and May, iu 1881 with m&* and in 1878 with 8o'&' ; in two y9>t« 
the month of the lowest mean temperature was December, in 1S73 
with 68-6"and in 1879 with 68% in one it was October with 73' ia 
1877 ; in one January with Iff in 1880, and in ono November ati<l 
December with 69° iu 1881. The details are : 

Sdldra Thtrmt>m»ltr Stadbift, JS77 
















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^ ia occasionaUy riaited by liailstorms. Between four and 
the erenin^ of the 7th of April 1850, accompanied by a fierce 
arm, a tremendnons hll of hail occurred at a Tiilag;e called 
"al abont six miles from S&tdni. The hailatonea were as 
18 cocosoata : honses fell, cattle were slain, and in the river 
large fish were killed. For several hoars the hill Bides near 
Jage were white as if after a fall of snow.' 

> IteiMwtunu BomlMV Owpi^Jiical Society, IX. 1S6. 

C|[APTEU 11. 

chapter n. 



NiUR tlie SaltyAflrU, in twonlj villngcfl of JdvH, thirt; d 
Pdtan, and three of th© tjhir&ta piitty division of V&ln*, iron en I 
is found in the mumm or cniinbled trap below the lateTiU'.'l 
Till within the last thirty years the iron ore wsa sn)elt<<i] lij 
ft class of MuaalmAns c»llc<l Dh&vods. lii fixing whoru to dig 
for oi-e tho DhavadK looked 6nt to tho proscucu na tho sitrfu* | 
of stuuH liiuo nodules or pioco of jhitJtar of the Mze of a manr] 
bonn; The next best sign of ore was a lipavy blackiab-yello* 
earth. 'When a spot was fixed for a mine, a rouud pit wa« ilog 
about four fuet in diatnetor uid six to lou feet dotip. Tb 
dig^ug pmploytd £o«r Dharads for three days. While dig^n^ 
tliu IJharads cut amsll boles in the pit side, to serve as stepvin 
going up and down the pit. Under the soil tho iron ore m 
traced by dig^piig Uiwards parts where, in the fir^t htyor the earti 
was mixed with Bumll round stones, in the aecond layer vili 
reddish viurum, in the third layer with whitish murum, aDd it 
the fourth layer with yollowish miruat. lu the fifth laver, » 
a depth of six tu ten fvt;t, tho earth waa genenlly 8a»dy, ami snikH 
nodulea of iron ore were fonnd. As these layers did uot alwsjl 
lie one below the other the digging seldom passed t>traight don 
like a woll. After tho pit vas dug, thu ore was taken out of il 
in baskets with the help o£ ropo.-! and the steps cut Ju Ow pit- 
side. From the pit the ore was brought to the smeltiug place is 
the form of nodulcB. Before thoy were smelted the iron nodnlo 
were bnrnt in a kiln in tho samo way as Hmo u'ldules. They won 
th(tn moved from the kiln, and, with iron hammers, pounded le 
piecoB about the size of gram-peas. To smcH the powdei-cd ore ■ 
pit vma dug about a foot in diameter and a foot and a hajf detf, 
and round tho pit was built a wall about two feet high made w 

■ Molt ol lliia clitptcr i« contribulvil by Mr. J. \Y. I*. Miiir-Miwkanti«, O.S. 

*TIio twouly TiA^ut of Jlvli .ire \liir. BbukavU. Otmr, ()kTjb«a. luiUilt. 
Jiibgti, KArvaoii, Ku, Ktifavdti, Mftcliiitor. UnhabftlcehtST nvu tb« Tadil tXimta, 
Mklcolnipclb. Miloanr, Msuji. PaIi, Plmpri. Ittiln. Tnkitli. VAmU, and VcU Ct 
thcM viltigoB. MX. Bhclmvli, Muohutor, MahiVbAlpihvnr. MAlwJmpwtb, M«lu«iir, ni 
llnnji. an> m tho MahAbnlubvar bill*. Tb« thirty tiUagva of Pit«B arc Aval, Xwk, 
Chapliar. Dioboli, Dhokovlc, Clinnbi, (Jii&tinAIha, (iajlswin. GoknL KtmUilrii, 
Bumbaniik, Knnuijiidi, KnrviiC, Kuni, Kdiuo, Kiirula, KoadluvU, Knavds 
Miuivri. Navji. Niknur, I'alibi, I'Andigiuii. PiVDorl, RAinta. ItitTjk>l,8jitor, iibinin9^ 
Tutu, unJ VatvIiL. Tho three rilUgn p( ^ittitla are Choad^, Gava, ud BatidUta 




I Chapter II. 




lAmt SloiK. 



pickiito. T^t^ritcLiirdcnsmtboairiuid mokes a good building 
but. Kit it is iKToiiit, if (ho wiiils art) exposed to niucl) wet, th« 
surface Hlionfd Iw plMterod. Ijat«rit« tit utteful for soi&U road d 
bnt^ as il soon vreart, trap corner Etones are ffonentlly rf<{uired. ( 
vvr<r liurd lst«nte la used for lorRO calrerts. Aliuoiit all 
Moliiibnlcxlivar itnil P&nchtruni lioii»i-s nro bnilt of l&tvriU) as a vi 
f^od ijiinlify uf this atonv Dliotinds on the hill top. Good laWtill 
tnuoDi^ co6ta about £2 (Its. 20) the hundred cubic feet. 

The metat used for making and mending roads ta trap in lb 
plains coaling about 0«. (Its. 4{^) tho hnndn^d cubic fuet, and lnu-riu 
on the hilla coating 3». to •U. [Ks. l}-2) the hundred cubic Im. 
Trap ia the better inateHftl and alooo wear§ well under heavy tnSb 
lAtvrito binds well, and is good metal for roads with lij^bt tnfie. 
Ik'sideK tr^p and Uterito, murum or cnimblud lnii> w largely t 
for roadi. Murum is found overlying solid rock, foinctimw 
the surface and eomctimes at sonio depth under black soil. It 
cither gray or reddish brown. The reddish brown ia tbe b 
variety. \Vlien dug it comes away in flakos and large nodules 
makes a good finv-wcather road surface, liwntmed nxwls ~ 
Tory heavy iu wet weather and very du»ty in dry wvather. 

Sand of good quality is found iu the bud.t uf all largo atreams 
tho plains, theco4t varying from !«. to 6«. (Ra.(-3J tlio hand: 
cubio fo«t according to the aistanco it has to be carried. Chi 
kilUi whcnci eand is not found ground latorito ia used instead of 

Lime stone is found all over tho district in tho plains, cs'_ 
near WAi, It is cither tiodulnr cullud kankar, or il occurs in 
along river banks. Knnkar, if properly burnt, toakoe good 
but the river seams yield the beat lime for building. As a 
materialn arc abundant lime stone is not used as a road metal. 
it ia seldom found on tbe bills, lime is sent from Wlli to tho stai 
of 3labAbale«hvar and ['ATichgaui. The lime nodules or kankar 
in tho T4rli bridge when annljfled were found to contain, out 
lOOpnrts, 12-O0of clay, O'+O of sand, 1-40 of oiide of iron, 8* 
of carbomite of lime, and 1*50 of carbonate of magnesia. Tito lii 
from seaiuH uacd at tho VAnm bridge contained 14'60 parla of 
4 of sajid, 2 of oxide of iron, 7S of carbonate of limo, and 1*40 
cnrbonate of mai^nesia. The lime, which ia supposed to have 
naed in building' the Prntdppad fort contains 51*80 parta of lime, i't 
of iron biidriliimitia,2*>i>of uiliea, 2-2(} of magnesia, 35-32 of 
ncid, 3'57 of sulphuric acid, and 1 *y3 of moisture. 

Good clay for bricks and ttlea is found in nearly nil river 
Wiii, Bitvdhan, Hdhuli, and Ear£d aro known for their bricks 
tiles, llio bricks costing 9a. to Hn, {Rs.i\'7) tho tbouaand, and 
tiles 7*. to IOj-. (Kk. ^ ■ 5). Kidge tiles cost about 10». (Ka. &) 
huitdrcd. Besides bricks and tiles, enrthcn vessuhi aro mado of 
local block soil mixed with sand. 

Before tho'paesing of the salt act, Act VII of 1873, coaaidor 

anautities of Nilt wore produced in MAu in tho north -enHt of 
istrict. A whitish surface noil called kaml was gathoroil m'* 
heaps. Watci- waa poured on the heaps till they woro turned I 
liquid mad, and tho mud was druiaca through an opening ' 




CbapUr 11- 


Sahydilns, and tde ^3t^re or bush sprinkled hills to the 
tlio Krishun, The everfrreen fcrests of ihe Sa]ij<idri mnge 
n belt, nlong the weat of the district six to fourteen tuiloa 
I'lieso forests extead through the whole iength of the diatncl 
Bhor in tho north to Kolfal&par in tho sonth. They etrotch 
withont » break through the wbolo of this distance :-■ ' 
much broken by tillage. They contuin mnny trccst ^'' 
for timber and aa firewood. The chief of these are 
Kuffenia j&mbolannm, anjaa Memecylon tinctorium, ain Ti 
l^lahra, umbar Ficux glomerata, kenjal Turminnlia paQi> 
h'lnla Tcrmtnalia chcbuln, jthanag Artocarpiu intof^ifoli*, 
I^erstrRiQiia parvifiora, and bamboos. Aa they form thecal 
basin of the Krkhna and several of its chief fi 
Vena, Urmodi, TArli, Koyna, and VArna, it is impo 
the slopoa of thv^ hills should bo covered with wood, 
aocotmt of the difHtnilty nf transport the Saby.idn forests 
little revenue. The forest lands are crostied by two bigfaw^i^H*^ 
Kardd-Chiplan and the Mah&bleshvar-Mahid roads. Kbi»^«i^ 
tracks also lund to tho Konkan which arc usod by villag^n and 
trailers who bring up the prodnov of tho Konkan on pack bull 
Of Ihe second group of forest lands a couaiderable portion 
slopes of the spurs which branch east &oin the Sahy&dria is 
with toak mixed with brushwood. Teak is not comtnon 
lower slopes of the wei^t^ru sections of these spurs. It, 
thius in the upper slopes and in all parts of the hill sides 
the eastern ends of the spurs. These teak forests are much 
by patches of cultivated land. The third group of forest lands, 
bare or bush. sprinkled hillit to tho oast of the Kri.fhna, i 
the south slopes of the Mahidov hills bordering the north 
district, and the two ranges which run north and sonth pAral! 
tho Krishna and separated from one another by tho valley 
Yerla. The westerly sections of those hills have some M'riib ■ 
places a few teak treea Portlier east vegetation grows le^, un< 
in their enstorn gecttons. many of these ranges are bare rocki.1 
That thoHO rookx were ouco less bare of trees is shown by isola' 
tonipio groves. These groves occiv«ioiially occur in spots speoiali 
suited for trees, but they are also sometimes found in exposed 
hill aides in no way differing in character or posiiion from man^ 
surrounding treelea-f tracts. It SL-cms probablu ibat much of tho hil 
sides was once wouded uiul that those patches alone remain w 
were (he dwellings of gods and therefore might not be 
In the cast and north-east of the district both the Yerla and 
Miln and tho strcuins whicli feod them run dry in tho hot weather 
Kinco I877-7S much tree seed has been sown broadcast in nil the 
ranges. The result in the ne:^t is fair. Id the east, of tlie seedlings 
which sprang up many have failed to live through the hot weather. 
lu jipito of those ditricultics partly Irom soodliugv, but chiefly from 
guarding the self-sown growth of underwood, greenness is slowl; 
spreading over many patches of hill side.* 

> Adnunlitntion Qoport of 1873-Tfl pivs St. ami 1S90.SI p*g« )6. 

(Bombay OuM*! 


Chapter 11- 


TM&r Trade. 

forest bat not {iroclaitned, rctnoiucil in tho ciut of tho ilirtnal 
Id pirtH of tl>o Safa<rAdh* tliu liiinli'liiii amsiKl by the ntnOal 
I>olicy proved uiib<«mblf, wliUe eT»>(7»There the enfoiv<itnpnt ulib| 
Den- KorMt Act wns impoamble M tho pcuplo IiikI bilht>rtu kin 
nlltiwoil to tftke mniiy kii>ds of (urMt prooDc« without iiiUrbinMil 
Tbe reault was tbat in IH80 ao asmtaat coIUoctor woa appoi8l(Jli| 
detonuiuu Ibo Hglila existing in proclaimed foivat iHnda aa4 ' 
rocoiumond bow claims not AmountiDf^ to Hgbta ebould bo 
vritb. Tbe finftl propomlfi of ihe dernarmtioti and NuttltMiKfot i 
for all but tbrw sab-divbioDs remain only for report, nnd tbe < 
work of foreat dem&rralion and KOtUoment, ozoopt tho acqu 
of cortsin lands uTcntiinlly to b« included in foreat, trill be Eg 
by tbe end of May ISA5. Bciudea Mttliiw forest rights tho i 
coili^lor was directed to uuUcq a final aomarcntion of tliv fi> 
Inudit, ti'bere necessary to recommend tbv exclusion of lands i 
proclaimed forest, and to enniioliilalf forest blot'lcit by ezc 
or, if exchange was not possible, by pnrchaae. K<-]L^nnI wns lul 
had )>otIi to the intvrcsta of cultiratiun and of forest cour 
In the parts of tho SahrAdria wberv diatreaa wn« found to pnr 
lanil was to be allolt«d for wood-aab Ullan rejcrulateii on a is 
Hystem of BMSt troablesome rotation. T»o <IciTinrcntion of 
part of Ibo wood-aab tract wiu cootpleted in I^SI, tbnt of thai 
of the district was systematically began in \iiS2, during the \ 
half of which exchanges were negDttnt«d all ovur tbe dbtrict. 
1883 tho Bunl demarcation lin« was fixed itnd sanctiunej 
Goromment for tbe sub^dirisions of WlU, Sitim, and JAtIl 
148,mH acres proclaimed forest in 187l>, 4S43 aewn were Ul 
excla<lv«l ; the forest area wiui to be iocruMod by 1 1,283 acraj 
arailable and part to be obtained by parchase or oxchange, aaitl 
final limit of tho forest area of these three sab-dirisioua was pal ■ 
200,627 aores or 313) (xganre miles. Gorenimeat at the aaintlB 
aaoctioned tbe setllcment of rights in the proclaimed resem 
d«cided what prirtlegee shonltl be continncd and onder 
restrictioaa. The rigbta admitted included righta of way^ and i 
to springs, toaiplcs. and waterconrses. The pririlef^^ allowed ' 
gnuiing and gathering dead wood, tboma, and other minor 

Tbe chief timber trade w in teak mftors. The tm<lo is i 
It ia only to meet the demand for timber r(!<|airc>i) far i 
bonao building. When they haTe no other work a few 
bny small quantities of limber and carry it for aalo to 
different timht-r markets. The timber dcalera aro ell 

M ariU hAa , and a few aroMuBoImin BobonU Theiargi^ict tMtki 

grown in tho district are not aboro one or I ( ft-ot iu diameter att_, 
base. All larger limber has to be imported. The average pnc«| 
obtained at the auction sales vary according to size from .£1 loill 
(Rb. 10-40) tho hundred rafters. ITiere is always n demasd f<| 
firewood from tbe east of the district, but the forost lands an a| 
bare of treea that the demand oannot always bo snpjilied. A i»\ 
wood store has been eMtablisliod at the hill station of MabAbal<abi»| 
to supply reaidonte and visitors. Tho price chau^od is Sa til 

(BombaT GueUMcJ 

Chapter II 



FitLU Tmin, 



Cout antl 





AtMM ATratt, 1870-7t - laStSS. 



















im-n... ~ 



+ iun 


SMW lo.tu 






W7!(:» , 

■ l.tU 



I8IV40 .. 








tWMI... _ 



lait-is , 

11. IW 

17 JM 

IMI-M .. 




Wtl-T* . 











Tlio cnltivutod part« of the district bare bat » thin uprinkliDg 
tr«(iH. Mo»t Urge villaffce and towns bavo mangoe groves i 
tbeiii, bnt the fields anil hu<)gv)( bavv fuw trees oxcopl ocoaaii 
teak and bdlihul nuir waste land. l*he only parta of the iltfltricl' 
wheru ttml«'r has hoen encouraged and cared for ni-o along the mini- 
KJdos, moat of which nro sbadi-d by fine avi-nura of biilhul mango* 
and lig.' 

According to the Collector's 1882 atock returns the district 
rarm stock inclnded 240,921 oxeu, lo2,t>40 cows, 115,311 buffalbm 
i^.3t>0 boi-DCH, 425,374 Hhix')) mid gunUt, -liJiH uses, luid-u few pigs 
and mulos. 

The Oxon, returned at 2ifi,921, are of two breeds, the local aoit 
the kkiltiiri. Tho khillari bnllocks are naid to ooni« from tho eoAt. 
Both breeds arc used for tiold piirposos. Tho AAi//«Vi, Ihougli U» 
larger and more uiuscular animal, ia somewhat dolicate and doe* not 
live BO long as the local bullock. A common khilluri bnllock will soil 
for £6 (R8.50), in the cattU' market of Mhnavad in MiUi good one* 
•oil for £10 (lis.lUO), and in parts of the district a choice aiiiinal 
fetches as much as X20 (Rs.200). The tiny (iuick>riinning 8iirnt 
bullocks are oooasiunally soon in light riding carts. Bxcopt a low 
from the Bhiina valley oxen are seldom imporiod. 

There is no special bruod of Cowh or of Huffnioes. It in said 
that Sural oows were impurtud a century ago. Cows and sbe- 
bulTaloea are used for their milk only, except whoa necessity coupol* 
their a^e for field parpoBof. He-buffaloes and oxen kto naed for 
draught. The price of a good cow varies from £2 to £4 (Rs. 20-40) 
and of a good she-bufhlo from £3 to £4 (!ts.3(l-40]. Tho KkinHot 
buffaloes, oxon, and cows are nsod by ChAmblutra and Dhont l\ 
making shoe^, thonKi^t and watur-baKS. Buffalo meat ia lit 
eaten by MusalniJlns ; hut Mhfirs and Mings, who have a right 
tho caroassea of dead biitTalues, eat almost every part of the 
Liarge herds of hulInlooK itre often aeen on tlio Sahyi'idris in charge 
of a single boy or girl. They are driven at night into encloBura^ 
hedged with rough posts genorally fire or six foot high. In oth^| 
parU of tho district tho cows and bitfTalou.-) live either close to or 
inside of their owner's house. 



Few of the people own Horses. Except by cliiefa und tbo 
weftlthior laud proprietors the auiitials ridden by the people of 
district are seldom more than ponius. The Tallcy of the Kl 


■ A llM «J SiUra tocwt low ia gixD in Ui« Anwiidix. 

can I 


iMiI to be fainoLui fur its horses, but oil iiiterent in IiorHO-brcodiiig 
Btliuduut. In l87SGoFornment set apart three Btnd liorees fur 
Mm but little uso was mado of thom, Bftf ntaros woro serred and 
ooly six folds mere produced. The Oolleotor complftiaod tJiiit tlto 
innrcH broii^bt tterc unfit for breediofjf and tbat the higher classes 
wei-n iiiOilTurcnt lolim-»u-brv«diDg. During Iho tbrco joars ending 
1877-7S no chief or proprietor lia«) made use of any of the UoTora most 
li'jr»o». Id 18B3 the reenlta were a little better. Of thirty-nino 
tuarefi Mirvvd ten were in fool. Up to 1S7H, to encountgo horae- 
breedJDg, hontt ^huWH wore hold iii February at Piuffli about two 
niilos south of Dahivadi, and in Uecetuber at Mhasvad fifteen miles 
eiant of Dahivadi. The animals ehowii wore unMutiefnctory both in 
numbi^r uiid <juiUtty and those sbuvvH hnvo beou (1SH<)) diiicoiitiiiiied. 
A weekly catite fuir is held at Belavilde in Karlid whore a coiisitler- 
»blu nutubDr of hontes and ponies are sold. A fow animals are 
brought from tho Bhitna valley ; none le^vu tbc district. 

Sh«ep and Goats, returned at •t2S,M7, are bred locally. Pow 
sbeep or goats cither cnnie into the district or leare it. The prico 
<^ ft flheep TsriL^B from abont is. to (m. (Ra. I -3). Tlioy are cniofly 
rearod by thu Dhnngars in the etutt of the district. I'hoae witli^ tlio 
Angara, a branch of the Game caste, use the wool of their sheep in 
weaving kambUs or coar&u blankctii, which ia one of tho lar^^t 
iBdiLitrioa iu the district Sheep's milk tit itaid to bo drunk chivtly 
by shepherds and seldom by hiisbandmoo, who rarely take ib 
except as acnro for colds. Sir liartlo Krere, while Coutini!<«ioDer 
io SatAra in 16'19, introduced some sheep from Khilnde^b, but 
the crosa breed was too delicate, was never popular, and bos 
died out. Goats are valued obicfly for their milk. One brood of 
gout, found all over tlio di«trict, yields long hair which Dhajigars 
work into country ropes. Surat goata are oocasionally imnortccTfor 
their milk. Sbeep and goats aro postured almost soU-ly i>y Dlian- 
. During the nunw they arc kept in tho ea^t of the district 
ing on waste numbers or on grass lands. As the dry season 
advances, tho shepherds more west to the pastnrea on and uvnr llio 
Sahyiidris. Slieop inanuro i^ highly valued by the holders of rich 
»oiI, who pay the owners of flocks either in money or grain to pea 
tbeir animals on particular ftclds. Sbeep and goats nre lawful food 
to almost all 8atlira HindH.->, except IJrilbinaux, Konilr!i, Uumvs, 
tuidSntdra. tiome well-to-do Musalmdua and iu rare cases Kuubis 
eat mutton daily. As a rule meat is eaten only on such groat days 
Bs tho Dasam in October and at marriagos and other family fctv- 
tivitio». Goalsand itht«p are occasionally offered tothogoda. Sheen 
ekinaand goat skins are used for makiug ropes, thongs, and shoes, and 
goat skins for the sonnding boards of viiriouH muniad iustrumonta, 
and their intestines for atring. TIio UMual mode of guarding shoop 
mad goats at night is by a hedge of thoras, or by a long net 
atretchod and supported by stakos driven into the ground, whito 
men and dogs watch agaiust thiores and wild beasts. 

Pigjt ai-o kept for eating by Vaddars and KnikAdis. Donkeys are 
kept as pack animals by some ViiuiH and Kumbluirs and also by 
Vaddars. Uuloa urc usvd sparingly an puck uDimaIt<, tuid camela are 

Chapt«r U- 





(Bombay OuMtMc, 

Cbnpter II. 


Willi Aniiulh. 



rnrelj Bcoa. Dogs nboand in every villaf^c and are used fur herdiag 
HliiMip. None are of good bruuit. i'ix<-u|it Bniliiunns, almost all 
clusses rear hens. Tho og'gH nnd more raroJjr tho bous nrv Bold tu 
tlio local uiiirkrtH. Ducka and pigeons are oooaaionally kopl and 
souiu ItluiiuluiAnH rear f^'eeee. 

In the irest near tlio Saliyjtdm ctiieRy in tlio Kornn rnlloy 

the hills of iho M»]a passnre found the Tiger, FuIIm tiur'tx.v-itft- ; 

Pantlii'r, Fclis jMrdus, llhhi iVly/i ; the Bear, Ui-siif labiatmi, ii»w 

the Siimbar, Itufia urii<li>telii', fdmhiir ; the Sfxhttcd Deer, 

macHlntns, thUUil ; iho Uil>face<lur Ititrking IVi'r, CVtvuIus am 

bhcnk'ir ; the Hog Doer, Axis porcinns, jfint ; and the Iit»on, dft' 

giiiiniK, ^va. In thoeant ore thu Myenit, llyaiua i^trinta, t<traii ; tli« 

Wolf, Cauifl lallipcK, I4»il'iii ; llie I'Vx, Vulpcji hongiilensis, l,-hokad\ 

ihoTjCopnrd, riilii* jiiba1a,<-Ai(/«; the Antelope orDlack )tuc)c,AiiteliiB 

bpxearltriv, hilvil; and the ChinkiiT» or Indian Ganelle, UiuwU 

liennettii, mdlxind. Comtnon to both cnst and vimt nre the Uar 

Ix'pna nipricoIIi!<, ft'jfrt; the Porcupini*, Hystria leucarn, o-iyW ; ll 

Monkoy, Prenbytifi enlelUis, vi'mar or vi-ik-tJ ; the Hog, Stis indim 

iluknr ; and tlifl Wild Oat, comprising the Civet, Viverra mnlaccentii 

^ri-u(fiMi<ti^r, andthu Coinmuu TrceCut, I'anuloxurusintiaattga,! 

NtntTicr tigers nor jiantheri* nre so nunv^roiu as to do mtich 

though nocasionatly man-eating tigers appear, and, owing to tlioi^ 

ezce^iug cunning and the largo iorwts of the Koyna rallcy, 

very diOicult bo dvstrojr. Of late yvurs biwn have toeroaacd in th«' 

furcf tM on Uiu )(ula paas hills, but they seldom come uortJi of Helnik 

though thuy were fonnerly founJ in t no neighbourhood of MivltAtiul- 

eslix'ar. A bull bi&on was nbot on Mab&balnalivar in 1873. tiiJmlMT 

liarn nleo inoron»ed in the Mala patu forests an tbo forott area is so 

large that it is nearly impossible to drive them out. 'I^cy haro 

almost ceased in the woudlnndE to the north of Uolvik as the riilagcra 

of thut tntet liavu killed largo nuinben by netting. Tliu neta are 

laid in tho mmbar'ii runs and a line of men form, and, stArting from 

the nets, beat the forest away from the nets. The nimAar, imagining 

t]uit they are being driven to pooplenrmed^'ithgims, break through 

the line of b<tkl(.-m and ru.ih into the nets where tlioy are killed by 

men hid near. Almost every village has these net« which ara abont 

twelve foot hi^h and twenty feet long. Though the people kill does 

and fawns, the H[)r(!iid of rooorved forosttt lm« moa yearly increasing 

the outnber of vtimbar. Bears are not uumeroos. They do no ham, 

and, except whea they have young ones or are sadden lysorpriaed, or* 

Boverknovm to attack man. Tovy fc«d on roots and berrios and oB 

white HiitM. Wild<lo»{'H kiilmanyapottodandamalldtxir, nnd tho poopla 

Bay that th^y will bunt down and kill tigers. No case of a tigvr 

liL-in^ killed by wild dogs is known to hare occurred In Siltiira. In 

tho <-tist tltu antelopo or black buck used to bo common ; but their h 

nnmbcrs of bite have gi-catlv decri<ased. Tho best ground lorblaokfl 

bnck shooting is betwcca PtisoaAvli in Khat&v and Kodegaon iu 

Kliitnipur. A good ninny of tho people havo gnna, which, when 

they ara not mung, tbtty lend to Hamotihi.t iiml <locs and fawroa^ 

aru killed iudiscrtminately. The MkArij or huntors too, talco mao^fl 

by nooeos hud on tho ground and also with the help of taino 

bucks. They fasten nooses to tho horns of tiio tuiue bucks and k'ti 




thom go. The wild bncka in 6f;bting with the tntno ones, entAnglo 
iheir ItoriiN in ttiu uoospa mid uro vsugfat. l*ho ckinkara or Indian 
gazelle t>« fount) iii kiuiiII ■lumherii in the faillH itboiit U&o. Wulvts 
and hyeiiAB are moslly found in the hills roand KIiAnitpir, 
lend in thu rango bftwt-cn PImltan and KluitAv. Even Ihci-e they 
are scarce, ftlnny liocnMes to ke«p guns hare been gmnlvd (or 
their destructiitn, but neither wolves nor hyenas are uft^u xbnt. 
Aceordinff to yearly rctuniH of wild nnitnals, during- the eight 
7e«r» «nuing 1882, 2P+ pcrnong wore killed by wild nniniHV, of 
whom twenty-thnw woro killed by tigers, tweuty-eiglit by oth<tr 
uimals, and 343 by snakes; the nnmbor of cnttk< killed by wild 
ftoiiiuils wan 661, of whom 589 were kilk-d by I'xgvvv and Ifi>i«rtl^, 
and acrenty-Lvro by other wild auimals and snakes. I>iir)ii)^ thi: 
same eight yeaifi, of the wild animals killed for Gorornment renai'ds 
tbirty-foiir tigers wvre killed for £73 I2jr. (Ra. 736), niiicty-thraa 
ItiajuirdH fcrX82 lOif. (R*. Rio), and 16-1,826 snakes for £1027-124. 
{lU. 10,276). The details of wild animals killed are: fire tig«r», 
seven leopards, and 1 2,506 snakes in 1875 ; four tigers, fonr leopards, 
nud *)380 Knnkos in 1876 ; eight tigers, ten leopards, and 16,-18;) 
snakes in 1877; three tigem, eleron leopards, and To^Io snakes in 
1878 ; two tigers, eleren leopards, and lo,6ir> snakes in 1879 ; ono 
tigfr, tbirtven loopards, and -iS^Sl snukca in 1880; five tigers, 
twenty-one leopards, and :}8,7t2 anakea in 1881; and six tigers, 
sixteen leopards, and 20,241 !>nnke« in 1S62. 

Tlu) list of SDiUces given in the Poona Statistical Accoant applim 

The Yetut, Krishna, Eoyna, and Vitms hare Inrgo pools that 
hold water throughout the year and are fairty Btoetced wJtli Rah. 
Kivers like the 3Iin and Yeila which dry dnring tho hot weather 
have no fish of any considerable sisw. Tho beet, or at lenst (hu 
most frequently oaten Td^Ii, arc the mural, malua, Idmbaf, nhin'iad't, 
and vdmo. The chief fishing castes are the Bhoia and Kotis, and 
Kunbis and Muhammadans fish for their own use. No class of 
tneu livo solely on thrir oarninga as fishermen. The coting of Gah 'm 
not nucomnion among Musnlmtins and most low caste QiDdus. Fish 
aro canght by poisoning tlio water with thcjmce of the inilkbiii*h, 
by large nuts which are floated in the stream, and by small hand- 
nets whose meahes are not more than throe-quartort to one-eighth 
of an inch in ci renin feronco. Otlicr ruoderi of fiithing, which am 
occMionally.practiKcd, are by turning the stream into a largo 
baaket or some other open receptacle, by throwing a dam across a 
stream, or by throwing up large qnnntities of water in which fish aro 
also tlirown up, and histly by placing large earthen pots in the 
water and closing them when tho Gsh enter. Fish are nearly nlwuja 
sold fresh, and from house to house; few arc aoid in the markets. 
In Bonwi placcit fish are preserved as sacred animiiln. Tn other 
ploCM people fish where they pleaw, though there seems to bo an 
understanding tlmt each village haaa prior right to the fuhing within 
its own limits and from its own river banks. 

'I'he following notes on Iho birds of tho district are oontributod 
by Mr. G.Vidal.CS.aa a supplement to Dr. Fuirbank'a Popalar List 
of the Birds found io the MarlUbH conntrj : 

Chapter It. 


Wii.t> Ammaui. 








Chapter n> 


Game Birds. Theconmon Stuidgrouse, Picroolos oxaalus, ia 
liftil but v. fiLAciatns Ute Painted Urouse ia rare. The abode 
Sandgrouse is in -the ea&t, aud lU food coosisu in groat part 
seeds of tko coiDmon tliintlc. The Painlvd Partringv, " 
pictus, U common in the nouib^east of tlie distnct, about Ti 
and Jatb, and is generally found in sugarcane. Tbe com 
Partridpc, Orlygornis pondtwriiinus, is iil.-'o found. Neit 
Cotiinii:i ooiiiiuuuiii, nor liain Quail C. eorumandelica, are p 
in the district, and they scarctily repay pursuit in the cold wi 
In February and March ntivr the rabi or late crops ban 
reaped, they take to the rivera and find ahelter in the 
buuies in the beds and on the banks of the larger streaiaa. 
Kira and parts of the Krishna fair bagM may be obtaiiivil. Baia 
breed in Soptombor in thi> long grass of the meadows or 
round the city of S&td:ra; Gray Quail are believed not to breed ii 
diiitrict. Jungle Bush Qimil, Pi^nlicula ueisticn, nro cotnnion i 
hills covered with scrub. The ludimi Kuslard, Kupodoti.t edvr: 
is occasionally but rarely seen, aud the Ijesser Klorican, Sj-pl 
auritne, in abio extremely Hcarco. Of Plovers the Courier, 
ooromondelicus, is very cumiTion in the eastern sub^diviHiouii, w' 
Squdtarola helvetica and Agialitia dubialho Gray and Indian Kin^ 
Plover are rare. The Stone Plover, G'^dicnemus crepitans or indicium 
ftlso known as the iWtard Fluncan, is common throughout Ihg 
district. The largo Stone Plover, Scolopax recnrvirostria, not uk 
ticod in Dr. FairbuuW's List, is found on tho bunks of 
Ninii and probably of other large rivera in the cuM moi 
oaoally in parties of throa Tho Demoiacllo Crane, Antliro 
rirgo, is tliu only common crane in tbe Satdra district. 
December to March they arefonndin vastHockiiueartheNim,Kria1 
and Yorln rivers und on tho largo resenroir at Miyni. They are 
niiry biida and diliicull to approach cxc<'])t when fwding in llie 
early morning in kardai or safflower of which they are pai-ticulariy 
foud. Tho Pbiinsi IVirdliie, to whoso devices moet birds fall bq < 


i-ey, are never able to entice tho ditmoisello crano into thoirooocM. 

'hey generally roost sitting in a long single Hue on a bare plain doa« 
to a river and guarded by sentinels on all sides. They ncldomcbonso 
the some spot two uighta running. Occasionally tliey feed atnighta, 
especially during the early part of the cold weather when there : 
iiiiiuy cultivators in ihe Kelds by day. Their flight is remark* 
strong, and they always call loudly on the wing, ITiere are very 
snipe grounds in tho Sill^rn district though the CommoD Snipe, 
(ialiiuago !icolopacinus luid the Jack Snipit, Gnlliniigo gallinulm as 
well as the Painted Snipe, Rhynchcea bongalenaia. are occasionally 
found. Tho best chance of a bag is near tho Mftjoii, Pingli, attd 
Shingn^pur reservoirs. The Bald Cuot, Fulica alra, in found all over 
tbe istrict. Tho Whitencckod Stork, Diaaara episcopa, is very 
common, and the Black Stork, Ciconin nigra, is found in tho largo 
rivers in tho cold season. Most of the herons and ogn^t« mentioned 
in Dr. Fairbank's List, except tho Ashy Egret, Demi egr 
gnlaria, are found in the district. It is worthy of note 
Herodias gaixotta, docs not, us stated by Dr. Jerdou, lose its dorsal 
train in the cold iteather, although tho Largo Egret, Uorodias lona 


SATARA, ^^^^ 41 

his. At th* mid of May the plame of UiO large ogix-t is Chapter 
^Icndiil, ft Kood Kieciinvn unuiiily hnvin^ forty oriiiore l\}ug pluiuis. Production. 
oe Cat lie Egrat,BnbuIciia coroinandaa, ad<l tnv Pond Heron, ArdeoU 
rayi, are baDdttouiu birds in their breeding nlumngv, ihu pond huroa 
ito iu de«p niftfoon train being compfeCely traasformud and 
Arcely rocognixabte. Beeides the abuvc, the little Gieeu Bittern 
lutoridoB juTitnicR, is oommoD in lOl the Satdr* rivern. Tho Chvitnub 
lill(Tn,Ardett«cinnaraoinea,i»inuch ruror. Thel'olioauIbiH I'lataloa 
enocirodis, the Spoonbill Tantalus Leucoceplialtiti, the ^Vllit« Ibis 
irmkioroiB molanocepbalu)), and tliv Wart^headed Ibi)t, IiMinotis 
-'loans, are ooniinoii in tht) larger SatAru rivers. The Shell Ibis, 
tomus oacitans, is a rarer bird. The UlosMy Ibia, Falcinollua 
18 omitted from Mr. Fairbank's List, is also frequently soen. 
ogeOBO visit the SittJtrn district. Of Ducks tho Large Whistling Teal, 
Ondrocygiia innjor, ia found on the Nira. 'Hie Kud<Iy Shioldrako, 
CSuarca rntila, Also knownas the Brlihmani Duck, M. n'lruj, is oommoa 
on the Nint and Krishna. Of Ducks propor, tho Shoveller Smtitia 
clypcat^i, tho Gailwall C^taulelaamus strejienui, tho Wiilgcon Ularcm 
pcnolope, the Common Tea] Querguedula crocca, and Uie Blue- 
winged or Gurgunoy Teal, Quvrqutxlnla ctrcia, aru found scattered 
UironghoutSdltJJaia favourable localitiea . 

01 birds other than gamo birds thu following may bo noticed. Tho 
Bnvengor Vulture, Neophron ginyiuiaaua, commonly called I'harao's 
'Chicken, is common in Sntiro. A pnir breed wvery Tear at Vita in 
Kh*nipnr producing a single egg. Of the Falcon clawr, the 
Perignno and Slinhtu Falcon, Falco perigrinus and pcrigrinator are 
Tcry nirc; while the Rodhi^wi Merlin orTurumti, Falco chtquora, 
is fairly common all over SSiira. A nest with three young 
Cjesses han bot'^n found towards tho ond of February in a tanuuiua 
tfcraa ovorhauging thu Krishna. Tho young birds were kopt for 
MDo time, but tnoy were extremely vicious and wild and tuok the 
Im opportunity to escape. A Hawk Eagle, Spinetiix cirrhatna vma 
ohtiiined in a large groTO near SAtArm. Of tno Harriers, tho Pale 
Harrier Circus mocru-iua is the common variuty. At Jatb, a 
handrod or more of those birds fanvo been seen roosting together 
on a bare plain. Baliostar indus, the Mnroonbacked or BriUimani 
Kite is decidedly naoommon. Symium sinenso or Buhica ocolliitn, 
the ^lottled Vi ood Owl is tho oommoomt of the large owls, and 
< Athene brama, the pingli, is the commonest of tho Owleta. Bubo 
IbeDgnleufis, the Rockhorned Onl. is also plentiful on all rivers. 
'The hatred of crows to tliii*, a« indeod to all owls, is remarkable. 
A wounded owl may be followed for a mile or more, from tree to 
true, entirely hy the angry cbmonr of pursniug crows. The 
Hawk Owl, Ninox 8cut«1]atns, is not vory uncommon along the 
banks of th» larger S^t&ra stroama The Indian Roller, Comcias 
indicus, does not loave tho district till lata in the hot sonson. 
Several hiivo been seen at the end of April. The Pied King^sher, 
Oeryb) rudis, M. mathhimar or dita, ts the commonest species in 
SitAra, and is a wonderfully familiar bird. It has been watched 
'{nqoently at W^ diving fenrlossly at tho bathing stops among and 
wiuin arm's reach of tlie bathen. Halcyon sinymeDsig or iiihcus, 
the Whit«cr«st«d Kingfisher is oommoa throughoat the district. 


[Bambftj I 

Cliapt«r II- 




The Great Hombill, Diclioceros cavstns, is occaaion&llj soen in 
Koyna valley imd ia the west of the district, but not ui th« 
t^Kt&ra people have an odd bolivf that Uio common Boi 
Faroqiiete, Palioortii« tornuatus, ivbich bnild in holes id bt , 
pipal In-Qf, are better talliers than those which build in ml 
or any other trees. Of the Cuckoim the Koel, Kudy names oriea' 
or honorattt, is vory oommoD. Tbo people Bay that it never alii 
on th» gronnd. They havo an id(-a that it« poenliar cry is a nm 
rain to fill tho leaves with water, probably because the koel's 
much moro freqnent at the approach of the aooth-west rains 1 
other tiuiea. Mr. Fairbnnk has omittvd from his list of Ho 
suckers, Cinnyris zcylontca, the AmcthvAt-rumped Hone 
(Jordon, 2U2). This bird is not uncommon in S^ra j^ 
A pair bnilt thoir ncHt in Soptembor hanging to a eIcikUt Iwie 
cm^por ill the ixirch of one of the houses. Of the ^[iis<^icapic 
Flycatchera, Muscipcta i^amdisi, the Paradise Flycatcher la < 
by hill Miiriithfls hdnjMiihrre or the arrow bird and by Enrop 
at Mab^baleahvar the dkobi or wasbermea's bird. It ia t 
occasionally throughout tbo oiuat of SdtJlra wherever them 
a grove of largo trees. It Li very wandoring in it4 luibit*. Hpeci- 
men^have been obtained in a state of transition from the che 
to the whitft pluniago. Tho Rcdwhiskcrcd Bolbnl, Otooompea : _ 
caudata, replaces on the Sabyidria tho common Madras BuV 
l*ycnonotUB humorrboii.-*, which is found only in the plaiaa, in tin 
aamo way as tho Uluewingcd Koityhdailcd Parmkcota roplaco tlie ' 
common Roaewingod species, Palteomia torqnatus. It is worthy of ' 
note that birds of soverul alliod species differ in the bills and ia 
tho plains, and that tho hill varieties are always brighter coloarodi 
than the plain birds. Irena puclla, tho Fairy Blue Bird, has not '. 
been found in Stit^ra. Oriolus kiindu, the Inilian Orioto, is foool] 
throughout the wost of tho district. Tho lllackhf^iuled Oriole ill 
rarely fouiiil to tho cmt of the Siiyh4dri range though both species I 
appear equally distributed in the Koyna valley and in tho wostent 
Sabyildri belt. Tho Southern Yellow Tit, Machlolophus jerdoni, is ( 
found occusioDally twenty miles or moro cast of the iSahyildTiB. 





AccosDiNO to tbe 1881 censoa the popalation of the iliHtnct irfts Cl)tT)t«r ' 
I,Oii2,350 or 212-98 to llio sqiuinj mi!o. Of these Ilindua nuiubered 
1.024,597 or 90 »4 jipp wiit; Mu--<tth«iln8 30,712 or 3-4o pL-pceatj '«>plo. 

Chiif^liaug 8StJ or OOS percent ; VAxHia'J9; Sikhs 29; Jcw« 21 ; aad Ckssm Dstiim. 
Builiihistii 0. Thu Bnildhifits wore Chinoso convicta now setlJed as iSTS-ISSt. 

gardeners nt M&hAbiileMliTtir. The porcontngo of males on the total 
popatatioQ ma 50-12 and of femaleji -i!)'87. Thu corresponding 
rL-ttirii.i for 1672 won) a total of 1,002,121 or 231-0!) to the aqnare 
mile, of wliom Himliiii nninhorod 1,026,110 or 96-GO per cent; 
HiiBalniJiis 35,U3i or 3'20 per ci-iit ; Chruitiati'i 880 or 0-08 percent ; 
PArsifi 80; Siklui 2; and OtherslS. Compared n-jth the 1872 roturtis 
the 1881 returns show an inor««soof £29 or 0*02 por cout. 

Of 1,002,350 the whole population 1,018,931 or 95-91 per cent Birth-piaie. 
wore bom in the district. Of the 43,419 wlio wore not bom in 
tho district, 14,934 woro born in the Bombay KitrniltAk ; 9^bS in 
Kolhipur; 40HtJ in Poona ; 4425 in tho Konkiin diatricU; 3998 
in Sliolnpur j 1 1 37 in Gujarnt ; 7t>0 in BomlHiy ; G62 in the RojputAna 
StatcH; »86 in the NinAm's oouutiy; 4-1^ in Ahtnadnngnr; 207 i» 
Qoa, Din. and Daman; 215 iu Madras; 125 inNdsik; 90 in Kh^adesb ; 
662 in other parte of India ; and 069 outHido of India. 

Of l,0<;2,:i.'>0 tho total popalation, 1,005,499 (503.127 duJm, Lmgna^ 

S<>2,372 foinales) or 94*64 per oent spoke Manlthi. Of tho remain- 
ioi; 50,851 penons, 34.891 or 3*28 per cont )t]>oko UindusULut ; 
11,839 or I'll per oent epolce Kinarefle ; 4840 or 0'4IJ per cent spoico 
QuiarAti ; 3552 or 0*33 por cent spoke Teltiffu ; 925 or 0-OS per cent 
spolco MilrwAri; 396 or 0-03 per cent spoke Knglijifa ; 350 or 0-03 per 
oent spoke Portuguese-Koukani orGoaneae; 2G spoke PoshtQ; 21 
spoke Tamil ; 3 spoko Arabic; <I spoke Chinese; 1 spoke French ; 
and 1 Bpoko Sindni. Exntpt in Jiilh where the people iipeak both 
K^narese nti<l Manitbi, and in TiirSgaou where the hom«<tnlk of 
many people is Kiiuarose, tho language of tlio district is Miir<itht. 
TIki only classes who are (»n«tdorod to speak correct or book 
Manitbi are the Brdhntana, Prnbhus, and Shenvis. MarAlh&t and 
low casto people especially MhArs and MAnfpi o»e many technical 
oxpreaxionn Kud apuciikl words which are not known to thoao who 
SPeuk book Miiriithi. Gujarat is and MiinAAris iiho their cwd dialoots 
tlioitgh mnny of Utem also «i>eak incorrect Mar&tbi. 

Tho following tabalar statement gives the nnmber of each religions Ay^. 

daaa According to sex at different agM. wilb, nt mcb Mngo, tho 
petcentage on thu lotui population ot the same sex and religion. 

IBombay G&utUM. 



Cluipt«r HI- 


Csmca Dbtaiu. 


Tba ocdamaa rtfeninfr to the totnl popuUtiou omit religions distino-' 
tJoni> but allow the difforence of »ox : 

SdUra Piri'MUitltni ty Age, IMt. 

AM II Yuu. 

UpWl ... 

t M>a 

10 to It ... 

U IP 1* .-- 

» M M .., 

w to a ... 

w w M ... 

n M M ... 


M M M ... 

HUM ... 

AtaraM .„ 






; I" 

41JM n-n 


n,ra f4f 


M.wsl (-n 


























• 14 



• ■TO 





t M4 
t »SV 
IKM l« 
10 toM 

M Is M 

to ta III 




















II w 




























fullowiag Iflblo skowB the proportion of the peopio of Uio 
wlw tire nnniikrric-il, raiirriod, und widowed : 
SilMra Marriai/f DttaiU, ISSl. 

pBBiiin1*il ... 



dnDkrrfdd ,- 
Vfldnirtd ... 











FUUcn to Twintx to TfalrlJ ud vubi. 

Ji'iOMem, T>imtj-ntno. Or*t. »™«. 



ivM'1 K.Hi; m.iss ssn 


IMi 1794 torn wu 









































Chapter ni. 


nunw ... 

UnuunM ... 





















































M 7 

S 7 





Accord in 

population i 

r.-In G 

1^ lo 
uto u 


z cIasi 
Drat E 


1 th 

3 18 




IS returns divido the 
ns. Literaturcv luid Aria, 


18,460 or 1*73 per cont of tbo popiitntiou. 
II.— la UouM Serrloii 6(35 or 0-W p«r cent. , 

III.— In Trida and Commenw 4319 or O-tO per ixai. 
IV.— In AuricaUars St4fiUi or ih-^ per codI. 

v.— In Crafts and Induairic « Ki,W0 or 6-1 1 per cent. 
YI.— In Indoflnito and I'ciproducuvo Oocupalloiis inctuiling ChiLdren, &93,I38 
I ur bi'SS pvr oeat. 

I According to the 16S1 ceiisas, twelve towns lind more tlian 5000 
laod four of the twelre more than 10,1)00 people. Excluding tlie«o 
'twelve bowQB, which togothur numburod lld,(>!)ti or d'94 por cent of 
! the popalation, tho 046,712 inhabitants of Silt4m wen.' distributod 
[over 1^31 villsgeii, giving an average of one village for every 3'7-t 
mitare mites, aad of 7ir27 poople to each village. Of the 1331 
▼UlagM 1 10 had Icwm thnti 100 poopio, 179 botwoou 100 and 200, 410 
between 200 and .'•00, ilAl between 5U0 and 1000, 221 between 1000 
and 2O0O, 49 between 2000 and »000, and 28 between SOOU and 5000. 
Accortling to thu 18H1 oeneua, of 174,-lOC honseM, 131,173 wore 
oocapied and 23,233 wore empty. The total gave an avemge of 
64'f>0 booses to the sqtiare mile, and the 151,173 occupied 
bonses an BTOnigs of 7'<>2 inmates to e«cli house. Thonj^ 
iJI do not suocoed every man ia anxious to own a houae. SAtdm 
bouses may be arranged under two divisions, immovable and 
movable. The immovable Iiousos may bo divided into fear 
ohuBiM: Those with tilod roots and walls of firi^bakod bricks; 
ibose with tiled or ttiatched roofa and walla of stm-bnmt bricks or 
<tnnd; tliose with thst^ed roofs and wattled ergra»s walls ; and those 
witli flat oarlh t-oofs and getiorally walls of uuburut brick. The 
•movable dweUings belong lo the wandering tribes who carry thorn 
with tbcm. Tlioy are of two chief kinds small tents or juiU either 
of coarMO cotton or of wool and suutU hutsof bamboo or date matting. 
*nio dwellers in t«Dt« and mat huts Buffer much from the hL^t and 
cold and still more from tho rain. To escape the wot many of them stop 
during tho whole rains near some village and build small huts of 
gTws, leaves, and braoclies. First class houses are seldom Soaai 



. Bombay Gaictten, 

^3vrn: --- —...;■ — _- , _. , , 

"*■"?" .""._ ..■'"'■'"'".'■" •'"•■■ ^' ■' '■■'■' '■- wranJiif; n:i(i oaa 

- . ... '."■".■,''"■' :-'."■■■■■■■■■ '-■■■,,^■1^: i- wk^rftba 

_ ' ' "_ -^ ['':'-' ' ■■■-":--^- Jli-: i-i.j!!i3 iii tha 

"■_ _" _ _■■■■■ ■■■■■"-- .■;■-■:■-_ L'^.k.;;^', iJiiii:;;,', and 

, ''\ " -;"■-'-""■ '■■■'■: -;■■.■:■:■ ^:v s/,'iien!ir li^ed 

■■ ■ --'-----■"-:.- L :.:- .■:■.■-;:; .i dv.r imd iu the 

:'"_■;_■_ ■ ■- " ■ ■ -:. : =".'■:■"■ '■'-•- ■■^ii ^-imi:*: balls. 

- " ■ " ■ - "■ ■■ ■ -.■ -,-,■■,.'■'■■■-■' """^' ^i^J I'l-'liiiid 

-"--- -"7 -■■-■'"->.■*■-■ I;'.'-:!.' iii'i; "ipivQeiJ 

■ '-_ -'.-■' -":..'-!?. ■.',■< r,,r land 

- " ■ " "—■■_- ■-"■ -■• - -■ ■-■;:'. 'La Ua;-?t'rjm 

■-■ ■- ■ -- ■■; :_■-- -;■ ".; f. .^i. wirli tilod 

■ ~ ■■"■■■:,:■ ;i-. . ::■;- !■■[!;]!] toivns 

- - ,■ - . . ■ ••■-:-. -.r ■■ii'-^'iii-J a otiitral 

■■ - " ■ " -••-.: -v;.:.;:: U al^nys set 

- —■ -■ ■ - - ■ ..."..■ .:■:.■.: .:., -lio i,;'.viier of 

■ ■ . - " : :•■■■■ -■ A- ;i rule iha 

• ■ 1 .J ... .- ■-_.;-r:::y :':,- L-^t -rods, 

■- - ' ." - ■ ' '. - '"■■ ■-.-.- : ■■'-'--. '.' Ill Iron! or 

: -.'.. .". ■■■■.:'-:':.■■.■:':. -li-.'-.i-iiind 

,■-.":.:' '..■.'.}- Rircs uf the 

■ ■." .-'. . ..71 :. '. r. id iali.iirt-rs, 

'.::-: '.:■ ; invatclL-J hut 

- ■ ■ ■ ■.-;..- '.;-■ ''..1 i:i:ittiii^ or 

■; . -. .'.. L._ :.' : '...: .y.:.:-:i smiiilaiid 

,■."". ■ .. ; :v" :..i-''.ind!(iaQ's 

- " ■ .~_. .■■.;_•. Till' fourth 

■ i 1 ■■■'}' f '■■■!i't iu 

. ■ „ .-„■.: :_- .:::■:'- v-.-oi ihey 

■ . 7 — . .-: i-'VviI n'i;h 

- : - .- ■. i :■-' iuirj:. Jf 

..--.-.■:. i;-'-:o-,nrt!i'Ios 

. _■ -■ -■„.;* tor 'itfiir 

', _■. ! > -'1. s'"vfr wan) 

-■ _■ . . : jv..!" vi-t/:*, Fyr 

■ ■ :.- .-: ;.''!ti meet 

, . - - ■-■;■: .-:;:.L..!.if.)ua 

,, . - - - .'..;-. :-.:;-ii!tnri'' in 

- :■■ '- >.': '.ii'.i' pliiiirs 

'. :■'.. Th.' cMers 

. . ' - - : .:■■?? :\:A tallk'd 

" . "' ■ - ■ : -■;.■.; :;';■.■!:!>* family 

- " _ - . - ,- ■ ■•':. : r '.'..<.• mt'of 

..,.,: L : ■. ■;,-:! t'.' loud 

.. ■.•.>.: :I;:{'>i>i"er 

^_ ■.-.r-;!?, •■.-.iiiTiuiia 

l":;v i' 'iC ill t'l'iy 

- . , - . irs. HiV cVwi artii'les 

:' i— u Bi«:ii''5 r.'ols tho 



!io (Inily food ia n rich Hindu family includes rico, wliont, millot, 
e, T&getablea, clarified batter, pepper, salt, and oil, and, io 
funilics to wliom fleeb-oaltDff is lawful, fisli, mntton, fowls, and e^^. 
the special diahcs propftnu in rich hmilies wro wheat oaicM or 
wm, cske» Btnffed witn ^ram palao and sbkat called volit, gma 
bnllx cnllud kalia or bitndtit, whoot balls or ehurnfla, nco balls or 
moilitkt, sweet rioe or kethri bhdt, and curdled milk or gltrikhand. 
Tho OTOry-dKy food of a middle claes family inclndos millet or ric«, 
buttor, pepper, salt, and oil. Tlwir Epuoinl di^bra oro nearly tho 
Banio OS tEose of the rich but inferior in auality. Those to wlioia 
they um lawful oocBsionally usd fiBh and flesh, Thv daily food of the 
lower cIuasoR iuclndes millet, Imliiui millet, riihi Panicnni italicam, 
Tegelables, pepper, and salt, and they occasionally use rice, Gah, and 
flesh. Itich and middle class families lay in a stock of the chief 
grainiiat theliarv(».'it timoof cnchgrein. Tho±iO who driuk liquor also 
gouerally keep some in store. Dried fish comee from Qoa, Vengurla, 
knd Hurnai by ChipluQ. Tho supply of salt is from Bombay or 
ChinluiL Kxcept in rich and miudlo ola»3 families who employ 
cooks tho cooking ia generally done by tho women of the family. 
Even in well-to-do families the women of tho house BoC only supei^' 
intend tho cooking but tliomsulvca proparo dishes which roqutro 
special skill or little labour. 

The style of dress of almost all S&t^ira Hindus is mnch the eame. 
The differences are chieily in material due to difference in wealth. 
A rich man's indoor dre«a includes a wsiistchAh and a ahoulder- 
oloth, when ho goes ont ho adds a waistcoat, a coat, a turban or 
headscarf, and shoes. If tho home waiatclotb ia short, he puta 
on a lar^r and costlier ono with or without a silk border. His 
wife's inditor and ontdoor dross is a ooloarod robe and bodioe, and 
she is carefnl to mb her brow with redpowder. Tbe festive dresa 
both of men and women is the same as their erery-duy dress only ot 
finer or richer material. Women in full dress, sometimes in addition 
to therobeandbodicedrawasliawlovertbe head. Widows, as a rule, 

fdo not wour tho bodice, or a robe of any colour but red or white. The 
'wearing of black is forbidden to widows, A boy in a rich family 
hefuro nc is girt with the thread dresses in a cont, a cap, and n pair 
of trouaers. The wearing of caps is a fashion which has lately como 
from Bombay. His show dress is a rich pair of trousers, a silk or 
broadcloth oout, and a fine lace-bordored cap. After ho ia girt with 
tbe sacred threaid, a boy, like his father, dressea in a coat, waistcoat, 
turban, and waistdoth. Up to three years old tho dross of a rich 
man's daughter is tho same as her brotliur's dresa. After throo she 
generally wears a boilico and petticoat and sometimes a robe, Sho 
mars tho petticoat till her marriage and then dresses like her mother. 
Middle class men aii<l women wear clothes of the same form {us thoso 
worn by the rich but of cheaper quality. Among htbourera and 
poor laadliolders tho men wear a loincloth or a pair of short coarse 
cotton brooches, a waistcoat of the same material, a woollen blaiikot> 
•ndatongnarrow hoodsoarf, Thoysomot^mespntontrouseisandlong 
coats. On special occadona they wear a waistcloth, a white or colour- 
ed waistcoat, and a turban, and a second shorter waistcloth wound 
Totuid the bipa. Thti womon dross in tho robo oad bodice. Mar^lha 

Chapter II L 

tBonibfty Ga 



Chapter in. 




and Kiinhi womoa differ from Rritfaman and V^ni vomeo in M 
piMHin^ iho Hkirt of tbo robo iKvck b<^'tw<;cn tho foot. Tbo; m 
bUo, except on hiffb tlnys, much leaa careful to rub their brows wiib 
rodpowdcr. At borne tlia children of (be poor, both boys and igiAt, 
w««r no clotlieN till ther are fax or suron. Aftor tlutt a boy wean 
a loinclolb and a gin n pi«ce of doth nmpt round the waiiL 
AfUr thiHr marrioffo girU dross like their mothers and boya aficr 
clcTon or twelve like iheir fathers. 

'The internal conBtitutton of all villages vhetlier Gorcmmeot V 
a]ionat«d is tho mno. Each village has n headmaa called paltl, 
and in almost evorr case the office is boroditary and is held hj i 
Ujinttbn or a Knnbi. In some hilly parts of the district Mhilr txifib 
are found, whilo tn other parts the beodmoo are occsaiouiiliy Uarlii, 
Dltitngars, KAstirs, or MuBalnuLna. Under the Mar&tba govoraoMiil 
the beadntnn wna responsible for tbo rillago rorenne*, uml, on pais 
of being turned out of ofBce, waa freqaently required to nuke 
good nny deficiency in the collectioos from his ovm pocket or as he 
best could. He was nUo the head of tho police. This system luu 
ao hr beoQ preserved that the rerenae is still paid to QoromntaBl 
throagh tlio hiwlman, hut be ia no longer called on to make good 
dencienoiea caused by the dohalt of uthor Tillngvrs. It tvns tte 
boast of Captain Grant Doff in tho changes introduced in I82S ists 
tllo mnnagoment of the state that he kept in its vigour tbo poBoi 
influence of the pdtil, and GoTOmmvut bnvo sicoo oiHituiaed tbs 
vntil both as rovonuo and as polioo head. In manv Tillaffee tlw 
DOTcditsry right hcldngs to the lienda of several branches of tbt; sanit 
family, who may serve either in turns or at the some time. U 
tho heads of muro tlian ono branch »orve at tlio samo time the 
polico and revenue duties are nsoally performed by different porson. 
Undertho old system, when the amount of each Isndholdor's rerniu 
payment was sottlod by tho village oommnuity, the inflnenoe of 
the pdlil waa more powerful than it ia at present, and natim 
acquainted witb the district a^roo in stating that tho constast inMir> 
{oronco of soporior autlioHty hibs further dimiuishod tho hoadman't 
power. At the same time hereditary claims to serve Are mora 
rigidly respected under tho Bntifib than under tho Afarfitba govora- 
mont which often choso as ofRciator, the most powerful member of tho 
pdtii'a family whether he was the lineal head or tiot. The lands anil 
allowances wcro hardly less secure than at prOMot. Village bead* 
men were formerly paid by o-i-iigTimenta of land with or writhoal ■ 
small additional allowance. In Government riUoges they now pi^ 
the full nKKMsrnent on their land, and are paid on a fixed aoall 
proportioned to the revenue they collect. In tbeir police cnpad^ 
paiilt have power to lock iu the village office or chdtdi penoaa 
committing petty assault or aboso within village limits, and ia 
some caeea they ore empowered to pnnish the committing of potty 
nnutances. It is also tkopi'UiFs duty to bold inqaosta and aid in the 
prevention and detection of crime. In civil dupntes bis power it 
ohioSy confined to influenee, bat here and there ctvil fonctioax ban 

* Ur. J. W. P. MiurH>ak(«ud«, C. S. 



■ been rerivecl by hia apnnintnicnt us Tillngo munat/xia^er the Doccaa 
P Agnculttirislii' Act. When rich he lenas money on much thesMne 
t«riu.i iiM other creditors. His hoHpitality and the amount of lead 
ilw takea on social occasions vary gr«ittly with his means and 
Odufscter. la many Till^r«s, owing to his ignorance of luttons, Ibo 
hiitiimaii iH alinoBt wholly in the haoclii of the noconntant. 

Like the headman the village accountant or kuikami is ia almost 
ovvry awe iin heruditary oGScer, the right of aervice running in bunilies 
and the oSiciator beino: paid in tho same way aa among paUU. 
It ia tho accountant's daty to do all the writing work of the ril* 
logo, and, aa the hendman nin rorvly n-ad or writ«, the ncconnlant is 
as often as not tha more powerful of the twa It is ho or aome 
noinbor of his family who nanalty does most of the petition writing 
for tho villago, and in oonscqnvnco most ittttamw havo a richly 
deserved bad name for stirring strife. It often happens that a 
hiilkami has moro than one villac« onder his charge, and stilt 
oflcnor that a familv hiM tho horuditary right to sarvo in a group 
of villages and to oepnte different membera to serve in rotation. 
Tho cba»gula or asHistant headman acts as (he P^P' OQcl accountant's 
ofTu'o-koepor. He hua cliarge of tho villago office and of the writing 
materials and asDally carries the reooroa when they are taken ont 
of tho villape. Tlie other villago Kcrvanta are tho villago astrologor 
or Joshi and tho family priost or lihat, the priest of the village god 
or Gomv.tho potter or Kumbh&r, tho barber or Nlifivi, tho carpuutcr 
or Sut&r, the olaclcsmitb or Loh4.r, the tailor or Shimpi, the ahoe> 
maker or CbAmbhitr, the wneherman or Parit, tho tanner or Dhor, 
the wHtuhmaii or KalchvAldAr, tho guide and messenger or Ub£r, 
and the sweeper or M^g. Brdhmana are most often both astro- 
logers and family priests and frequently boloug to tho hilhirni'f 
family. Though they hold land both iu return for acting as astro- 
logers and as family priests they often do little as astrologers ns those 
duties arv gunorully cuuductud by a fuw npocinliiitii. Still mont village 
BriUininns can fix a lucky day for a nmrriage though they may 
not be able to cast a nativity. Tho family priest conducts inarriugoa 
funorals and other family rites. He holds land from Qovem* 
mout at a reduced asseasment and receives money and grain atlow- 
I Mtces from tho villagers. Tho patron god or gtiardiiin of tho village 
iK'genenlly Korved by an hereditary priest, who is usually not a 
K&hman but a Gurav. Other gods who have temples in tho villagoa 
are usually served by special Brdhman minintrunla called pujdria. 
Tho blaokitmith, carpenter, tailor, shoemaker, tanner, and barbor 
work for the villagers, who generally reward tht-ir sorviees by yt-wly 
paymonts of grain. They also hold Government quit-rent hind. 
The watchmen are usually Kdinoshis or M&ngs, who, thoughas often a« 
not professional thieves, are fairly truBtwortoy whcui on duty. Under 
tho MaMtha gorommont thu n-atchuion u.tcil to be obliged to make 
goi:Kl any stolen property which they failed to rocurur, aud even now 
tho villagcra sometimos mnungo to extort compensation from them. 
Tliey ore paid partly in cash partly by rent-free lands aud officiate 
in tarns. Though not always trustworthy they sometimes prove 
valuable detectives. The MbAr acts as a guide to travellers and as 
ft QovemmeRt mcescngcr, aud generally carries tho revenue ooUec- 
B 1S62~7 




fBonb&y Ous 

Cbapttr UL 




tions to the Eub-ilivittional troaHiiry with orvritlioat tliv (^ntrort of 
headman. Uo is also the guncral portor and buiindarr sboi 
H« hsB n right to the corcoMM of Aeml citttlv, thun^h Mmi^ ofin 
diitpiite the riglit to tho nkios. The Ufailr holds Uuvorumvot Ual 
at a quit-rcdt. M&n^fs gvDontlly act as «caveD|i;ora and wat«iuiiSL 
They are often strolling oci'oIhiIa and aro grvntfralljr proFesoond 
Ihieree. Of epcc^ial itervaulH inay bo montioued the Son^ or gold- 
BiDJlh who alflo iXL-ta as assayor. Uu is evldom (oand except in la 
Tillagoa when liu eometintea holda the oftico of acoounUmt. Th 
are also ibo (loMlvi or ascetic and the non-HrithinaD iniiitittrant or' 
pujari M montiunod above. Tlw nUikaviii or the hereditary Tilliga 
auryeyor is mot with and hia serrioea are oceaxionAlly called fir. 
He was formerly an importAUt senrant when the aaticsamoiit mi 
fixed by yearly appraiMMiionl. 

Ill nearly all villagea will be fonnd MaMltlUla or Kunbis and Mhar^ 
and in n majority M^gsalEo; Kamoshia are rarer. Tho other nu 
are found in proportion to the sixe of tho vilUga Sncb a thing 
an exclusively crtthinan village, is believed not to occur in 
district. The viUage grnxing land is shared in common, and 
bijt the impnre caatM may us« the vUlage well. 

The scanty records oE the period before the beginning of BriUl 
nilu furuiah hnnlly any information regarding uxe movomintta 
the people. It ia i>robiabIe that lai;ge numbem vmignttcd dm 
famine of 1792, which waa occasioned by the scanty fall of r__ 
the political tronbles of tho time. The faniino of 1803-04 u 
pteeely slated to have been chiefly due to alioultf of imtnigr&uta f. 
the Nfirthorn Dcccan whoro the failure of the late raina of 1 
was more complete than in SiilAm. No ft.<wcrthan SS.UOOMtran 
are laid to have tlocked into tho town of Witt. In the famine 
1824 people are said to have cuiignttcd both towards AhmodnBgar 
Kolhiipur. In tho recont aevere famine of 1876-77 large nnmboi 
both of the Kutibi and of the lower castes, went to Bombay and 
the Berars. This moTomcnt was only the dovelopmeut, under a 
paasing omorgcucy, ol a custom wbi<^li furyenra bus existed in ths 
east of tlie district among the lubouring classes, who rarely End 
looal work either in tho hot weather or in the early raias. Sioo* 
the great development of trade and demand for littKitir in Bombay 
tliiii movement in many cases has become yearly.' The hit] moo tt 
the west, whoso means of existence ore often ut least as precarioai 
OS in the east, to n smaller extent avail themselves of tho Bombi* 
labour market. They are afraid of staying long from home ud 
generally prefer work close to their homea. In »uch ciuuni, tvhure the 
emigrant ownH land, some ono always rcmalus behind to look after 
it, otbertvise, as often as not, entire families move. Kxcopt earth 
and stone workcro of the Vad&r tribe, religious beggars, and stnl* 

' Th« IMl <«n*ni Aem tlist lOS.Sta fieoplc born b MUm *n« bt thtl rai 
foond in diftotnt porta of the Bomhaj Prraiacncy. Tbo <let>iiU arv, BobiImi* Citt 
45.404, PMma SlKI!: ShoMpnr 12,3(R1, ThAu eitas, Bclnum 4409, BiUpur Xli 
KoIlU 3077. Rjitniciri 290^. AlunMlna^ 2344, KhJindc^ ItM, Kloik ir:t libw- 
wir 688, Sural M9. A)ui>ad«Ud 371^ finars IW, Browdi 160» Aiica 107, faodL 
HslHtli to, and K>lra 60. ^^ 


1^ gjitAra. 

■kg jngglera, mntiicians, and acrobalR, there are fow wandering 
|KibM or trgiTclling carriers in tj^t^ra. 

Bra'hmans ' iDcludc BixtmD divuions iritfa n strength o£ 4^,362 
or i'7 per cent uf the Hindu popalation. The detatU uro : 
SiUdnt Bmlimaiu. ISSl. 









■inrukliU ~ 




Dm I'll! 








OltJMfUl „. 












KtrhtdM ... 












BoDkUMllM -. 




IUn«tk - 



















IVital ... 




Doshasths nre returned as nutnbi-ring -34,001 and us found in 
»liiii>Ht i^vvry villngo. Tho name probably means loc»] or original 
rather lima BrfthinaDs of tjie Deccan plain as opposed to Br&bnianfi 
of tbu hilly Konkau. Of Ihc-ir origin or of thuir nrrival in the 
country they havo no tradition, 'fhoy are divided into Rifcvedis 
Bnd YaJDrvudis who eat together but do not intermarry. There 
ftre ilIho two other ttulKliritiionH, the M&dhynndin? nod the Atharvane, 
tlie kUdbyandiua hDiofr the follon-ora of a branch of the Yajurved 
Mid the Alharv&nK of the AMiarv, tho fourth of the four Vods, 
AthurvAQR are tnustly found in tho otisb of tho district aud Miidhyaii- 
dios scattered nil ovor tho district. Siit^ni Dovhaaths are rather 
dark, hut thuru iit liltto diiForence in make or appearance between 
Uiem and other local Uriihmans. Thoy are neither hnrdnorkiug nor 
BDlorprininR, ratherdirty in thvir balntH, idio, and untidy, but good- 
t«»ipere<l, noKpitahle, and gciieroua. Almost all are hereditary 
priests or village accountants ; moet of Uto rost aro in the service of 
Governmont n» clerks and sclioolnmaters. Saveinl Hrahmana of 
hereditary priest or village accountant families trade in grain or 
cloth or keep moneychanger's shopa and more mako thoir living 
Hs cultivators. Like other Ilnihinaiis they liave the cuKtom, when a 
ffirl coinee of age or la pregnant, of loading her through the streets 
ID procession accompaniud by women relations ana friends and 
music. In Uio itiontli of liJuhtrapail or Augost- September, for luck, 
knnrried women tie yellow threaas round their nocks. At tho end of 
(very family rcjoiciug, ubirth, a thread •girding, or a marriage, Uioy 
bire men to [Kirfurni tJio gowUml dance. Their customs difler 
little from those of tho Cbitpiii'an Br&htnans uivon in the Poena 
BtatisUrAl Acconut. Thwy MOiid their boys to sctiool and are well off 
enjoying quit-rout hinds or iiianw and yearly grants or varahiUant 
eillier from Goremment or from t}>o chi4>fs. 

DevTukha's, from tho R»lnilKiri vilUgooF Devrukb, are return- 
ed as numbering 172 and as found over tho whole distriot vxoept in 
Jftvli, M^D, Tt^sgoon, and Valva. Like Koukouatha or Chitpivons 

1 A lane rIistv of th« Binibi <9Mtc ilctaUa i* oompjlod trcm natcrula lUppUtd by 
^v Bab£lur fiiUfji Otagidbw StttM^ DUtnct Dcpatj CoUoctcr. 

Chaptn' nX. 






ipter m. 



tliey hne oome from the Eonkfts. They are Bomewbat darker lb*' 
KonkauBBtbs, httrdworking, and orderly. Tfaoy speak Manlthi, aitJ. 
oxcopt a few moneylenders and Government iicrvitDtii. ore UatUwii- 
era. They send their boys to hcIiooI and are well-to-do. 

Dra'vid Bra'hinans are rv^tumed as numbering 133 an4u 
found ill i^flt^ra, Kardd, Patan, and T&agaon. Tluiy aro uJd to lia 
come from the Tamil districts of Uodtss daring the Peabwa' 
Bapromacy (1 714-1S18;. They aredix-ided intoAyaa^uv and K' 
and tho names of their two chief bntily stocks aro Viahr: 
and Bb&radvdj. Portioiui bearing tho nme family name eat togetliff 
but do not intermarry. The namee in oommon nM amonf; mea wt 
()(i)>ill, It^mchandrn, Yjmnkatosb, and Apa, and among iraisn 
Min&kshi, F^r\'»ti, and Lnkithini. Tli<ry arc mtbiT dark^akinnedud 
■faaTa the face includiug the moiietache. Their women tattoo Uu^ 
brows to the oomerH of their oyee. I'hey speak Tamil at bome ifiii 
Maiithi abniad. Thej live in hoosei of uie l)ott«r sort one or t«o 
etorey» high with walls of bnok or stooe and tiled roofi). Tbey kerp 
servants and own cuttlv. They are regvtariana and droM tin 
Maritha Brihmana. Their women plait tlieir hair into bruda, eis 
falae hair, and deck their hoiuls with Bowers. They vroar the full 
Marfttba robo and bodice, but give tho hodioo ap aa soon as IIh? 
baoomo motbera. Their omanienia are the same aa those worn bf 
Mariitha Bnlhrnane. They are orderly, hardworking, hospitabl*. 
and fniguL Tlioy bnvo a coniiiderablo knowlodgp of the Vods and 
other Hr&hmana consider them of pure descent. I'heir name ia ood- 
neoted with tho tomplo of Yooleshrar ni'ai' S&tAra, which is ridilf I 
endowed with donations by the fUjiia of SiiUlm and ia eolirelj I 
mitnnged by DrAvid Brahmans. Besides living as b^gin^ Brdhmaai ' 
or Uiikshuhi they haw lukt-n tii triulu and husbandry. Tfae^ area 
religiouK pf'opio and are Shaiva by faith. Thoy wonhip the ordiaaiy 
Br^nmnic gods and goddesses. They go on pilgrimage to BenaRS 
and Rjucabvar, and their prie)rt« are weir own BnUim«iM. Tbt; 
beliere in witchcraft and spirit posneasion luid consult ondtL 
Their sacramente or eamthiirt are nearly the same m those <rf 
Dcslia^th BriLhmaQs. They send thoir boys to school and are in easy 

Golaks, also onllcd Govardbans, are returned aa numb^oe 
874 and iw found over the whole dintrict cxoopt in Pdtan, Mi^, oaS 
V&lva. They are divided into Band and Kund Oolaks, the Randl 
being said to be the uumo of a Bri'ibmnn and a Br&hmau widow, and 
thu Kunds the offspring of Brfihmati pareuu iu adultery. Tbn 
hold a low place among Bnthmans, othor Br&hmana neither oalinf 
cor marrying with them. They look and speak tike Deshafithi^ 
oud do not differ from Do^hasths in house, food, or dress. Thef 
are hardworking, fruj^al, iiuiot, and orderly. They are husbandman, 
moneychangers and lenders, astrologcdre and pHoeta to ManUhis 
and other middle and low class Hindus, llioy worship the ordiiMrr 
Br^manic gods and goddesi^cs and keep the nsnal Hindu fastt 
and feasts. Their priests belong to thrir own casto, and they settll 
social disputes at meetings of their castemen. They send '' '~ 
boys to sehool and are a st«<ndy class. 



Gajara't BriihmAnii arc roturnei] as nurobering llloaiid as toand 
ovur lliti whole district except ia JiLvlt, ii&a, and Khat^v. Thciy 
are strict vegetsriatiB and du nob oRt food cooked by ManltUft 
Bnlbmans, who in turo roluao to oat UioubIi they titko w&tor from 
Gujarat BrJilimaiia. Tlie men dress like Marf^lha BrdhmaoB ia the 
¥raistcloth, coat, tnrban, shoaldcrcloth, and Hhoos. The womcp 
-vrear Uio putticoitt, the open-backvd bodice, aud tJie robe &lliu)j 
from the hiiia ivittioaC passiiig tJie skirt back between the feet. 
They are thrifty, hard work in^, and hottpitnblo, and either bog and 
ofltaaU) M pnc«t« at the houitoi of Gujarilt V^nis or Eterro as writers. 
They are net settled in the district bat return to Gnjarat when they 
have put together Bome money. On tbu whole thoy are a atoady 
cIkm aud friw froiii debt. 

Ean&ujs are returned as numbering 164 and as found over the 
whole district except in PAtan. They arc strongly made people 
snd npeiik Hindustani. Tliey are vegetarians and ereat eaters. 
The iDGQ Qsually wear a waiEtcloth, a ooat, a shouldercloth, a head- 
scarf, aud shoes, and the women a poltic^nt, robe, and backlots 
bodice. They plait their hair iu braids which they draw baek and 
tie together at the back of the neck. They areclean, hardworking, 
and honest, being traatf^l stoldicrH and mo««engon. They n^t m 
primta to the local Pat-deahi or Upper Indinii castes. They are a 
Toli^oas people »lwuy.s bathing before they dine. They believe in 
witchcraft, sorcery, soothEaymg, omens, and lacky and unlackv 
days, and consnlt oraclm. Tliey hnvo a oasto oonncil and settle 
•oeial disputes at meetings of the castemen. They send their boys 
to Hcbool and are a steady people. 

Ka'nv BrAhmans nro rutnmod iM numbiTing forty-twe and aa 
found iji Sitters, Vilva, KanUl, Wii, Kh&n&^iur, and Korogaon. 
They are dark and tEirty. They are vegetanans and live and 
dress like Deshasths. Thoy are beggars, oooks, water-carriers, 
and a fnw are in the service of OoTernmeut. They are Yiy'iirvwdia, 
worship all Brtihmanic gods and goddesses, keep the nsual fa-its and 
toativaU, and go on pilgrimi^ to Pandhnrpar, Tnljiipur, Benares, 
and Pray&g or Allahabad. They believe in spirits and witches and 
lune the same manners and cnatoms as Bc-snasths, Tbey do not 
Allow widow inarriago. Tiicy arc bound together as a body and 
settle social dispntes at caste meetings. They send their boys to 
school, and arc a poor people. 

£arha'da's are returned as iinmbering 3837 and as foond over 
the whole district. They apparently take iheir name from the town 
of Kardd at the holy meeting of the Kn'shna and Koyua, and 
probably represent one of the early Brilhmnn settlers who took 
up his abode at tbis boly spot. According to the SahytLdri 
Khiiiid the KarhJldfis are descended from assoa or camels* benes 
which a magician formed into a man aud endowed with lifa Tkia 
story is apparently an ill-natured play on the words kar an ass and 
JUEiiabono. They are fair, intelligent, and short- tern jtered. They 
are priests, pleaders, landholders, moneychangers, and Uovernment 
Hcrviinls. Their muiiniTK and customs differ little from those of 
tlio Oeshastha with whom and Ibo Eonkuoiwths they eat, aud 

CSiapter til- 







IBomtwiy OuoUmt 





occnsionnllj-, but not genenllj, outny. Their honsohold godde« a 
Dur^^idevi to whom itppiirently they formerljr offered hunukn mumSsm. 
Tim victim <tn» genenitly a stmoger, bat tlie must pleasiniiF TJotim 
wnit Miid to be ft son-in-Uir. The death ww coumk] bj caMing tto 
victim's tliront or by poisoning him.' Thej send their hoy» to school 
and arc well-to-do. 

Ka'Bte iiru relurnecl as numbering' eighteen and as fonoj 
in S&utra and Fittan. Tbey have no subdiviHioos, spenk Mnrathi, 
and look like Dualinsth Brirbnums. They neither eat Qenh nor 
drink Iii|iior. They dresa like Dc^thaMthx, aud are bihrdnrorktng, 
<|uiet, aud orderly. They are hadbaiidmea, traders, and Qorero- 
Qient Bervan1«. They call thomsolvea BriUtmnoft, but are not 
ivllowod to j<iin with BnUimana in any ceremony. They are ooa- 
eidered half-MarAthd^ and half-BrtfhuiaiLs, aod strict Deafaastii 
and Eonkiuiaath Brdlunans hold their touch uucleua. They are a 
religious people, worship the nsani Br&bnianic gods and goddesaei^ 
and believe ut spirits and witchcraft. Their priests belong to thoir 
own cliutH, and Ihvy make pilgrimages to BunanM, Paiidharpiir, aad 
Tiiljitpur. They Head their boys to sohool and are woll-to-iio. 

KonkaaasthB or Cuiti-Atass are Petornedas numbering 8358 and 
a»fofindi>llov<.'r the district. A« tbeir uamo shows thvy hitvocomelo 
d^^t^ra from the Konkun where tlioir original seat seema to bavo beeo 
Chiplun or Chit&polau, a form which seems the probable origin lA 
their other name Chitpdvaa According to the Sahyftdri Kband th« 
ChitniiTans are apruag from the shipwrecked bouies of foreigners 
whicu Parashnrtfm, the destroyer of the Kshatriyait, raised to Ufa. 
Probably inoxt Konkanastha settled in the diKtriut during thu away 
of the Konkottafith Peehw&s (I7U-1818). They are divided into 
Kigvcdis.AshvalayanSjand ApsAtAmbhs or HiraDyukcDbi^ wbodiao 
togotbcr ami intormarry. Thoy are fair with Une fealnrus, often gny 
oyes.ondgenoraUy delicate frames. They speak Martfthi and ^nerally 
live in substanlinl bouses with mud or tiled roofs. Tbo m6Q wear 
a wntHtclolb, turban, ooat, waistcoat, shouldereloth, and shoes, 
and the women the fell Mar^tha robe and bodicei. Children of 
both sexM go naked till thoy aro liru or six yoars old, and after 
that a boy wear.i a loincloth, aud a giil a gown. They are Teg»* 
tarians and their staple food is rice, millet, palso, vogotablea, aud 
butler. Tli<-y are iatolligont, outerpriniug, hardworking, even- 
tempered, and boRpitable, but exceedingly cunning and tbriflv, 
always living within their income. Thoy live by pnoHtcraft, too 
iftw, and Go\-ernincnt servico. Some aro moneylenders, shopkeep- 
ers, and cultivators. They worship Jotiba, KhandolNi, Mhaauba, 
and 8atv&i, but thoir cbtef deities aro 8hiv, Vinbun, Gnnpali, 
Vithoha, aud Devi. According to the deities tbey hold iu chief 
estimation they are classed as Sbaivs, Vaisbnava, Giiiipntyoa, and 
Sb^kts. Koukana«tbs huro genoratly goddessos or Dovis ae their 
household deitios and in Uicir honour hold a yearly ^ondhal daocft 
Thoy keep all Uiadn fasts and festivals, and in almost crery fauitl 
18 a priest ealled ttj)ddht/a orpitrobit who olTiuiatos at thoir bo' 
Tlw Cbitp&vans are noticeable among WeHtcni India Dr&bmaoa 

■Sir John MaIuuIiii. I7O0 (Tiwwwtioiu Lilorary i^odety, BoaA*f iN.'w l>U[:<.i 
III. 03 ' Ml. Coii>[>u« under the name CMWOircoa tlio kmudI by SJjr ■' 







tliv extent to wliich the yoangor ni«n hiivo given np tbeir old beliefs 
KDil piunod uuder Uio influence of cn'taio European ideas. They 
sencl tbeir boys to school and are in easy circumetaQces.* 

Ma'rwa'r Br&hiuans nru rctiimeil as uumbcring Bisty-fiTo nnd 
M (ouikI in J6vU, SitUift, and Tdngaon, They Rpmk Itilrwfiri. 
Tlio men wear the top-knot, moustache, whiskors, and beard. 
They goncnilly Hvo in fiintd houHcs and aro strict vcgttturians, and 
among rogetablea refuse onions, garlic, radishes, carrots^ and other 
root planta. They do not eat or drink from Gujariit or Mar&tha 
Brdhiuans. Tho mon dress in a small tightly niUcd Mllrwitri 
turbau, alon^ tint! tight ooat,*waistcloth, and shoes; and the women 
tu a petticoat, an open-bmcked bodice, and a short upper robe which 
they oso as a rcil. They arc oxtromoly grasping and thrifty, but 
nrc ipiiet, ortlurly, and hospitable. Tlier officiate as priests to tbeir 
countrymen, and beg. They are not settled iu the district and return 
to U&rw&r when tltcy have made some money. They hold ctusto 
councils, send their boya to school, and arc a steady class. 

Plilsha'S, said by their rivals the Konkaiiaachs to bo I'alilshin or 
Fleah-eattrs but apjiaruntly from Palsavli village in KatyAn,* are 
retnruud hk numlKtring fiEty>thrue and as fonnd in Kbiiijlpar, 
Koiegaon, and P&tan. I'lieyhave no subdiviaions and are generally 
fair nnd middlo-sixud. Tliuir homo speech is Martithi. Tboy aro 
hardworking, frugal, hospitable, and orderly, and earn thtttr living 
as priests, astrologers, physiciana, and beggars. They are vegetarians 
and b're in middle cla^s houses. The men dress like De^liiiJiths 
in a vntistcloth, coat, waistcoat, turban, and shoes. The n-omen 
wear the full Marathn robe and bodice, and deck their bunds with 
flowers. Tht-y woi-ship the usunl Brtiimanic gods nnd eodduwHCS, 
Iteop the regular fasts and feasts, aud belong to the V/ijaaaneya 
H(ldhyandin branch of the Yajurved. Thoir family priests belong to 
their own ca«lo and they go on pilgrimAgM to Boonros, Pandharpnr, 
Fray^, and Uudb. They hold caste councils and settle social 
disputes at meetings of castomen. They eeud tbeir boys to school 
and ore a steady claaa. 

Sava'sha's are returned as nntnbering 187 nnd as fonnd tn 
SAtAra, Vilva, Tdsgnon, Korcgaon, and Karfid. The storv of their 
origin is tlint a Ur&hmao, who married a ChAmbh&r girl and was 
put out of caste, built a house with one hundred and twenty-Bve 
rooms and asked 125 BnUiiDons to dine at his house, holding out to 
each the prijmiso of a handaome gift and sucntcy. Tlio guests ono 
by one came and were feasted each in a separate room. When 
they had dono thoir mral alt met, nnd when the rest of the caste 
heard of what hnd happened thoy were turned out. Their women 
Rre generally handsome, and the men intelligent aud hardworking. 
Tbey aro moneyleaders and changers. Thoir customs are like those 
of other Urfihmans, and their religions head is MadbavAch&rya. 
They send their boys to school nnd aro well off. 

* X daUlloil kCDODiit of GiitpAvMi Bribmana ia given in th* Poona StatiiticaJ 

' Dstalb to* given in tbo Ttuba SUlUtica) Acooual wti«n r««io»a m« •Lown foe 
bellovbi; tbera to ba o( Onjuit oiifiin. 

Ohapttr I 





EBomba; O&tetteer 

Clutpt«T III- 
■ People. 





occaaionallj, but not. f^onerally, marry. Tlieir bonRelioM godAim M 
Durgiiiiovi to vrhoin l»pp»rciitty tlioy formerly offered human sacriflMl. 
The victim was g«Derally a atnui^it.-r, bnl ihit must pleasin); victin 
was said to bs a son-in-law. The death whs caused by cutting tbo 
victim's tbivut or by pouoaiof bim.' They Boud their boys to school 
And nn wvll-to-do. 

Ea'atS are returned sa numbering oighteen and tut found 
in Sfit)lra and PAtan. They havo do subdivisions, speak Martfthi, 
urid li»)k liko Ooshantfa Brtfhnmn*. 'ITipy npithcr tint flesh nor 
drink )it|Uor. They dress like De.^ha^t.h^, aud are hardworking', 
quiet, and orderly. Thoy aro husbandmen, traders, and GorerB* 
tncnt servitiibi. T)iey oall lh«m»clves Hrihmans, but aro not 
allowed to join with ilr^liaiaoa in any ceremony. They are oon* 
siderod half-Mariithiio and half-Bru'bmana, and strict Deshastli 
and KonkaniMtb Brdhmauit hold their touch uuclwa Thoy arc a 
reli^oua people, worship tbo usual Urdhiuunic gods and goddeaaat^ 
and believe m spirits »iid wilchcrnft. Their prirato belong to their 
own cla»3,aud they make pilgrimagos to Bouares, Pundltarnur, and 
Tuljdpur. They send tboir boys to school and are welUto-do. 

EonkanasthS orCniTi-AvANs arc returned as nnmbering 6399 and 
as foaudulli>vurtijo district. Asthiiiriinmc Hhuvr.i they hare come to 
K^Uira from tho Konkan whoro their original seat soema to have been 
Chi|>luu or ChiuLpolaii, n form which seems the probnblo origin of 
their other name Chitpdran. According to ihu 'Sithy^ri Khand the 
Chitcrfivans are sprung from the shipwrecked bodies of foroignere 
whicn Paraitlitiriifm, tho destroyer of tho (Cshiit riyna, niixud to life 
Proliabiy most Koukanaatbs settlnil in the district during tJio sway 
of tbo Konkauasth Peehwds (I71+-181S). Thoy are divided into 
Bigvcdis, AshvaUyauK, aud ApiMtanibhs or Hiranyakonhiit who din a 
together and intermarry. Thoyare fairwith lino features, often gray 
uyos, and gone rally delicate fntines. They apeak Martfthi and genorally 
live in Ruh^tantuil houses with mud or tiled roofs. IHio men wear 
a waistcloth, tuvbao, ooat, waifltcoat, shoulderclolb, and shoes, 
and tho women tha full MaMtha robe and bodice. Children of 
butb sexes go iiakod till they aro live or nix yearn old, and after 
that a boy wears a loincloth, and a giil a gown. Thoy aro vcge- 
tariana aud their ataplo food is rice, millet, pulso, Tcgvtables, and 
butter. They are intelligcut, enlerpriitiug, hardworking, eren- 
tumpored, and hospitable, but oxcoouiugly cunning and thrifty, 
always living within their inuonio. Thoy live by pri««tcraft, the 
law, and Government service. Somo are money lenders, shopkeep- 
ers, and cultivators. Thoy wor^thip Jotiba, Khandoba, Mbasoba, 
and Satvfki, but their chief deities ore 8hiv, Visbnn, Ganpati, 
Vilhoba, and Dori. According to tho deities they bold in chief 
ciHtimatiun thoy uro clnssod as Shaivs, VaiEhnavs, G<iiipatyaS| and 
Shilkts. KonkauasUiB bavo generally godde^es or l^evis as their 
household deities and in their honour hold a yearly ^onithiU dance. 
They keep all Hindu fikstt and festivals, and in almost evoiy family 
is a priest called nptidhijn or puro hit who offieiataa at their houses. 
TlieChitpiivans are noticeable among Western India Brahmans for 

' Sir John Mitlcotin. liiM (Tmatiiutioii* Lit^^nry i^lnty, Bonbftj (N'cv EditNn), 
m. 9S.9A, Compan.' uailci: Uic iiaiae Curwonum Uiu atuiwiuit t>T Sir June* HMkia- 
^iBBh (1811) mc, U. ta 

can 1 



Kayasth Frabhus are retarned as nnmberti^ SiO and as 
ioand over iho whole district except in P^tan. Thoy liave no 
inLdivisions and look liko MurMlia BriUtina&K. Tht>j- nro gi'uc-rallj 
fnir, middles ixod, and rorular featured. Tlie uk^ii kvo.p the topknot 
and niouetache, but Dot toe beard or tvliiskers, nnd the ivomen wear 
the balr Uud in a knot bebiod the head and deck Ihoir huada with 
flowors. Doth men and women dres9 and speak like MartLtlm Brah- 
mans, and, aalike'them, eat Ssh and Sesh and drink liqaor. They 
are neat, clean, hardworking, fnithful, and loral. They arc writers 
■md accountants and rng;ai'd clerkHhip as their birthright. They 
worship tho usual BrfLhinanic gods and goddi-sses, and observe all 
their'i aud ft>a«ts. Thc'ir priests aro DusIiaHth Itriili inau)< whom 
thoy pay jfroat respects They settle social dispat«s at mecLiiiga o! 
the caatemea, send their boya to school, and are a steady cXaaa. 

Pa'ta'no Prabhus are returned as aumberin? 196 and as found 
in all sitbdiiHsions except Khdnapiir, Koregnou, AtiiD, and Ttwgaon. 
They have lately cotiio from their homes iu Bombay and Thiiun in 
BCHrch of work, a ad are not reaidenta bat retura to their homes 
to m;irry their children. Thoy arc tierka and writers in 
Government service and are woll-to-du. Their social and roligwus 
Otistoms are tho same as those of the Thdna P^titoe Prabhns, and 
tliey do not diSor fiom their TLitna brethren iu look, food, dress, or 

Traders inelnde seven classes with a strength of 39,G38 or 3'8C 
per vent of the Hindn population. The details are : 

SdHrv Tradrr*. ISSl. 






Jblu* -, ... - 


[.inirtyBt Vtnb 

MumKii Ttnl 


Umlwlla .- 

•MtX ... 












iB.»it 1 n.ufi 1 

Gajara't Va'nis are returaed as oambering 17fl and as fennd 
Idtot tho whole district. They have e.Tslemen in the Konkan from 

lienor. Kxcept rich townsmen who live in two-storoyod brick-built 

looses, they generally live in one>storeyod hoiisea. They are clean, 

iTOn-temporeu, hardworking, and less exacting and more popular 

than MiirwAris, but they are wanting in vigour and enterprise. 

loy are traders, grocers, moneylenders, grain and cloth dealers, 

~ sellers of buttur, oil, and other miscellaneona articles. Thoy 

all Valabhi Vaishnava that is followers ot Valabfadchi&iTa. 

Lodich and other Gnjariit Brtihmans generally offiolato at the 


DtUUa an ^vob Id ttio ToaDa 8t«titcicU A«couat. 

i>ifr<(ji« iVoMiM; 


QiQartU Vdnk. 

' tBombAy I 

Chapter Ill- 





hnu»o8 of all GiiJAr&t Vnois. In tbuir nbHrnm KonkooasUi sad 
))(!Klinittli BriilituMiH conduct thoir mairiago, funer&l, and oclicr 
oereinoiiwfl. 'ilioy do not allow widow matriaf:^ and praotisc polj* 
KStnjibut not polyAndi-y. Except nnmnrriud childrua they barntliiir 
dead. All tliuir sixrial disputos nro ftoUled ut cnaUJ uic<Uiii^ bjr tU 
ciuttcmca. Thoy mnd their boys to school, and are ^uerally wel- 

Jaina,' or followers of Jin tbo Victorious, also called Shrilnla 
tbatisbcnroni, nro rctnrncil a» numbering HfibS. Tbey fona « 
iraportant part of the pomilatioa in Khdodpur, Tiagaon, Viin, 
anu other Hub-divisions. They owo their inHntiico to their IsnM 
intcroHt', tbcir indiiKtrlouit liahils, and thuir ivgard for ovory rarittf 
of animal life. Iti nm)eHratice and drees Jaina can scarcely H 
known from Kuiibi lanuholdere, and except a few who apeak Kinareoe; 
both at homo and abroad they spcnk Mar^thi. They an lii 
)mn1«at<working huKhnndmcn in the district, making good 
every adrantage of soil or eituation. Except the welUto-i 
employ labourers, the Jains, with tho hitlp of thoir 
Iiorforro ercry part of field work. At tho eamo time tilli 
caUinff not rocuminetidod by tltcir religion, aa animal Uf^ 
sciou^y or nnconsciouelj roust be destroyed. On this a_ 
ciiltivBting Jnins formed a distinct class with n b<gh pHcmt of 
own, who lives at Nandin.nvillago four miles from Unkli inT 
Though Htriot Jaina disapprove of cidtivators, tJiey do not eairj 
their objeetiona to the length of refaeing to dino with them. IV 
Jains, being mostly lillors of the soil, do not tnVe much interest in 
Eienditig thoir boys to school. Tbey are a well-to-do class. 

KomtiB' are retnmed aa onmbcring lo9 and as fonnd in 
Kanld, 3ivV>, KhAn&piir, PAtan, and T&Kgaon. They are oativM 
Tulangun or the Teliigii country, but ibey canaot tell whon tl 
came to Silt&ra. They hare no history and no aubdiviaii 
Their stirnnmosan) Utukhilr, Kcshui'khar, Pol&v^r, ChintalT&r, 
Jtiichuv&r. Tho numcs in oommon n^o among men aro Pu« 
Shivaya, Itflmaya, K rishnaya, and K4jaya ; and amung women Gl 
Shivbiii, Bhdgiibk), and JaniLbiii. TLey aro dui-k, middlo^sixed, 
s])aro, and thoir homo-spooch is Telogn. They own houses 
two storeys liigh and keep them neat and clean. They are vogci 
and their staple food ismillet, rice, and vegetables. Thoy aru tempenlP 
in onling, ^od ooukx, and fond of sour and pungent dishes, 
drink a liquid preparation of hemp flowers, but not Ilcini 
emoke toba«co, hemp, and opium. TI10 nioti drees like d 
in a waistclotb, coat, turban, sbouldorctoth, and ahoes, and 
women in a robe and bodioo. The women wear taiso hair and tic Uii 


I Jain det^l* ar* girao in the KolhAimr SCatisliaa] Aeoaiini. 

■ AainNfaik (Bombnj GwKltnr, xVl. ^59) thawOTdKnDitiiiuattdiB SlUndtM ' 
dutinet oliwwi. a «1ub of ahopkBeiiL-n nod ■ tribe of wmouvring IxiggKn mni ahm- 
Mllora. Tba ■ppliculitni ol tho lOitiie nntiic to tw> <1utiiiat vImhus Muigsrts UmI Ita 
iwina i» » pLaoo ur ilittrict lumo. It nccms pouibUi that Kointi in a aUoftaiail Ui* 
of Kninomothi, pmiKirly KMiimnmclti, fmm tho dlatriot KaiaiuamcneU ia lb* 
Nluku'i wantry, Kiniiilii liku Kitnti it opiJied to mora than oas diatloot elan m' 
It ■oonu poMtliio that liku Kuuiti K&iuiiUii aomo* from Kaminainmetli. 



bair in a knot at the back of tJio liufuL Tlioy wear fflasa boiiglm and 
their orDamoiitii are the eame aa tboae of Mariitba Bi-dbmaua. Tliey 
are n tniUl, honvnt, ordurly, and hardworking puoplu. Moat of them 
are grocurti, dilating in spioeii, aalt, grain, butler, oil, inolmiftw, aod 
Bagar. Tbeir customs from birtli to death are the same aa those of 
theShol'ipur Komtis.' They nro bound together by a strong ooate 
feeling tunl itvttlv aovinl disputes ut ca-tto meotiugs. They »vud ihtiir 
boya to school for a abort time and are a jwor people. 

Tiinga'ya.t Va'nia* oreretamed 08 iiun)beriQg'17,25o and aafoand 
' in iitl [Kii-t:* <jf the diatrict, OHpocially in Khiinnpiir, Tiisgoou, nod 
] Vttlva oil tlie boniors of tho KAiiart'so country. They are divided 

to Paiicbains, Shilvants, Tilvanta, and Tirolcs. Of these tho 
ichaiuq nnd Tirulos eat together, though I'anL'bums wilt not eat 
<m Tirulos. Some Shilvnota eat fruiii tiono of tho other 
Babdiviaions. None of the four interninrry. They are dark and 
middlo-siKcd. Tho mon wear tho top-kaot and muuntncbo but not 
tbu whisttLTM or bvaii). With Hoinuoxcoptious, both at homo and 
abroad, they npeak Murathi. Hxci-pt n few wlio live iu liirge towns in 
well built houses, they generally live iu small one-atoreyed dwellings. 
They kvup hunifta, cows, luid buffaloes, and pay thoir ncrrants^ ifa. 
to IQs. (Hi. 4-5) a month tM wagos. They aro modemtu eabom, nud 
tht^ir staple food is rice, millet, pulRo, and vegetables. They have a 
a Htrong dislike to fiosh, fiuh, and liqiior, and constdur all food 
polluted even by the touch of a Br/ihmivu. The men dreas iu » 
waixtcloth, turban, coat, and shoes, and tho women in tho full 
Afanttlui robo and bodice. Both raon and woinon rub thoir brows 
with white oowdung ashes or dhtum instead of with sandal and 
rodpowder, and tie a liui; round their nocka. Tho women tio tho 
hair in a knot at tho back of the head, and do not use falsv hair or 
deck their heads with llowora. Thoy are generally evon-tomporod 
and hospitable, entertaining any guest that hnppena to come to 
thoir houaes, ospocially if he is a Lingdyat. They aro a mercantilo 
people and follow varioua branches of trade. They dcul in cloth, 
ffrain, oil, butter, moIae»c«, and angnr, and are moneyleudora 
husbandmen and labourers. As londorft they aro less pushing than 
Milrwttris. DilTerunce of profession is admitted to make a groat 
social diSerence, still it docs not provont thum from iutormiurying 
or dining together. They worsaip all tho Briihnianic gods ana 
goddeaaw, and keep the usual fasts and festivals. But thoir chief 
god is Mahdder and they keep the fasts ttacrod to him with special 
care. They hold that no true beliovor can be impure, and tht^refore 
diKregurd thu BrAhmauic rules of oeromonial impurity, A Jnugnm 
or Lingiyat priuit officiate at their houses, and Wh a Bnihniau aud 

Jangam attend their marriages. If a boy ia born to a barren or to 

danghttir-atnckeu con])le or if a boy recoverii from sovi'ro sickneas 
it is not unusual to dvvoto him to servo iu a Jangani monastery or 
math. All Lingftyats botli men aud women wear the /inj. Tho 
ling is put round the babe's neck on tho lifth day after bitih by a 

Chapter in. 



LiHi;rtyal Pi£ 

' Koiuti iIdIu.!* are given in tlio RhoJiintr SUtUtlol Aooiuit, 

■ Lin^-iyat VAai deUil* k« ipvuu iu tbu Sliol&piir Sl«tMliMl AtMoaut. 

[Bombaj QuettoerJ 




Chapter III. 


Liwjiiyiii t'ltnif. 

Maniiha YdnU. 

irdrmfr VdvU. 

Jangnm who hnn<3» it tu tho mother, by wbom it ia kept till tbe 
ia eeveii years old. Tbe ttliild thea wears it witb certain religic 
rit«» Olio of which in n caato fesuft. Their marriago cuRtotnt 
rit«8 w-e the aame a« thosu of poasant AlAr&thi*. They bu 
their dead and In all caaes a tomb ia raised on tbe spot with 
inscription sod n Ung cograved on it. ilany of thorn obsorvo 
mntiniing on the occasion of a dL'nth, nor du Iho woinea sit 
tbetnselvea dnring (heir monthly sicknesH. Tlie Ling&yats are caret 
to obey tbo orders of their epiritnal heada who live in monaster' 
of which Uiore are thrt-o witnin HAldra Umittt, at Aiindh. at Mohunlj 
in Kanid, and at Nimaod in KhalAv. Their aocial dispotes 
nettled by n tnuotiug of the caste at vrhicb a Jauf^m preddee 
a majority of votus carriea the point. The boya Iram to mad 
write MaKltbi and to cast aooounts. Thoy are u pmsperona peopti 

Hora'tha Va'nis are returned as numbering 8243 and as foood 
over tliv whole dittlrict. The men are middle-sised, dark, and stout 
and the women are fair. Their liomo l<.i)iguo is Mai^ii, and the 
art! traders, ehopkeeucrs, and huHbandintMi. They oat fiab and fl« 
and drink lioiior. The tneu dress like BrAbmans, in a waistcloUiJ 
coa^ shonlueroloth, heatlscnrf or turbttn, and shoes or sandaUJ 
Tfao women dross in the full Iklaritlui robe and bodice like BriLbmao' 
women, dniwtii|{ the akirt of the robe back between the feet. Thoy 
worship the usual BrAhmanic gods and goddesses, koop tho ordinaijj 
fasts and feasts, and go on pilgrimagofl to Aliiudi, Be 
Jojuri, I*«iidharpnr, and Tiiljipiir.* Their priests are Des 
Brilbmans to whom they pay preat respect,. Thoy hold cast 
councils, send their boys to Bchoo! for a short time, and are t% i 
class, making enough to maintain themselves nud their fainiliea 

Ma'rwa'r Va'nia are retnmod as nnrabering 275 and as foo 
in one« and twos in every large village in tbe district. Thoy 8[ 
M&rwiri at homo and incorrect Mardthi abroad, llioy koop theif_ 
honsea clean, and [raint the walls with bright fanlANtic colonra. Tho 
men drcBB in a eloso fitting turban, a waiatcloth, and coat, and the 
women wear the o]>cn-biicked bodice, n petticoat, and a short robe 
drawn up from thu petticoat band and falling like a veil over the 
head and face. Above the elbow and on tbe wrists tbey wear gold 
ornaments, but their chief ornaments are ivoiy bracelets, llieir 
food is wheat, poise, butter, oil. and sngar. Thoy take much less 
care of their persons than of their hounes. Their women, except oo 
great occasions, arc slovenly, but tbe men generally baiho daily. 
The features of the men are more sti-ongiy marked and Uioy are 
sturdier and more active than Oujariit Vduis. nie men shavo 
tbi! head leaving thrco patches of hair, a top-knot and a lock over 
eacli oar. They have a bad name for hard and tmfiiir dealing. 
Besidea lending money they deal in cloth, grain, pnlse, oil, butter, 
and various other articles. In religion thoy are either Vaishnavs 
or Shrdraks. The midn-ife who generally belongs to tbo Maritha 
caste attends a lying-in woman for twelve days during which the 
mother is held impnre. The midwifi- biithcs the rootiier and child, 
daily, and keeps cowdiiug cakea burning under the mother's e 
On the GlUi day tho moUicr worships the goddess Chbatti, and, on I 

Deccan 1 


following morning, ties a ^Men image of Chbatti ronnd the child's 
neck. On tho twelfth day the house is cowdnn^d, tho doUieB 
of tho mvthur nod child are washed, and & ivw near wonwn 
rolfttions nro aaked to dine. The mother, itfter won<hippiiig tho 
planets, tho sun, and tho earth with flowera, becomes puro, and 
:i8 at liberty to mix with th» house people. On tho Dame day 
tin Upper Indian ilMbmau priest gives the child a namo and ia 
paid 'M. (2 as), and the women gnottls retire with a present of wet 
gram or gh«^«. Tli«y many their girls hoforo thoy arc fifteen, 
and hold a betrothal ceremony at which they present tho girl 
with a rupee and a silver finger ring, and fill her lap with rice, a 
'cocoaniit, aitdbotc-1 luavos. Aftor this tho marriagv may take plaoo 
'nt any time and is generally hold within a year or twa I( tho 
parents of tho girl are poor the boy's father has to give the girl's 
[father money. They build no marriago altur, got no waterpota 
jfrom tho potter's, plant no lucky post iu tho booth, and womhip no 
laprays of lucky trees as marriage gnardiaus. The two chief heads 
'of expenditure in a Mirwdri marriago are caste dinners and 
oi'naniente. Except tin w tan cd children thoy bum the dead, and 
if tho dvcea»(!(l has died un an imlucky day they carry on tho 
bier along with the deceased a dough human figure and bum it'with 
tho body. Thoy bitliovo that if a figure is not burnt, some one of 
tho deceased's family will shortly die. The chief moumor doott 
not sbavo his moustache, neither doos ho carry the fire ta his hands, 
but it is taken by their ca^to barber in a copper toshoI. Aftor the 
Ijody is bnrnt the mourners bathe, roturn home, and purify ihom- 
setves by drinking cow's urino. The family of the deceased observo 
no mourning, and foast the casto on tho twelfth day after death. 
They hold awte counoiU and settle social dinputes at casto meetings. 
Their boys learn to read and write either at school or from their 
fathers at home. As a class they are well-to-da 

Ta'inboliS, or B«tcl -sellers, are K'tnmed as numbering 2C7-t 
and lis fuuuJ over the whole dintrict mostly in towns. They are 
said to have oome into the district from the Kamiltnk ton or twelve 
f^enerations ago. They are divided into Liogdyat, Mardtha, and 
MumlmAa TAmbolis. Tho following particulars apply to the 
Jjinguyat T&mbolis. Their surnames are Dnlre and Jeble. Thounmea 
iu common use among men are Dbda, Ilari, Krishna, Miiruti, K^ma, 
and Vithoba; and among women Bhdgn, Chimna, Gaja, Kosa, 
Kiiklinii, and Thaku. Their home speech in MitrAtbi and ihcy look 
like peasant Mar£tUds. They live in neat and clean houses of ths 
poorer sort generally one storey high with walls of brick and tiled 
roofs. Most of thorn kc«p cows and sho-buffaloes, and almost 
all of them liavo ponies for bringing home packets of bsttd 
leaves from villages and gardens outside of tho town. Tbey 
are moderate enters, luid their staple food is millet, vegetables, 
pulse, and pungent and soar condiments, lliey do not eat fiah or 
flesh, neither do thoy drink liquor. Their holiday dish is gram 
cakes or pumnjio/w. The men dress inashort waistclothor rmnc/ia, 
a coat, waistcoat, headscarf or tnrban folded after tho Gujarat Vitai 
biehion, ahooldeivlotb, and shoes, and the women in arobo and bodioe 

Chapter III- 


Jfifrwifr r^nj*. 


[Bombay Gaiet 



Chaptw in- 



vrom llkii ibosc of poasAut Mar&thiia. Tlio moD woarguld earring 
finger rin;^, and a silver wiuMtubiiin, kiid tlio women tbe black 
bead uecklnce with a gold button, glass baoffles, and silver or ' 
metal toe-rings. They also wear gold and sdver earrings and i 
lacoB, and the woll-to-do hixvu ricb cluttics and urnamonts for 
ing on K|)ecial uccaaionit. Ak n olaas they are orderly and thr 
They sell betel leaves, nuta, cement, tobacco, and tho spices 
in chewing packets oi botol leaves, ax cardamoms, cluvos, 
maou and nutmeg, catochu, inuHk, and nafTron. They buy leave* 
tbirty-Hix kavlw or packets, each kavli containingfive hnndred leai 
for £1 4«. to £1 10s. (Us. 12-i5J and sell them retail making a prof 
of Cs. to 8«. (Its.3-4) on every thirty-six kavUa. Their women 
not help them in tlieir calling. Some are aliw> huHbandnien, 
others house servants and IdJourers. Thev are a religioos peopi 
devoted to tho worship of Shiv. They worship all Hindu gods and 
goddesses and keep ibo regular fusts and fustivulM. They maki 
pilgrimages to Jcjuri and Paudliarpur and believe EhauJoba i 
bo an incarnation of Shiv. Their priests are Jangams. but bd 
Jangams and Bnihmaus officiate at their coremome«. Thoy boHoT 
in witchcraft iind spirits mid coiihuH or»clos, and, although tho 
thiifk tliat the simple besmearing of the brow with ashes remove 
impurity, tbey hold a mother impure for twelve days after child 
birth. For tho first five days nfter childbirth tho mothor and et 
are dnily nibbcil with oil and lutineritt, and, in tho morning of %i 
Ofth day, the family Jangiim ties a ting round the child's neck. Ii 
the evening the midwife worebipe the goddess Satvii in the mothor'a 
room, and tho mother and child bow birfuro it. On tho afternoon < ' 
the twelfth day kinswouion, frie)id», and neighhuura present thol 
child with caps and jackets, and putting it into a cradle give it aJ 
name. Tho oxpeuHcs for the first twelve dajrs vary from 10«. tol 
£1 lOii. (It.H. 5- \b). Among them tho boy's father has to look Cor 
a wife for hLs son and if the girl's parents are poor tho boy's 
father has to give tho girl's father £5 to £10 {lis. 60-100). 
■The coromony of bdrotbtti or sdkharpudais not necessary. When 
betrothal is performed, both fathcrit exchnngo presents ol clotfaos 
and the girl's father in addition has to feast tho caste. Their 
marriage god is tho branch of&jiimbhui tree which they tie to the 
marriage hall along with ii bclolnut folded in a pioco of yellow cloth. 
They rub the girl with turmeric and send wbnt a over with ninsio 
to the boy's. At the girl's, in addition to the marriage hall, they 
rMse nn earthen altar and plaoo earthen pots which they bring from 
the potter's, and, after marking them with red green and yellow 
lines, set tliem round the altar. In the evenmg the l)oy is taken in 
procession to tho temple of tho village MAniti, followed by hia 
Fister tarrying a plate nitli a lightod dough lamp, a pot containing 
cold water, covered with a cocoaimt, rice, and n nmnll wooden box 
containing redpowder. From Mili-nti's temple the boy goes to tlie 
girl's and sits iu the booth. In the booth the Brituman priort 
makes a square of whont grains, aud, on this, tho boy and girl ait 
&cing each othdr. A piece of cloth is held Iietweeu them and tho 
Brahman priost repoaUi tnurriagc verses, and, at tho end, throws 



PWB over their boadii. Th« cloth is pnllcd to one siilo, the other 
Ipiflsts throw f^aiuB of rico over their hcadx, auii the boy and girl 
nnt hti.'jbnnd and v'lte. Tho bov and girl are taken before the 
Jloiue goilii, whcro th«y bow, and, aft«r dining togothor from tho 
lihe same plato, are taken outKido and !ioat«d in tho booth. Tho IJntti- 
man priost rubs their browB with rcdpowder, and sticks rice grains 
over tbo powdur, and kinsfolk and Crienda, waving coppor and silver 
ooins round their hciulti^rop thorn into a ditih Imd in front. Tho 
money waved is made oyer to the uiusiciana. Presents of clotfaea 
aro oxchangcd, and, after a feast to the gaosts, the boy r«tanis 
home with hisbrido in proCMiiion iicooinptkniod by rohitionB, frionds, 
neigbboars, and mnsic. A Ttimboli's wedding costs £20 to £40 
(Bb.200-400> of which U. to 6*. (RB.2-3)go to the Brfihmaa 
pri«i<t as biis inarriugc foo. When a girl oomos of age sho is aucleim 
for fivtt days, during which alio is fod ou sweot diiihes. On tho 
morning of either tJie fifth or tho seventh day she is bathed in 
imrm watw and her mother preeents her with a new green robe and 
bodici^ And bor husband with n DOW tnrban. Tho mother then fills 
the girl's lap with five kinds of fruit, and, when the rest of Uio 
household go to bed, she joins her husband. This costs £1 Ui.£2 
(K^. 10-20), 'fhi^y bnry their dead. If the deceased is a married 
woman, she is drostted in a grcon robe nnd bodice, hor head Is 
deckiiJ with flowers, her brow marked with redpowder, and either 
her ihiuglitor or hor danghtcr-in-htw waves a lighted lamp before 
• her faca The chief monrner walks in front ofUie bier, while n 
! Jangam blows a conch shell beside him. On tJie way to t^e barial 
LMffonnd tbe monmora bait, place a piece of broad on tho «pot, 
B«t the bier, nnd tho besrcrit change places aDdgoou. At tho 
wraing ground they lower the body into the grave already dug by 
Vhin, Slit, and after paying the Mhiirs U. to 2>.6d. (B3.I-II), 
bnthu and return to tho mourner's. On tho third day tho chieE 
mourner goes to tho burying ground, sprinkles cowdung on the 
ffrave, and lays a stone over it. Over this stone he spriokles cow's 
dang and urine, and, throwHng turmeric and redpowder over it, 
offora it rico mixed with curd:<. Ho goes to a sltort distouoo, and, 
after a crow has tnnohed the rico, bathes and returns home. On the 
fifth day the family Jangam rubs ashes on the chief moamer's brow 
and he becomes puro. On tbo sixth diiy tho caste is given a foaat. 
and, on the tonth, rice balls or darfnitil are offered in the name of 
the deceased and thrown into a stream or water. The Jangam and 
Brfihroan priests are presented with money and tho funeral coro- 
monies aro over. A T^boli's funoml ooHts £1 lOo. to £i (Bs. 1&- 
20). Tboy are bound together by a strong caste feeling and settle 
aocial dUputos at meetings of the caste. Tho nutltorily of caste 
daily grows weaker. They send thoJr boys to school and keep them 
nt school till they know to read and write a little and vRst tkocounts, 
As Unsalmiins and Mai^lhdM have of Isto taken to betol k-af M'lling, 
tbo Lingiiyat TilmboUs havo suffered from the competition and are 
not so we11-to<do as they nsed to b& 

Husbandmen include two cUasesVith a strength of 008,108 or 
C5'41 ]>er cent of the Hindu population. Tho doUiils aro : 

Chapttr in. 





(Bombajr Qu«neer.l 




S'iMra liutliOMiiimai, ISSl. 











aw,«K) [ ji>fr,in» 


Knnbis nro retarnudas nuiuberina^ oB'i.'t'H^ »nil ns found ow 
th» wliriltt district- They say tUat the foaoder of their caslo iros tliV'' 
sa^ Kfishyap, eltkI tbiit ihey cume into the district from il&rvitr, 
Joohpur, ami Udopur ii bout thirty genenitionB ago. They aro said 
to hnKve sprung frout ninety-aix claDa. Among llieir siirDaaies aro 
Oiar&u, GiiikAv&d, Jildhuv, Shinde, and Sirke. Tbs namM ii| 
common use among men arcOoviad, Fanu, RAmn, and Shido, and 
nmoug wotuea, Bhilgirthi, Ganga, Ctoira, Knlchmn, and Uina. 
SAtAra Kunbia are dark uiJddlo-sizod and hardy, and their home 
tonguo is MarAthi. Their practicu of kooping cattle in their 
houses generally makes them dirty. Their houeo goods inclada 
field tooU, metal and earthen vessels and pans, a grindstone, ft 
handmill, and a pestle and niortar. Thoy are moderate eaters and 
their staple food is millet, pulse, vegelahlo^, fruit, roots, spicos, oil, 
and buttor, and, be&idea fish, fowla, egga, sheep, and goats, they oat 
the flosh of the wild hog. doer, and hare. Beeiaes iraterthey drink 
milk, whoy, aiidlitiuor, and amnke and cliow tobacco. The mon 
dress in a waistcloth, jacket, shouldereloth, turban, and shoo, and 
while working in the fields in a loincloth and blanket. The 
women wear a robo and bodice, rab thuir brows with redpowdor, 
and do not detrk their hair with Bowera. They are hardworking, 
temperate, hospitable, and among themselves honest and just, Mosfej 
of them are husbandiocu, and thoy arc helped in their work by the 
womenand children. They worHhipall Urdhnmiiic godsand god-^ 
des.tea and keep the usaal fasts and feasts. The chief Knnbi holidaysj 
are the Hindu N«w Year's Day in April, Akshifritiyit or tnel 
Undying Third in May, N'igpanchini or tlio Cobra's Fifth in August^ 
Potii or Bullock Day in August- September, Dagara in Septembeirj 
Itivdli in October-November, Champaghashthim December, Sankrdw 
on the 12th of January, the fnll-moen day of ^fngh or PcbruaiT- 
March called Naeyi'ichipmiav, and Shimja or Holt iu Uarch. Thoil 
fast days are the fonr Mondflys and Saturdays of 8hrava>t or Jnly- 
Angust, Narrtitra the first nine days of Athvin or Staple mber- October ^ 
the two Ekiiihinhis or Kleventha of AehUih or July-Augusl, IlarUUHca* 
and Rifh Panchavti in Angus t-Scptembcr, and Sh!i:r(ilm in February. 
Besides on those days some fast on all Mondays Saturdays Snn days 
and Tuesdays of the year. 'I'heir favourite gods are BahJroba, 
Mbaskoba, and VAghoba, and their chief goddesses are Mari&i, 
MukAi, Satvlli, and Tukii whoso images thoy have in their 
houses. They greatly respect Br&huianR and call them to officiato 
at their houses. Their religious teachers aro Gos&vis, whose 
advice or vpjruh they take. They bolieve in spirits and witch- 
craft, and stand in great awe of gliosts and evil spirittt. For 
her first confinement a young wife generally goes to 
pareuta' bouse. When ^o is deUvurud, the midwife. 





^ncntlly belongs to the mother's family, spHnklos a little cold trat«r 
over tlifi babo'rt stoiniu-li, unci euin its nitvol cord. Slic puts the cord 
in an e&rlhea jar aloug with the afbor'birlh, a little tnrinonc iind 

I n-itgxjwder And net?, and buries it ia a hole in the mother's room. 

I The iiiotherand child arc bathed in vmriii water and laid on the cot, 
and, that they may not suffer from an attack of cold, a dinh of lire 

' charcoal i^ placed under the cot. The child is fed by sucking cotton 
Boakod in castor-oil and tho mother is given nesafcctidn, butter, 

|»nd poppor, To etrengllten them, after childbirth women aro 
aUogiren gnnthavda a tonic of dry ginger, gum, clarified butter, 
I dry datea, dry cocna^lcornel, and the roots of the taphet mu»ti 
Carculigo alba. For twelve days a lamp is kept burning near 
ibe inotlicr and child. The laps of the midwife and of some 
married women are lillud, and they are presented witJi tiirraerio 
and redpowder and retire. A UuUiman astrologer is called who 
refers to hia almanac and finds out a name for the child, and 
retires witli a prei«ont of either grain or money. But the child ia 
not always called by the name chosen bv the Ur&hman. Oti the 
lUKHind day, if the bmily ia well-to<doand the child isa boy, neighbour 
women and the wiviis of kineroeu and friends pour potA full of coM 
water on the road in front of the house, and, on the twelfth day, arc 
tnitited to a ft.tist, and preeented with robes and bodices (>u the 
third day the motlier begins to snckle the child. For foiir days 
eho is hold impure, and, except the midwife, no one loaches her. Oa 
tbo fifth the mother and child are bathed, the bongo is cowdunged, 
and all clothes are wa.'thcd. On this day the mollier eats nothing 
bnt dry cocoa-kernel and dates. In the ereniog close to (he mother's 
bond and feet two human pictures called BalirAna are drawn with soot 
or charcoal on the walls of the mother's room with their hmil.-^ turned 
in oppotiiutdirectioaa. In a comer of the room is placed a grind* 
, atone and on it a silver image of Satvii worth a penny or two, made 
f l>y a local goldsmith. The midwife ties a red cotton oord or nada 
' round it and lays before the imago a lemon, a coil of thread, packets 
' of redponder and tui-merio. pomefp-anate lIowerG, fraokmcense, 
loaniphor, five dates, five butclnntK, five hal res of dry cocoa-kernel, 
a finjipiar coin, betel learcs, pantli>y seeds, orris root or vnkhaini, a 
marking-Dut, and a piece of block cord. By the side of the image 
of Satvii is laid the knife with which the navel cord wsk cuI^ In 
the same way the bathing spot and the figares of Italintna are 
worshipped. Some lay a sword by the side of 8atr&t and some 
lay a pen, paper, and inkstand. Rico, vnrnH or KpHt pulse, vegetables, 
uuHtuHed cakes or/je/ic, fried wheat cakes called knnol'U, and. at the 
bouse of some, goat's flesh are laid before SntvAi. Kriondii and 
■ relations are asked to a feast, and stay tip the whole night, seated on 
small square Uankots or ehamilea, singing ldvni« or luillad-t. A lamp 
of wheat flour, fed with oil or clarified butter, is kept burning 
near the imago of Satv&i. The child is not allowed to look at the 
lamp, as if it does not see the lamp atrhight it is sure to get a 
•qumt. On the sixth the ofEoringit made to SotTdi are not removed, 
and the mother and child are not bathed, llio mother is fed with 
the feed cooked ou the iiflh day, as it is belicTOcI that after the 

Chapter '. 

(Bombay GautUer. 




Satvfii ceremoo; tbe moUior's ontio^ stale food does not gim tto 
child «tomacb-aclie. On Die sevcntli day the midwife ^atliera the 
oSoringR aud the ima^fo of Satv&i in a cloth, uid lays them near tbe 
batbinc oonior or tuori. Slio bathm the child mail robs it witb 
oil, and bnthes tlie mother but without rubbing her with uil. After 
tlio bath the mother is given a litUe tnrmeric powder mixed widi 
oil and water and one or two half coooii-kunivK Sho wrorms herMtf 
witli a chafing dish and is laid on the cot. On the eighth day tbe 
motbvr is given complete rest. On tlte ninth ilay the groond of tbr 
]ying-in room is cunlc^d with cowdnng, and tlio muthor and child are 
rubbed with » mixture of turmeric luid oil, and Imthod. Tho mvUin 
is fod with ordinary food cooked iu the house. On the tenth the 
uiotber loses all impurity. Shu isbathud from head to foot and hfr 
room is cleaned witii cowdung. Iliu child is bathed iiud laid in* 
banket. On the eleyonlh the child is bathed ami for hoiiio time i»li»d 
in a basket. Ilisiugcnrly on tbu twelfth, the midwifo cleans the room 
moving tho cutoataide, balhuatho child, atid layn it in h b.iskct. .Slw 
rubs the mother witli fragraut ointmenta and bathes her mid brin^Dg 
back tlie cot tells her to lie on it. Turmeric powder, redpowder, aod 
red sugar nru laid before tho bathing Mpot or men* and it is wasbol 
Thfi motlier takes her child and walks out of the house od a equsre 
blanket or chaudle or on a sheet. She then goes outaide of ibt 
rillago to a tiii'/ttif orothvr tree under which aru five stones tbt 
abode of the goddess Batv^i. Thette she washes, layit llotvcra, powdir 
packete, and thread coils or iidda pudit before them, burns UMcnsi 
and marks Ikt brow with n«hea takon from the inconse- burner. Sh) 
bows to the goddess, Euying ' Tho child is not mine but yours, kin<llf 
keep it healthy.' Unwidowed women or nardAAtaa are attkod toafmit 
of nee, split puUo, vcgotabli-s, and unstuffed cakes w poUt. If tkt 
fAmily Uvea in a town this feoet is held in front of tJio bouse. On 
the thirteenth a wooden cradle is hung with aatring six or seren fort 
long fastonod i^ithor to tho right or left side. About four or fivais 
the uvcoiug five or six unwidowed women are given betel-leavea aad 
whole-boiled gram or wheat. A stone pin used in ponading reliBlM 
or c/iatnU is woshod, dressed ia a child's cap aod hood, and a gold or 
ailror wire or tari in put round one of it« ends. Under tJie cradles 
white sheet is laid and folded four times, and round tbo four sidees 
square or r-kauk of whc-at or rice is traced and a second slu-et is synmi 
over it. When all is ready tho stone pin, which is called Uopyi^ u liu<l 
in tho cradle, and tbe motlior is soaled niider the cradle ou the while 
uhoeL After a short time tiopya is taken ont of tbe omdie and Ih* 
child is dressed in a cap and a^hood or kunchi, and, to keep off iht 
evil eye, ita uyelids, left (.-licek,' right hand, aud left footaro toocW 
with collyrium or lamp-black, and, while some of tho women sing 
Rdm's cradle song, the child is hiid in the cradle. Boiled gnun or 
whi<atcnllod ^Aui^m are scattered along the aido of the cradle, tht 
cradle is rucked by tho unwidowed women, and the child ia gonenllj 
girenany name chotsen by the BrAhman astrologer or by the marriM 
women gucat« if the astrologer's name doM not suit their btaej. 
If a mother has lost aovcral infanta, she names the next child Dtgii 
or Dlioudo, that is stone apparently with the object of cboatiog ll> 

evil spii-ita into tlio idea Uiat the child is not vaJtied and is not 
worth (ittnyinfT oH. If the bab}* crius much it is Bamed after its 
father's father or raolhur, iw it is aapposod tluit their spirit has 
coma into the child. After the child baa been named the vromen 
kiMM it ftnd pray God to kcop it in health. After naming the 
child Uiey Intnd the ffu«3ta the ffhugrU or whole-boJIdd gmm 
B.nd wheat, saying ' Take this gram and take onr bat or babe to 
pltty.' Boys are married butwoun Rftoon and twonty-firo and 
(firla bfiforo they comw of ogo. Aa a rulu the propomla of 
tnarrinfire come from the boy's pareuta. Before accepting the olTor 
the boy's futhor makes afnlliTtquity regarding thogurnnmo, family> 
and rolatiuRB of the girl'a fiithi-r. When he is natistim) on th«so 
points the boy's falber goes with frtendii and kinafolk to the girl'ti, 
miirkpt her brow vitb redpowder, touches her brow with a rupbo, 
and Iflya Iho rupco in her nands. Thv girl itt given a smitll robe, a 
bodice, and some ornameatit, and h«r grandmother and her matcmni 
undu'ii wife are presented with two robes worth 5«. or C«.(Il8. ?-i-9) 
and called njUhir or grandmother's robo and vuielunchir or nnnVi 
robe. The girl's father asks the boy's father and his kinsfolk, and 
bis own friends and kiiwpeople, to a feaat of cakea or polia eitkor 
stutfed or nnstiiffod. When tuo feast is over a BrAhman is called to 
Sx the marriage day and is paid by both fiithers. If the girl's father 
ix poor hu t«koa £10 to £15 (Its.lOO- 150) aa her pice; if ho is 
rich hu gives ber£6 to JtlO (K«. 50 - 100) as her dowry. Buforo 
the nmrriagi>, in front of both the boy's and the girl's hooscs, a 
iBarriago porch is biult and in the girl's marriage porch an carthon 
altar or {nth\d« is set. Sanplica of clothes, grain, oil, and other 
articles are also laid in. About a fortnight before the marriage the 
bride and bridegroom are rubbed with tnrmeric powder. Threo 
or four unwidowed women grind this turmeric in a handmill to 
whoso Itandlu in a yellow oloth ore tied a betelnat and three or four 
Bproated tnrmeric roots. In oonntry parts except the htmlinaa 
and other mnnkaria or honournbles, most of the men of the village 
take part in the turmeric grinding, sitting four or five at a handraiTl. 
They aing the women's corn-grinding songs. On the day when 
the boy and girl are rubbed with lunnerii;, women bring to tho 
bouKus griim in a plattifr and in return are given small balls of 
boiled wUen.t Hoar. During tho two or three days after the boy hits 
been rubbed with tnrmuric friends and kinspoople ask bim to dine, 
and when bo goes young girls sometimes go witb him. If one of 
the friends is wealthy, he calls tko boy and all tho mombors of tho 
boy's family to his bonse with nitisicinns plitying before them, feasts 
Vhoia on CHKcs or j>r>liii, and hangs flower garlands or mumldcaJa 
TOtind the boy's head. If the houses of thO bride and bridein'oom 
are in the same town or village tho installing of their badgo or 
marriage guardian called dcvak is held on the marriage day. If 
the boy and girl live in different places tho worship is held two 
or thi ee days before tbo marriago day. In installing Uto 
marriage guardian the first step is to worship tJio bouse gods. 
After tlio liouRO gods are worshipped a near kiiisinnn of tbo boy's 
father and bis wife have the skirts of (heir guruieuU tied toguthvr. 

Chai)t«r ni. 



|Bomb&7 O^ietuci 

Chapi«r III. 
I People- 



and, Duder a waiatclotli held orer their bcsda b; fonr pe: 
go, preceded l)y tniisicinnn, to ihc village Meruit. The ntu^ 
carrier oii liis dhnuldcT aa axe or aorno olltur iron field tool and a 
twelve to fifteen feet )oog, and hia wife walks clofe behind 
carrying a plittUir with thu family orefit and an ofTcHng of 
Behind the pnir walk four or fire uowidowvd women each carryi 
a brasa water cap full of wnt«r. At Mflruti'a temple the Gnrar 
ministrant hn» a supply o( sprigs of five tn.'cii, tlio mango, llic 
CiilitropiH giKUntoft, UuDaitunJiul Anwia viima, lh» Imliiin fi^ or ri 
and tUajdmhlml SyKigium jainbulann. Tho party bow before the 
and lay sandal, flowers, f rnitkincense, and food before bini aod 
minlstraut preSeiitN thi^m with tbv five sptiga or panth paid*. 
their return to the bonse they tie tb« fire spriRS to a pole in t1 
marriage porch and alon^witli thosprign tiea cako or pofi and tM 
s}»oec[ gram rolivh utlled iir»(ui which it) ratoii with lirtuu). On 
day Ml in u ten to twenty friends and kinapvuplo are aakc-d to a f< 
of uiititulTcd cakos. Thoy ait on B(|uare blankots and after 
Ecrvit-v of butvl witlidruw. Whuu the gnesta ore gone tho woi 
of the bontie ^il on the bare ground and oat. When a marri 
partj' has to go to a distant village they travel in bollock carts with 
muVie. On runohin^ tlie boandary of the girl's villngu or town, 
water is fetched and poured on the bonn<laiy by a Koli of the place 
who is given a cocoanut nnd occasionally a tnrbao worth 2«. (Up. I). 
On entering thu villugv, if ho ha« not ridden the wliolo way, tlM 
bride-groom uiouiiti* a horee and giKiti to the village Alaruti with uioaia 
and balta there with his MStera or other yonug girls who are called 
karavlU or groom's maids. In iho villogo the girl'ti father bn« provided 
a lodging or jiinrati/fuir for the buy's party. In the evening from 
M&rnti's temple tho bridogroom'a brother or other near relation, 
culled the vardhdva or groom-sont, mounta a honio, and, witb 
frienda and music, goes to the brido's. On nwvhing the bride's 
her father asks him to dine, and, if ha is rich, givea him a 
tnrWn. When the groom-sout has taken some food tho bride's 
father givea Mm, for the bridi^grooni, a tin»ul chajilet, a turban, 
a rod ohintiK overcoat, a pair of wai^tclotlia, a j>air of shoes, 
and a ahoulilorclnth. Tho harbirigor mounts hia horso and start* 
for M&ruti'a temple with thu bridv'it fatliur and suniu of tho bride's 
kinsmou who curry four or five bodico^bannera or dAtx^* tied to 
poles and held over bin lu^ad, and fullowud by an nnwidowcd woman 
or aavdehin with a cocoanot mid betel luavos in a plnttcr. As he goes 
Uio bride's brother pelts him with ontoua. At Miiruti'a temple Una 
btide's father la^-a the plaltiT with the dress before tho bridegroom. 
A Hrtlhman prieat who ia in atteridnncu tolls the britlegruom to 
w(wh his oyes with water, loosena Ihe brocaded end of the bride- 
groom'etnrbau.aud windii it twice or thrice round the bridegroom's 
neck. He sots up a belelunl Ran|)u.ti and t«lls the bridegroom 
to wash it and lay sandal-powder and fiowers before it^ After 
this tho priest touches tho now clothes with turmeric powder, marks 
tbe bridegroom's brow with »iiiLd[il-iv>wdt'r, and givvM him tha 
clothes. If the bridegroom's old turban is of little value, it is 
given to tho barber who ia to Icail his horse; if the turban ia ricb 
the barber is givoo a cocoanut. Betel leaves nro handed to 



at ani? money ih ffiven to the BrAbmana. The briiL-gT-oom's 
, ohvrlc ift toiicbtsl iritb lamp-black. Ue Uya before M&nili two 
ItMves, a b(it«lunt, and a coppi<r coin and walks roand faiin. 
kiriea a du^ger or poniard with & lemon stuck on it« point. 
itoTV 8t«rtin(; for tho bride's a cocoannt ia broken to keep off evil 
loeuotidi. Ttw villitgu MhAr stnods b«foro tbc bridc^oom as if to 
ihiinaad ia giveu a whito turljanorahonldercluth worth 6<j. U> I«. 
«.). When be rcacbefl the bride's house, a Mli^r woiiiau 
vrilb an iron lump in n ulittbcr and waves it round his head 
'Ma; all jour pains and troublcH vaniitb and the richos of 
a pourod on yon.' For thb she is given a cheap bodice 
NcAT the door of the bride's houw tho wifo of bor niatenuil 
ie waves ninnd the bndo)m>oui'it head a lighU^d lamp of whcatvn 
with two wheat floor baUs at its aides and ia given a bodico 
a tnbtf. Thin lainp>wai'ing is ctillvd varovaini or tho 
ana-waring. The boy's party are seated on tho msmugo 
and tho bridegroom ia made to stand near the earth altar in 
< oQDtro of which is plocod a mango sprig stuck in a ball of mud 
sod at each corner n outonrod earthen put oidlod r<iA«. 1'bu bride 
is carried out of tlie house and set in front of the bridegroom facing 
him. Tho priest and some bogging BrAhmans come forward nnd 
diTido into two portios. A clntli or antarpiit is huld between tho 
bride and bridegroom so that they cannot see each other's (wixtt. 
Thoy touch finger tips with the cloth between tbom. The two 
parties of nnthinans hand tht> giivsts turmorio or red-oolourcd 
riee or millet to throw on the beads of the bride and brido- 
groom. The two partJes of priesta in turn recite mangnldtthak* 
w lut;ky Terscs at the end of each rerso throwing somo ooluurod 
grains on the beads o£ the pair, and iho guests like tho HnibmnDs 
at tho end of each vei-so throw coloared grains. When tho 
tones arc over the Br&bmona clap tboir hands, all the guests 
elap Uieir hands, and inusioiana raiso a din of musici Shortly 
after tho maternal nudes of the bride and bridegroom riI on 
•tools with tho bride and bridegroom on tlicir knuos and with their 
bees turned to eaoh other. Tlio priv^'t tc-lU the bride and 
bridefifroom to Fold their hands and touch finger tipa while ho winds 
ayellow thread round thoir necks. This ceremony is called tutatme 
or tho thread' winding. While Ihny arc thn.-* seated tJio girl-giving 
or kanifilddn is performed by the bride's maternal ancle, or in hi* 
abseuco by her father. When he gives her away tbo nucio pjcsenta 
tho girl with ooppur vessels acivrdiug to his moans. The priest 
tnntt«rring some verses cuts the yellow thread that was passed round 
the pair's nvcks and tells them to sit on the altar or 6aAu/& Tbo 
bride ait^ on tlie bridegroom's lufU In front of tho pair a burnt 
offering ia made called Uijdltont of clariSod butter pieces of wood and 
tried nee. A winnowing fan with rice, split pulse, wafer bLscuits, fried 
rioo cakes, hud vermioulli is laid before tbc bridi-groom. The priest 
■addenly puts bia hand over one of the articles on tho fan, and 
aaks tbe bridegroom to say what he has hid. If the bridegroom 
gacssos right tho priest says that his patron has got an intelligent 
Bon-in-iaw ; if hs aiiswcra wrong he calls him a dnlt follow. Alter 
..this a low stool oovered with wheat flour and with Uucs druwu on 

Chapter n 


^m-**ttO t» <Un D1 



01uipt«r III- 


it JH 8ot before the bi-iJo atid bridegroom and tfaej are told to i 
eacli other's iiaino, moucy is ^ven to tbo Brfllimaa, and tie ret 
On the Bamo day. after the m&rriago ia over, a party from tbo brid 
go to tliQ villflgo M&niti, and, witb tho samo ritvs an tboao dc 
iu the caae of tJio bridegroom'H parly, bring and tie in the mi 
porcb the bride's fathei^H devak or marriajL^ guardian. Aft«r 
bridu's devak hax been Jostullod a party of tbo bndc'K kinav 
go in prooeaaioD to tbo bridegroom, vrith plul t^^m full of frif^l nc 
cakes, and rice rermioelli or ati^ya. Tiiey aro received with bouoa 
and arc given turmvric and rod powder. Thoy empty 
plattora aiid in return ia one of tbom tbo bridegroom's kiiutrot 
pDt ]«. to£l (Bs. j-10) ia casb. Tliis food>gift to the bridegroon 
IS called rukkvat. Then some of tbo bride's near kinsmen 
music go to ask kiiimncn to dine, and bring tlicm homo 
mutiio, aud in the eanio way the women of tbo brido'a family bria^ 
kinawomoQ. Tho rolations are feasted on nnstuSed cakes or po^wJ 
rioc, split piilso, alan or bulled rioo flour seaKoned with spices, 
fried rice cakes. Karly next morning, with music and frieuda, i 
bride and bridegroom seated on a horse, the bride in front, are I 
to a river or garden, and, aft<'r retiring, have their foot ntbbod 
wctr turmeric ]>owdcr and oilvd rcdpowdvr, and return with mnsio.^ 
About ten tbo boy and girl are bathed on low stooU in the boot' 
Round tho bathing-place aio &i't four or five tdmhjfM or OOp[ 
drinking pots with a white throiid passed ronnd their DCok& 
tho time of bathing tho bridegroom is seated on a low atool and i 
bride on another low atool or a large platter. White bathing tbof 1 
fill their mouths with watvr and blow it ov(;r each other's hcet.f 
The boy holds a betelnul in his band and tho girl using both her] 
bands trios to force it oat ; then tho girl holds Uie nut and tbo boyj 
tries to force it out with bis left hauu. If tho boy faiU tlio 
jeer at him calling him bnlga or impotent. Wbeu iho bathing ia' 
over the bridegroom tries to lift the bride by his left hand and set 
her at hi» left side while the bride tries to prevent him lifting h«r 
from tho ground. Theso struggles gruatly nniuso tho guests and 
relations. The boy and girl are then dre«8ed and their brows are ■ 
rubbed with redpowder aud their bodies with tui'meric Thoy are 
given a dish of mevi/a, that is milk, clarified butler, rice vermicelli, 
and raw sugar, and feed each other, Afterdinuer they sit on the altar 
in the booth. In tho evening tho bride's father gives a caste feiutt 
and on one of the dnya iho boy's father treats tbo caste to rioo, split 
pulse, vegetabloa, ana unstuffcd cakes (ivpiilin. On this day, or if tbia 
ts not a mcky day on the next, the bride's lap is filled Tho priest 
(oldji a waistcloth four times, covers it with rice or wheat graina, 
and tells tho bnde and the bridegroom to sit on it^ WhUe the 
priest chants rerses the bridegroom fills the brido'a lap with five 
tiidf cocoa-kcrnels, Gvo dates, five sprouted turmeric roota, five 
betelnut^, a <{uarter of a pound of rice, a coitih, a small citskot, and 
a variously coloured cord. The bridegroom's father present* tJiO 

I Th« rtuoD of the pKicccaioii miuio and turmeric niblnuf ii to karp Off (piriti 
wliioh St mcb timei (trc ^i«oioJty troublcMMc, 

can. I 


bride with the richeHt robe h« oan afford and Uie gaests present 
tlie fathers of the bride and bridegroom with clothes or cash from 
1«. (8 ait.) upwards. Tbcw prfsunts are cnllt-d dinn: After this thu 
twelve hiifulvd'irt or villngo aervanta come in, and, uocording to 
hia uieana, the boy's father gives their wivee bodiceolotha or ««ah. 
It he i« rich he gives the headman or fxilit a turban. In the evening 
the bride's and the bndegroom'a tdiirts are tied together, and tUoy 
walk to the bridegroom'a bouse or lodging. After tamplight tho 
bridegroom's mother with n band of kiuspeo]>lu walks towards tho 
bride a on cloths spread by the village wanhorniAii, nnd iit tho 
aame time the bride's mother starts with a Viand of friends to visit 
tho boy's mother. WHion the partios meet they stop ten or fiftom 
paceti from each other, A w(Ui«toli»th is held in front of otn^h 
party and they begin throwing rednowder on one another. They 
jeat with onn another showing in front of the cloth a ladle, u 
rolling-pin, a dog, or a eat. Whilo this is going on tho bridegroom 
and his mother pretend to be offended and Icaro the party. Tho 
bride's father and mother follow them and appease them with 

S resents. Then tho two parties move on to tho bride's whero tho 
ridegroom'a mother ia ttc-ntod in tho booth on a throo^leggvd 
Btool. Bonnd her are arranged fonr or five metal drinking pots 
or tdmltui'ui with a thread passvtl round thoir nocks, and the boy 
and girl are seated on her lap. The bridu'ti father gives a robo to 
tho bridegroom's mother and the bridegroom's father gives a robo 
to the bride's mother. This iuterclinngo of robes is citUcd 
poljliiikni or stomacher. While the bridegroom's mother ia 
seated on her stool the jhdl or handing eeromony is performed. A 
bamboo basket or round motal dish, with a comb, a looking glass, 
a casket, a rolling-pin, five awcet things, and livo wheat Hour 
lamps is Bet on the bridegroom's mother's head, and four or five 
womtrii Htand about her and sing tho jfiAl song wbicli runs : ' Tho 
brido|^rooin bus reached the village bonndnry, I will worship tho 
boundary and win the bridegroom.* Meanwhile a kinsman of the 
bridegroom's runs away with tho basket or dish lo the bridegroom's 
nud is ptmued and pelted with oniooa by tho bride's people. 
The bride's father mother and other near refationa hold the bride 
seated on their crossed hands and sot her on hor husband's hip 
and then on the liips of his father mother and otiier near rcTluliunci. 
At the time of handing her over the girl's relationa with soba 
ond tears eay: 'Dp to this she was ours, now she is yours.' 
This ceremony is seldom over till the morning cock-ci-ow, and, 
after it is over, sometimes as Iikte aa 6ve they sit to a feast. 
AVhen the feast is over the bride and bridegroom aro led into tho 
god-ho080 and bow befoi-e the images. A.'* he bows tho bridegroom 
steals one of the gods and refuises to give it np till the bride's 
fnthor makes him a present. All then go to tho bridegroom's, 
la the evening tho bridegroom's father gives betel leaves with 
nets to the gnests and bids them goodbye. If the bri<lcgroom 
belongs to another vilhige, tho guests who belong to bis village 
nceoiitjiany him home. When they reach the village the bride and 
bridegroom are taken to the temple of the village Mftniti. In tho 
evening about seren or eight the bride and bridegroom ore seated 

Chapter III. 


I Bombay Quctt 



Chaptor in. 


on n bor»o nii<l \iiA to liis huuso with n procession, music, 
tli4>y cat) afford Uiem fireworks. In tho hoosa a dish witb oooottfl 
saffron and btitol ImiriM is waved rouad the imaffeof Klukndol»^j 
ceremony wliick i» ciUlod thu lifliiig of Khnndoba'g taii or 
After Lho ptat<e-waTing comes tho jlmitda luiehnc or flAg-dnocKr wk 
one man sets the Itride on his back and another sets the briii 
groom on hin book and they dkiica Somctimos tho bride sita < 
the bridegroom's back and a man dances with both on his 
ATter tlie dance (be bridegroom, holding the full box <jf a 
drill in his hand, sprinklM grniii on thu groand and alon^ with 
brtde who carries n^nin tn hor liund goett to tho god room. At. < 
door of the god room they find the boy's siator who rofiisea to I 
them pass till they promiso to givu their first daughter in 
to her aon. Thoy agree though lho promise is ultnost never kc 
and paRs tn, and laying a betolnut and a copper coin before tliem, b 
to the house goda. Tho girl is considorod the goddess of wealt 
and Iicr brow is murkod with redpowdor. Some wheat with a pie 
of gold in it is heaped between the bride and brtdegr^iorn, and tl 
are told to divide tho heap. If the bride gets the gold in her ' 
she ia npplnutlod and it in taken as an omon that tho rule in 
hoAse will bo liors. On tlte next or aomo other lucky day tho brid 
and bridegroom are bathed and the turmeric is taken oS. If sheca 
afford it the boy's mother for a fortnight longer feeds them 
lioihnl rice and clarified butter. 

When a girl cornea of ^go her feet are rubbed with turmeric powdi 
moistened with water and her brow with redpowder with or wilho' 
oil; andsho isfodon vnrafi or tiplit pulse cookou in w»t«r with lurmci 
powder, and salt, rice, vegotablea. and nnstuSed cake^ or j>ofi». If 
father-in-law is rich thu girl is for four days seated in a gaily dnai 
(nimc civllotl a mathiir probably from mahhnlaija or a place of ncrifi' 
On tho fifth she and her husband are bathed and whilo thoy 
music is playod. She is dresaod in a green robe and a 
bi>dicc, and her hand.s we adorned with fresh green 
bangles. Uer father, if rich enough, gives her hu!«liand a waialotoli 
and tnrban and to his mother a robo and a bodice, and beds, 
cnr[)Ct, A iot of betel dishes, and a namai or motal lamp for her and her 
husband's use. Some unwidowed women with relations are aako4 
to foaat on cakes or polia and the girl and her husband are made 
feed eiich other from tho same dish. 

I to! 

When a woman ia pmguant for the first lime, her food longing 
are satisfied, and a special feast called dohalsjevdn or the 
longing dinner is held in tho fifth or in tho soveuth month of her 
]>rognancy. She is presented with a gnieu robo and a groon bodice, or 
a bodiceonly it her husband is poor, and some ten or fifteen unwidowed 
women are asked to dine with her. Lumps are placed by her side and 
the r< is made as graud as the giver avn afford. To guard against 
tho danger of miscarriage from violent movements or a snddea 
fright, a pregnant womau is made to sit in a sailing boat and a 
cart, is shown funeral processions, is made to cross tho leather rope 
nttAchod to the bag in a bultock draw-well, and to croas the boun- 
daries of n village or & town. 


m a Euobi io nt the point of death he is lift«cl from liis 
and laid on a blanket and kia eon rests the dying bead on 
is lap. After death the body is bathed in water hcatod on a 
iftrtli Kot in front ot the house. To carry tbo body n biddcr-liko 
bier ia made of two poles six or seven fi>et long with three ur fuur 
small cross pieces. Two new earthen pota, a large one for water 
And K sntnll one for fire, redpowdtrr, betel loaves, and a clotb about 
seven and a half foot long arc browght from the market or villogo 
shop. Word is sent to the village Mhitr who carries cowdung 
_. _ I and iirowood to the burning ground which is generally on the 
iTerbank. Thu body is wiwhod with warm water on a plwik placiid 
Tore the front door. Except th« faoo tho body is covered with 
a now waistcloth and a cord is pnased several times ronnd the body 
to secure the cloth firmly, oetel leaves and guldt or rcd}x>wder 
are itpriukU-d over it, and a basil leaf is put in the mouth and 
Boue rice, a copper coin, and the quarter of a cake are laid beside 
tho body. Four of the dead person's kinsmen bear the body, 
nnd the son bathes and walks in front carrying the firt^pot on a 
trianguliir fmmo fastened to a sting. Before setting otit ho la 
'warned not to look l>aek. About hnlf-way to th» bitming grouinl 
at n place called the ctadvyaelii jdga or reat-place tjio jwirty 
■tops and the bGarors sot the bier on tho ground and change 
places. They throw away tho rice the conpur coin and tho (juivrtcr 
ol a cake which were laid on tho bier beside the body and pick np a 
Btono which is nsually called tho lifo-stono or jiv-kkmla- When tlioy 
reach tlio burning ground thi'y rai^ie n pile of four layers of cowdung 
dikes. They then take off the waistcloth, cut the thread tied round 
tiw waist, and loosen tho loincloth. Tho body is laid on tho pyre 
id is oovered with other layers of ciiktM, When the motitb is 
iiag coverod the son pours a little water into it. Tlio son sets 
■e to the pyre, bathes, brings water in tbo largo earthen pot, and 
stands at tno head of the pyre. Another person comes nnd with 
small slono iuakc« a hole in the earthen pot. As tho water ttpuuts 
the pot, tlie son goes five times round the pyre and at the end 
flirows tho pot on the groand at the head of tho pyre, and calla 
alond V-nting his month with tho back of his baud. lie then 
^CN nnd »it» among the other men without touching them. After 
abort time tho sound made by the bursting of the skull is heard 
_ i d the chief mourner aad others, at least tno four bearers, bathe. 
3l« stone with which tbo earthen pot was pierced is kept with 
rent care somowhoro in tho burning place. On their return to tho 
oaae of mourning the funeral party are given nimb leaves to eat ; 
or they go to a tempio and then to their honsos. Ilic nionmrrs do 
not cook but are fed on that day by a relation ur a friend with food 
n-eparod at bis house. 

In the evening after tho funeral a lighted lamp is set on the spofc 

bere the dead breathed his last. Flour is nlrown rouud the Isinp 

:d the lamp is covered with » bifkvt Ni-xl morning tho basket 

movod and tho flour ia examined. If a human footprint appears 

qn the flour the dead person is believed to be re-born as a human 

xnng ; and if tho footprint is that of a bird or boost, the spirit of 

fcbe person is believed to have entered that beast or bird. 

B 12S2— 10 



[Bombay i 



Chapter IIL 



Next morning the son, with »on)0 friends nnd relations, go*vl 
the burniiig ground with tbiwe small earthen poU vtith 
mouths covered with three email tvLcaton cake« and thr^e^ 
ionrt!«. Ho pinctH the vinall pots in n winnowing ba^>k«Ji i 
fills thom with milk cow-nrine and bone; or RUgar and I 
some cowdnng in the basket. On reaching the rest-place 
fou Inys CD tho ground n caico with n little mw engar. He 
on to tbi) burning ground and from tbo Kpot wbnv tbo tiodjr 
burnt, lie takes the aalies except one bone which he pota 
and throws thi-m into the nearest river. If he is rich he gatbersl 
bont's and nftorwuiils tnkv« them to a holy riter. Aftorrcroc 
tho a.<ihes the Hon apriukleH the ftpot with cowdungand cuwurinei 
places the tvro pots with two cake§ one where the head lay and i 
other where tho foetlny. When the ii«h-gwthoring or ra)cli9<i vidhi 
is over tho xon and t.lio othiT inoiirnors bathd and roiurti li'i 
On the third day I he bearors' shoulders are rubbed with oil, and I 
aro given dry eotroa-kcrnel to eat. On the tenth all tho hoose 
hatho and ivrnth their clothes in tho river ; tiiid tho son Bhaves 
moustache and bathes. Whilo a Ur^hinan repeats verses the 
w^hes with cow-urine, the life-stone or jie-khada sod the 
ho kept, prepares ten bidlti and three littlo bnunors made of i 
ochre •colon red cloths each tied to a stick. The Briihman is giv 
some moupy, shoes, and sometimes even a cow, presents which i 
supposed to help the dead on hia way to heaven. After pref 
the offering ludls the son siis nt a distance that crows may cume : 
eat them. If a crow tuuehes them soon after they have bocn ' 
out, the dead is supposed to have died with no unfulfilled wish. 
critwA do not tuuoh tho balls the son and his ivlatious promise 
fulfil the dead person's wish, and, when tho promise is given, tl 
crowg are believed to faU on the offering and eat it. After (his 
over the oon ami the other mourners bathe and return home. On 
thirteenth day th(*pricHt in given money and provifionK.und a feast i 
UUBtuffod cakes or polia, rice, and split pulse is given tn friend* ui; 
relntioDS in honour of the dead. Somefoodisput in a platter and tt 
platter is kept aside that crows may eat out of it. In tho evening OE 
of his near relations ties a small white turban round the sonl 
heutl and takes him with the other mourners and generally soil 
of the villugern to Miiruti's t«mpto where tho son [ays a coppe 
coin and a betiflriut before the god. Kvory month u mao is oske^ 
to dine in the name of the dead, and. after five months and a half, 
feast of uoKliifTcd cakes or f>oli* is given to tho near relations of the 
dead. In the djirk half ut }1h'n}r<ipnd or August-Septomber the spirit 
of the dead is worshipped ou tho day of the fortnight which corro- 
sponds wHth the death tby. When anunwidowed woman or sordaAia 
dies tho body on tho bier is sprinkled with rcdpowder, bottd loaves, 
and scented piiwdcrs. Her feruliead is rubbi^ii with vermilion 
and her body with oiled turmeric powder. Some turmeric powtirr is 
tnkcii from her body and rubbed on her husband. On her way to 
the burning ground she is asked to look buck, and allow hor husband- 
to marry again. ■ 
When a death occurs in a family, the close relations of the samo" 
family stock rvmaio ceremonially impure or stUaki for ten days and 



dUttint relntinni* ot (lie Bame stock for throo days. ThoDgb widow 
man-ia^ in allowed, a remnrriod woniitu U not ullowcd to perforin 
rt'ligious rites along with her hoabaud, aud her husband is uot 
wud to iuhIcc i>fTi;riti^ (u Uio dead. If a widowor marrii.-.H ft toaid 
19 not proyeiiU!(l from inakiDg ofTerings. A ruiunrri^-d widow in 
honoured tlian other women, Knnbis are bound together by a 
ug (,'iLKtu fovliug iiud Hcttle social diepulaa at tboir oaMbo council 
fiiuich. The ^ilty are iiuod and the fino tnonoy lu usud in good 
works or in a eaate dinner. Thoir guru or teacher has no voice iu 
■ocial disputes. Some of them send their cbildreu to school keeping 
tbeii' hf}ys Ht nchool fire or six years and their girls one or two. 

Uara'tha's' are found all over the district. Tho 1S81 renstis 
includpB them under Kunbis from whom they do not form a 
9epnr»ie carttc, Some Kanithn families louy have a larger strain 
of luirthcrn or Kajput blood thuu tho Kiuibift. But tlii^ in not 
Blwaya the case, llie distinclinn betwoen Kunlns and Manlth&s 
ii iiImOHt entirvly social, the ^lariltha as a rale boing bettor off, and 
wfifi-mriy war or mirvico a« a constnblo or a musscng^T to husbandry. 
The SatAi-a Mardtlifb seem to havo no historic or legendary ecidenire 
M to when or from whero they came into tho district. Though soivo- 
what fairer in colour and more refined in manners MartlthiU as a class 
oannot bo distinguiahod from Kuubi^ with whom all eat and the 
poorer marry. 

All Marif,t1ul.o have nuruamca some of them true or dun surnames, 
others faUo surnames, that ia divisious of clan surnamea generally 
led after plaooji or callings. In most cases familiee who are 
lOwn by n pluve or calling sumnmo know or can Uod oat to what 
D surname they belong. I'ho Mardtha clan aurnamoa ara 
□tereatinff as they include the names, and, iu some coses, ap[>arently 
rre tho trno or uii-Sanskritised forms of tho names, of many 
the earlv Ducain Hindu dynasties of whom nil tntoo has passed 
from the Deccan casle lisU. Among these djuaHtic names are 
Cholko perhaps the original form of uh&lakya for long (otiC- 1 lOO) 
the rulcTA of tho Deccan and Knrniiuk ; tCadam whiob si^omx ii> ba 
iS same as Kadamb the name of dynasties who at dillL-reut tiinea 
'odall tho Karniltak, Kolhiipnr, and Goa (600-1^00); More who 
ibably roprosont tho Manrymt n branch of tho great North Indinn 
ily who vera ruliuL,- m ih>: Kiiikjiu and Ueccan in the sixth 
mtury ; S&tunke, which seems to belong to lato comers perhnpa 
llowers of thu Solauki kings of Gujarat (!M3-1210); Hh'.O.'lr, 
which Mivma to proHurvo tho original name of tho Sil^hdr 
mily who ruled in tho Koukau and West Deccan from aijout 
SO to 1275 ; and Y&da\' whoso most famous Dcocan family waa of 
!vgiri or Daulataliitd, who were iu power, and, during much of 
the time snprome, in the Deccan from about lloU till the Miisalm.ia 
conquest in 1294. As far as is known the U> vgiri Yildava passed 
from thu south northwitrdH,»nd it isixiHsiblothey wero not northerners 
hut southi^niors Kurubars or other shepherds, who, under Brithman 
neace, adopted thu great uorthom shepherd name of Yddar. 

Chapter HI. 



w 1 Daliilta of th<i urig^D inj butory of tho noma Minttlia nn<l » liit of Mantths tor* 
[ooiuciauil utftrriae«|pianiMusuri(ei<aibar»Bivuiui Um KuUi^ur ^utUUc*! Acooiula 

IBombajr Gi 





'J1io prpscrvntion of tlic»o old dynastic names snggesls th« hope i 
an (^'iiqiiiry into th« sti-ODgtb and difttribution of tbeae claos 
Oiniw light on the stj-nDgtb of the northern dement hi 
Mfli-iiiltiia. This hope seems idlv. AJmoKt all the leading 
8urnaiui>s Choike, Mure, Pot&t, Sltel^r, and V^av are found bcsiile. . 
atnritig Kunbi», who do not appreciably differ from MaritbAs tu net, ^ 
(iniung Dtiangara, Kolis, Mmis (who are Kunbis), Uh^n, KlAoga, '* 
K^tnoshiB, and several wandering tribes, &» Bold&rs, Bharadis, ' 
Bhorpis, GhieiUliit, and Kitik^lia, claafloa wbiob aoem to Ix; bat 
slightly coiiiiectbd. The exiatence of the esiii« clan nainn in most 
tniddlo and low-claaa Deocan Hindus may bo dne to tho fact 
these clans or tribes camv into tho Ducntn as natitMu 
Con)miiniti(^« L^umpUHe eticmgh to spread a frc^ layor of 
omr tho whole country. The case of the Vanjilria whose' gnak 
bands formerly included many classes of craftsmen and who 
still have Lobars and Mhttr^ among them shows that this is 
not impossible At the Naiue time the evidence against eauienoM 
of Huroame proving samcni-ss of tribe or race is so stroog as to 
make such widespread im migrations improbable. The case of tin 
Uthliis or slit-pockets of IVma, all of whom are either GaikrAda or 
Jtl^hiLVH, h an extreme proof that sameness of surname by no meaBS 
implies sameness of tnbe or race Uohlfia are recruited from all 
except tho impure classe-s. They are joined, besides by Maralhfa 
and K&mitthis, by Br^hmans, M^rw^i Vanis, and Mu.'^lmftns, and 
all recruits, wliatever their caste, are adopted either into the GAikvitd 
oriuto the Jadhav clan. ^ Thoevidvnce presented by the caw of the. 
Uchliis is siip|Hirted in a ie.-sH extreme form liy tho general Deocaa 
praetico of ciilliug a chief's retainers by the chief's suninme. Taken 
together with the case of the Uchl4a, who supply almost tho last 
living tracu of Uie old system of recroiling tho predatory tribes, 
this prnotiso seems to show that to have a northem eurname is 
no proof of a norlhem origin or even of a straiu of iinrthcm blood. 
The possession of northern surnames proTiably usually nroHe, like 
the povst^iion of tbi* Norman names of (lordon and Campbvll by 
the Scotch Keltic highlanders, from the practice of followers taking 
or being given the name of their chief.* 

Exctfpt tho drtkmukht or dii^triet officers, the heads of vnioges 
and inAmddra or grant holders who live ia good honscc two 
or more storeys high with walls of brick and tiled roofs, most 
Manlth^s live in poor ono-storeyod dwellings, 'i'lie well .to-do 
strictly unfurce tho women seclusion i^stein called goglia that is 
curtain or Marath mo!a that is MatAtna custom. It is uucertaia 
whether women seclasion was borrowed from the Musalm&ts or 
is a romuiMit of the tild Kshatriva rule of anlarpiir or imior apart- 
ment. MarAthiis eat flesh ajid drink liquor and their boys are girt 
with the sacred thread on or shortly before the marriage <^y. 
MarAtha women, a* a rule, do not pass tLe skirt of their robe 
back between tbe feet espcially on festive occasions. Except tlio 

> DcliU il«ttilii uv givpn in tho Toona StatiitJPitl AecounL 

) In liU nwn country a Mnrittin chior* rctainora whuri! lh(i]p aro known ni&y b* 
OkUeil by tholr nwn ■nmunn. Amimg atnoiBor* rvUini-n art »Uvd by tliuLr diMfa 
snniamv. Mr. Y. U. Kclkar, Aautant CmnmiMtoiMS S. D. 



dift^ronoe caused by tbeir pmotice of not allowinj; tbeir women to 
appear in public tliu Marnthu family customs at birth, oominj? of 
age, prt'gnaiicy, iind death differ littlo from thoHO doacribod 
uudur Kuubis, Ths m&rriage ceremonies of the two olasaeH Iiavg 
eeveml notable points of utfTeronco. Among Mai-Ath^ marriagu 
prepariitioos bof^a <m » luolcy day ohotteu by tliu villnge nstrologor 
or ijiiiMJiifhi and Idospcople are invited. A abort tinu) before tbe 
marriage, tbe boy is girt with tlio »icrod thread, and, except that 
the Bi-^hioon ropoutH clotitical Saiukrit tuxts instond of Vedic 
tuxU, the Miirittlia threttd>girding is the aamo as the BiAh> 
mail threail-girdiuff.* Tbe first of the marriage cereiaonies is 
tbe tnriiieric mbbmg which is performed with tbe Hamo dt-taiU 
at tlio hoiiHoti both of the boy and of the girl. Turmoric is mined 
sometimes with water and sometimes with mttk and rubbi^d on the 
girl by her female relations and what is over is sent with music 
to tbe boy's. At the boy's a niarrict woman traces a qturtz Bquaro 
in tlio miirriagti bBll,and in front of thesquai«,setaa low woodsD atool 
on wliioh the boy is seatod. Fire or more other married women 
BiuTound him and the Br&hman priest places a waterpot in the 
middle of iho «q^uarv, fills the wat^rpot with witter, and drops 
into it a copper com and a beteluut. On the mouth of the pot is laid 
a piece of cocoa-kernel and Gve betelnute. Tbe priest se^ a betel- 
nut Giinpiili ue«,r the waterpot, lays saudnJ pnsto, flowers, vermilion, 
burnt frankincense, and sweetmeats both before the waterpot Varna 
and the betolnut Gaupatt and prays tliem to be kindly. Tbe married 
womon with ii dish of turmeric, redpowdor, and nco grains, rub 
turmeric over tbe boy's body, mark oia brow with rodpowder, and 
stick grains of rieo on tho powder. The boy is dressed and m 
flower garland or niunddval is tied round his head. He lays 
n coconnut before hia bmily goddess or kulilcvi. bows bcford 
)i«r, and starts for the girl's home with tbe prieat, kinsfolk, aud 
friends and mnsicians. Wbon they reach the girl's village 
buuiiilary, or more often the templo of M&ruti which is generally 
cl(i»e outside of the village, they stop and jiorform the nmanti or 
boundary ceremony. Tboy are met by the girl's party nt tbe 
temple. With the help of his priest the girl's father lays sandal 
flowers and sugar before tbe waterpot Varun and iho betelnut 
Gati|>ati and nreeents the boy with clothes aud ornaments. Betel is 
served to the Boy's friouds and kinspoopio and tbe priests are dismiss- 
ed with money prosenta. As tbe lucky moment draws near, a kins- 
man of the girl, called the vardluica or bride-sent, visits the boy's 
party and asks them to como, and the^ start for the girl's. The boy 
18 seated on horseback witb a dagger in bis right hand, before him 
walk the musicJaiui,aiid after him his friends and ntliitione. On roach- 
ingthe girl's house the boy is taken to a ready-miide place in tbe 
marriage hull whore the male guests lake their seats, and is seati^d on 
a low wooden stool near the marriage altar. The women go into tbe 
house, remove their veilsand take theirseats on carpets in tbe women's 
ball, apart from the marriage hall, where, except tho old priests of both 

Chapter HI- 


> At the thmd-filnlint: td Ihc lat« Mnhirl}* of KoUiipnr, thirtjr poor RMliman 
b'lyi vtvrv girt nith the ncred cIitcjhI nt tliu (MM cifKiai* tuiJ by tho wuno priMU in 
tliu umo iaiX, tho rito* iwrfurnicd being iicarty tbu uiuc 

[Bombay O&ttt 


jiynu cTs. 


tbe boy and tJie girl and occasionally tho fBlliers of the eonp!t>, no i 
members are admitted, unt i>r«n tlie mon sorvaiits except on busina 
vrbo stand at a distance and do not allow any niulu strait 
oorae in. At a Incky moment, tho girl, closely veiled from bead I 
foot and bolped by hor women servnnt.s and friends, is mado ' 
stand on a low stool before tlie boy ftice to face near the 
■dl&r and a yellow sheet marked TOitb the lacky crtx-m or Htindi 
held between them by the prioats, who rc)}eat verses and thro^ 
yellow rice nt tho couple, crying Sdcdhdn or Beware. At 
lucky moment, the astrologer claps his hsnda and guns are fir 
the priests draw aside the curtain, the musicianH redouble tl 
noise, and the priciibi and the womeu guests throv yellow i 
OTOr the pair. 

Ashorttimebeforetheluckymoment.oneof thepriostsbandsa lilt 
yellow rice to tho men guests in ihohnll.and nhon the pair are wodded 
another priest eathon it from the men guests io a dish and ponra 
it over the heads of tho pair. The girl's maternal undo or som« 
other near malo relation takes the girl's rifi^ht baud and gives it to 
the boy who claspt it fast in both hi* hnmls. The priest lays both 
his hiiiidii over those of the boy and the girl and mutters verse*. 
The girl's father lays sandal, dowers, rice, burnt frankincense 
and swoc'tmonts before the betclnnt Gsnpsti and tJio waterpot 
Varun, and pours ivator from the wuterpol over the claaped hands 
of tho boy and the girl, and this completes tho girl-giving or 
kanyddan. The boy lets the girl's hand go and the priest knot« 
together the hems ol their clothes. Tho sacrificial lire is lit and fd 
with cliiritiod butter, se«ume seed, cotton xt'ilks, tiud ptttaa or other 
saci-ed wood, Tho couple leave their seats and perform the fttplpadi 
or seven steps by walking seven times from right to left round tho 
fire. Th«y worship the family gods und the marriage is over. Next 
day a feast ia held at the girl'x hou.'«e. On tho morning of the foast, 
a few young or newly man-ied pairs are asked to the girl's house and 
pluy iu the hall the usual gamos of betelnut hide and seek and of 
tunueric-throwing. Qouts ^ind sheep are brought in. and each of 
the pairs is made to show their »kill with tho sword. The bride- 
groom and bride first chop off the heads of two goata and the other 
paira fnilow them, any one who with one blow cuts tho goal's head 
clean off being loudly applauded. On the morning of the day on 
which tho boy ia to leave for his parents' house with his wife, 
tlie boy's mother performs the ceremony of seeing the girl's face or 
aunmukk Accompanied by kinswomen and friends and tho family 
priest and mnsic tho boy's mother goes to tho girl's bringing 
bamboo baskets with sesame and gram balls, betelnut«, cocoakemelsj 
diitcs, a robe and a boilicc, ornaments including the lucky marriago 
necklace or mangaUutm, and aweetuie-<it» and fruit. At tho girl's 
tho family priest worships the waterpot Varun and tho bcteluiiC 
Ganpiiti, and tho boy's mother drosses the girl in the clothes sho 
has brought, puts on the ornitinont?, ties the marriage string reaod 
ber neck, and sweetens her mouth with sugar. Then comes tho 
basket or jhiU, that is the banding ceremony. A pioco_ of^cloth 
is spread in a bamboo basket, and nine dates, nine pieces of 
cocuu-kemol, and uiae lumps of turmeric, a handful of rico, and 


cxwkod food nro put in tho basket Tho priest worsbipa the l>aiik«t 
nail tho boy antl girl walk (ivo times round it from right to left. 
The basket is set on the heacLn of the nearest relatiooB of the hoy 
and the cirl and tho ceremony is over. Thu boy, acconipiLiiiuJ 
l)y his rJlittioDS uni) friends, nUrtx with hist wife for hia father's 
bouse and the marriUffe is oter. Among the rich a marriage costs 
£50 to £100 (R8.500-1000),amonfr "lo middlo oImrCIO to £20 
(Kk. 100-200), nnd among fcho poor £3 to £6 (Ra.30>(iO). Except 
infaat-s and the rerr poor, JUar&th^ bum the dead, and the chief 
mourners are held impare for ten dnya. They worship tho 
usual Hr^ihmanic gods and goddesses, and their fnvourito d^titiea are 
iJhnvilni, K hundobn. »nd Vith<)b». lu honour of Ithav^ni every cere- 
mony ends with a guiulhal dauce. They keep the regular Brdhmanic 
fasts and feaatn. Social disputes are settled at caslu mootings, iui<l 
'breochos of cu«te mica nro punished by a fine which generally takog 
tho form of n caste dinner. Some of them aend their boys to school, 
but as a class they are not Well-to-do. 

Mails, or (lai-deners, are returned as numbering 24,5;J9 and as 
found over tho wholo diatnot. Thoy have no subdirir^ions. The 
names in oocomon nso among mon are Apa, Dhondi, Hnri, liroru.and 
RAraa; and »moiLg women Bhima, Koyua, Krishna, and IVulha. 
They look and speak like Mnrfttha Kunbis and do not differ from 
thnro in bonne, food, or drefls. The only distinguishing marks of 
Mftli women are a red level line on tho brow and a thick silver 
neck ornament called tart. Af&bs are hanlworkinp, good tempered, 
hospitable, and thrifty. They are ganleuers, hnsbandnion, and in 
Government service, and their women help them both in tilling 
and in selling fruit, flowers, and vegetables. Liko MardtliiU they 
keep the usual Briihmanie fasts nnd fi>n«t4. Their prioets are 
Deshnsth Bnihinanit who oQioiate at their bonRes. They liaro a 
spiritual tencber or guru who lives at Mnngi I'aithan and visits thorn 
once every two years. They mako pilgrimagos to Aland), Jojuri, 
Pandharpur, and Tuljdpur nnd boliovo in spirits and witchcraft. 
I'heir ou.-ttoms arc the same as those of peasant MardthiLi. Tlicy 
allow widow marriage, and practise polygamy but not polyandry, 
hold casto councils, send their boys to school, and as a class are 
better oft'ttiiin Kunbis. 

Craftsmen include twenty-tbree classes with a strength of 
98,018 or d'55 per cent of the Hinds population. The details arc : 

SdliSra Cn^/ltnirn, JSSl. 












Ptub&mU .. 












eiitmiihUri .. 






















Kinunkkn ... 























K'Uubbin ... 








tjthlin ^ 








Lnmria _ 



11 U 





OU(l* .> 







Chapter III. 

People.* J 




IBombaj QaifttMr 



Chapter III. 



BeldsrSt or Qnarrvmen, nrc rehimed us Dumberin^ 715 and 
fonod over the whole diHtrict. Tliey have no hiafory or tradition 
their arrival in tho district or of any former homo. Thojr hare 1 
sabdiTiaioDB. Their sartiftmeanroClinvfaiD, Mohttc, Por^r, BAlunIn,' 
and Sinda, and people bearing the name surnaing donotiutcrmarrT. 
They are dark, dirty, and strong. They speak incorrect Marital 
and live in poor hotifiOE. Their house goods include motal and 
earthen vcsscix, blankets, and quilt* all worth abont £3 (Rx. 30]. 
Tlieir staple food coiiAiata of millet, pubte, and vegetables, and thejr 
eat fiah and flesh and drink liquor. A family of five apcndg aboat 
148. (U«. 7) on food a month and about (he same antoanton dress in 
tho year. They are »t4>iio-outt<^rB, bricklayers, lime^makers, and water 
oarriera. They dig wells and ponds and also rear aases bullocks 
and buffaloes. Their women do not help them in their work. 
They worsltip the nsoal Brtlbinsn nod local gods and goddesses, and 
Uifiir family deities are Bnliiroba, Jotlba ot Ratn^giri, Khiindoba 
of Jejuri, and the cholera goddess MariAi. Their priests 
ordinary Deshasth Bnlhoians, and their religious teachers or g\ 
an! Gosilvis. They obserre the regular Hindu fasts aud feasta 

SI op pilgrimages to Jejuri, Pandharpur, aud'l'iitUpur. The' _ 
eir boys before they are twenty and their girla before they ara I 
twelve Their devak or wedding guardian is a mango or Hmhar' 
Ficus glomorata post fixed in tljo booth, to which are tied a piece 
of cloth containing a little red rice, a packet of bet«lnnt and leaves, 
a turmeric root, and gaun<lad leaves. The family washer woman seats 
thuboy in a squiiroand rubs liim with turmeric powder. She hands 
him a betel pitcket and aak.'t him to how hefuro the house gods. A 
mutton feast is held in the evening when relations and friends are 
feasted. Tho boy is carried in procession to the girl's accompanied by 
meo and women relations and music, and followed by bi.t si^tw with 
a lighted dongh lamp in her hands. ^Vhen he reaches tJie girl's 
house a lemon and a cocoanut are wared round bis head and cast on 
one nido. The boy is bnlhod in warm water, drossL-d in now clotbcit, 
and, sitting witli bis wife near tho saoriGcial iiro feeds it with batter, 
with the help of the priest. The priest then cbantjs the marriago 
TOrses and at the end throws rice grains over their heads and the 
boy and girl are husband and wife. Tho hems of their gannonts 
are knotted together and after thi-y have bowed before tj>c houso 
gods their garments are again untied. Tho boy and girl feed one 
aaothcr, aud their pEii-euta exchnngo prosciits of clothes and orna- 
menta and the priest reliros. A feast is held and the boy returns 
in procession to his house with his wife. They allow widow marrit^fe 
practise polygamy and cither bury or burn tho dead. The Beldira 
arobound together by a strong ca«to fooling and settle social disputoa 
at mass meetings of the adult male meml)ers oi the caste. T1k7 do 
not send their boys to school and are badly off. 

Buruds, or Bamboo Workers, are returned as numbering lOtJO 
ami a.t founil over tho whole diatrict. They cannot tell when or why 
they came into the diHlriot or why they are considered a degraded 
class. They have no subdivisions and claim no relation.'thip with 
any other tribe. Thoy ore dirty and hardworking, but not so 





robnst or fitronfjly m&de aa tlie Mhilra and Utogs. I^e; rank 
Iti^ier tltitn tlitfm an<l lliuir touch is hvid not BO polluting. Tliey 
Bpcak Miinithi iinil geiicnUly live insido of tlio rillH^ in iui«i^riiblo 
huls, and earn a liring by making bamboo boeketH, winnowing turn, 
birdg' cnf^s, children's cnullc9, and Hioros. Tbey dress like lilardUidd 
and their ittnplti food U grain, salt, cbillie», and oil. They givo 
tliiiEiL^rs of meat, pulse cakes, and liquor on occasions of birth, 
marriago, death, and roadmisaiftn into casto. Their women cook 
and they dina witli tbdr full dross on in pUt«t which thoy bring 
along with them. Hometimea the guesta ait flinging till daybreak. 
.A mim earns 3<i, to ls.{2'Sa9.) and a woman -tjc/. (1>;) im.) a 
day. Tht'tr monthly ehargca vary from 6-/, to 4#. (Rs. J -2). When 
tbey name tbei'r childr<.'n tliey diatribiilo to the guc«ts molnsHCs or 
oul andbetcl packets and feaat caatewomen whenagirl comes of age. 
They marry tnoir children between eight and twotvo spending £3 to 
Ai (Rs. iJO-'lO) over the nmrriago, uiid their hoys at twulvo to 
twenty -five fli>endiug £o t^i£0 (Ks. 60-00). They practiee polygamy 
and allow widow marriage, Tbey either bury or barn the dead 
fipetiding about £1 (Its. 10) and f<M5b their caetefolluws, wbeo a 
Jasgam is asked to dine. ThcirfavouritegodsaroJutibii, Khandoba, 
nndVithoba, and they also worsliip their ancestors. Tbey bavo 
imagett of their gods iQ their housvs, thoy seldom torn ascetics, but 
make pilgrimages to Paudharpur and Katudgiri. Their priests 
arc ordinary Briihmaiis whom they contHilt as bo the child's namn 
and for il lucky diiy fvr a miirriofjo, arid pay ll<(. (1 «.) al a birth, 
2«. (He. 1) at a marriage, and Oi/. (1 aa.) at a death. 1 he priest auffera 
no degradation for asaociating with them and they ob«crro the 
usual Briihmaniu fiutts and fea^its. They hnvo no henduimi and 
employ an vUlnr to settle social disputes. A Uurud'a shadow doefl 
not now-a-days pollute a high caste man. The Bumds are sending 
Uicirboya to school. Some have succecdud in getting into Govornmoat 
•ervice, wliilo others go to Poonn. and Hombay in searoh of work. 
They are careful in money iimttiirs generally spending money iu 
food, clothes, ornaments, and building houiios. Tiioy are a decliuiug 
fct ce. Kxcttpt in Sulitni and other large towns where tbey are fairly 
'vS, they are generally »ery poor. 

Cha'mblia'rs, or Leather Workers, are returned as nambering 
]6,ll)o and as found over the whole distriot. They have no tradition 
of ibeir arrix-al in ibo district or of any earlier homo. They are 
divided into local Kutibi ClUtmbhnrs, Uhora, Mocbis, and Parde^hi- 
Cbitmbhdrs who do not cat together or intermarry. Except that 
their hnbits are extremely dirty thoro bt nothing to nuxrk thorn 
from other low oaate Hiudus. Moohis and Pardeehia are found in 
large towns and the Pardeshis as their name implies Bcum to 
Jtave como from Xorthern India. Local Kuubi Cbimbhitni consider 
tbetnselvcHaud are held by others the highest class of leather workers. 
The Hochis make shoes, booU, and other leather articles. The 
^rillage Ch&mbbitr in return for bia xervioes receiver a contribution 
in grain from every landholder. Il in hifl duty every year to preaeut 
apair of shoes to the village hoadmau and the accountant or kufirarul. 
In gome places they hold state grant or inam and are found as cultiva- 
tors, lb is al»o their business to hold torches on the oocosiou of a 
B 1363- u 

Chapter ', 



(Bombay Gmze 







mnrria^o ftt the bonoe oF the pdiil and of otiier rMpectnble 
Tin'V undid the leatbor appliances utedia h us bnodrv and cobble 
Tbey live in poor huts uul«idv ot villagoH and their honso f^c-ar co: 
of eitnlioti woodon mid iiietAl pots, 'i'hi-ir cluUieH am wiiisWl 
woolloD blankets, turbans, waistcoats, robes, and bodioes. 
djiily food is grain. Bait, ghillics, and oil, Thej eat &esh _ 
onlike Mh^rs not the flcnh of do»d cnttia, and drink liquor. Tbtjr 
gircdiDCiorH on occasions ofhirthfl tn&mngog and deaths when disbn 
of iiuitton and pnlso cakes are prepared. The food is generally 
cooked by womon and cnton by tbo men ivilhont takinff off aojr of 
their clothes, Uns jfuMlH bringing thuirowii platct>. Liijuor isWKn*- 
tiaioM giroa and tbe gnests sometimes sit singing the whole nisfclk' 
Among them a man earns Ad. to 1«. (2-8 a*.) and anomao lltita' 
6id.(l-4i a«.)a day. Tho monthly exponsoa of a poor man are aboat 
8«. (Rk. 4) and thotte of a fairly well-to-do person £1 (R«.10).J 
Whvn they name their children they distribute molasses or ^ut atiaS 
betel packets, and feast cajstcwomcn when a girl cornea ot age. At" 
tho bt'trollifil the parents of tho boy proi«!iit tho girl with dotlic* 
and ornainouts. Boys in ftLUiiliea are married l)efoK 
they are sixteen and girls before they are eight, but they generally 
mArry tht^ir girls bi.-twoc-n oight and sixteen and their boys betweeo 
Bixtooiiand twenty-Cvu or thirty. They prosent tho boy and girl 
and their parents with clothes, and feast relations and frienda. 
Their marriage ceremonies and rites are like tboee of MfaAra. They 
allow widow marringo and priK'ttso polvgamy. A girl's wedding 
coHtJt £i to U (It». 20-'10)andabDy's£^ toi;tj (Ks. 5U-iJ0). They 
either bury or bum their dead, but a child under two is always 
buried. When they bury tho body is laid in the grare with tbo 
turban and other clothes on, and tho chief mourner, followed by 
tbe others of the party, throws over the corpse a handful of earta 
and closes tho grave. When they burn, the chief moamer sets Bra 
to the pile, walks thrice round it with an earthen water jar on his 
flhouldei's, in which a small hole bait been piercud, dusljea it on the 
ground, and boats bis mouth with tbe palm of hia hand. Tbe 
fniiond piirty bath« and return to tho mourner's house and separate. 
Next day the spot where the deceased was buried is levelled, or 
if the body was burnt the ashes are thrown into water. On 
tho teuth day rice or wheat balls are prepared and some of 
tbem are oftered to the sj)irit of tlio doc«wed and thrown into 
the water and others are left to the crows. The funeral expenses, 
including a feast to relations and friends, do not exceed £1 
(Ra. 10). Their favourite gods arc Khandobn, Jotiba, and Vithoba, 
whose images thfy biive in their b<iu:ius. They womhiji dead 
ancestors and snakes, and go on pilgrimage to Alandi and 
Pandbarpur. They also worship Muhammadan saints, and havo 
no holynien or sdilhuf of their owd. Their priests aro onlinnry 
Deshasth Brdhmans. 'They are paid IJi/. (1 n.) at a birth, 9(i. to 2s. 
(Re. j • 1) at a marriage, and 6d. [i a».) at a death. The Brahman 
who oiBointi'* does not suffer degradation for associating with them. 
Tbey keep the uxual Flimlii fust sand feiistM. They havo no headman 
and an old and intelligent member of llie caste is idways consulted 
in social disputes. Adultery and eating with people of lower caste 


eccan ) 


is punished with expulaion. A Chi.mhh&x'd shadow u not now-n- 
Anya lliought uubenr&ble by tho bigher claesoe. Some »eaA llicir 
bo;» to sirliool niid havo (^ninvd Qoreromout situatiotiii. Some goto 
I'ootia and Bouibivy and other places in search of work. The 
IrlocbiH and I*srde«bis am fairly off, btit the Dhor« and village 
C)iiitiibliiir« do litUo more tban Mini n living. 

Ghis&'diB, or Tiukcrs, iu<e returned aa numbering 243, and as 
found over the whole district except in KJidnSpur, MAn. and Vdlra. 
Thoy have no tmditioo of their origin or of their arrival in the 
district. Thvy bavu no Hubdivisinna and claim no retationshij) with 
other tribes. Their siirnaniett are Cliaviu, I'advalkar, Povdr, and 
Bfllunke. They are dirty, extravagant and hard worki off, and in 
houito, drees, and fuod resemble cultivating Mnrnlhits. Thi<y aro 
stnirig and robust and itharpen knives, cleoin sword bl^dcf*, atid uiuko 
Bword alieaths nud iron tools. Thev earn I^'j. to I*. (l-8as.) a day 
and their monthly expeasea vary from 8t. to £1 (Rs, 4- 10). They 
marry their girls between eight and twelve and their boys between 
twelve and Cwentv-tivo. Tbcy spend £3 to £4 (Rs. 30-40) on a 
girl's marriage and £5 to £6 (Kb^ 50-CO) on a boy's. They allow 
widow marriage and polygamy. Thoy bury their dead, epentliiig 
nbout £1 (Ks. 10). Their family god is Khandoba of Jt-juri tint 
tboy worship all BrAhmanic and local gods and goddesses and 
have images of their gods in thi-ir houses, llioy go on pil^'^iimage 
to Jejuri, Pandhan>nr, and I'nljilpur, and keep the naunl Hindu 
fasts and feasts. Their prieets are the ordinary Martltba Brdhmana 
whom tlicy greatly respect. They pny their priests 1 {d. (I a.) at a 
birth, 2a. (Ke. 1) at a marriage, and GJ. (4 it*.) at a death. One of 
Ihoir elders settJes their social disputes. Some of them aond their 
Ixiys to school and a few have succeeded in gaining Government 
euiploymont; others go to Piiona.Hemhay, and other places io search 
of work. They are a poor class and sunk in debta. 

Kanja'rls, or Weaving Brutihmakers, aro returned as numbering 
twii but <iihiT» scum to have Ijceu eotorod under some other htiid us 
they are found in KiilAra, Kardd, Khiinitpur, Mdn, and TA.igiwn. 
They have no tradition of their origin or of their arrival in the 
district, and have no connection with any other tribe. Their 
sumamoA aro Bhayits, Ohnyar, bhilaya, and Sankut ; and families 
bearing the same surname do not intermarry. 'J'heir names are either 
Hindu or Muhammadan, the men's Bnbaji, Bhan, Gnlu, Hflji, and 
Snltitu ; and thn women's Chuniyn, Gangn. Piiiiji, Mnlt4ni, and Juli. 
They look like Mh£rs and MAngx, are dark and middle sized, and 
tho men wear short or long beards and moustaches. They speak 
both Msrdthi and Hindtistilni and wander in gangs of twenty or 
twenty-Sve. Like Kolh&lis they chivngo camp every fifteen days 
and carry their goods on donkeys, lliey live in tents and except 
eaKhen potit liavo no furntturo. Their slnplo food is millet bread 
and vegetables, but they eat finh and flesh, drink liquor, and 
enidlii! hemp. The men drees in short trousers, a waistcoat^ a 
alioLildercIulh, n MartLtlm turban, and shoes. Tho womea wear tho 
Mardtha robe and bodice, lie the hair in a knot behind the head, 
and do not deck their beads with-doners or use false hair. The men 
gain their living by begging, and making ropes and weavers' bruidiea. 

Chapter TBt. 




(Bombay Gaiett 

Chapter III. 



and the n'omi}n »• boggan) and thieves Imt not prostitutes. Thevi 
notorious thicvos and are always under the eye of the police, Tl 
consider ttiemselree higher tkiLD Chiitiibhars, Dhcdis, Mfio;^, Mfal 
or MnBalmAns, and say Uiey do not eiit from their haniU. '~ 
godti arc ThiUcur and Ndl !<tUieb, and thpy have no images iii 
houees. They do not ask Br&kmauB to officiate at their houscfl, '. 
no religious head, and undertake nu pilf^riinuges, For» woinan't 
conftiiimiont they build a now hut, aud the confined votnau en^ 
no midwife, herself cut« the child's navel-cord and hurios it in 
hut in a hole akng with the iifter-hirth. For liv<; davs the xaf. 
and child hntlic in hot watt^raudiii the evening of the filth they 
the child and treat caatenien to liquor worth 2*1. (Re, 1). 1 
a marriage is ttcttli'd the boj's father gires the castemon b4. (Rs. 2| 
wtd the girl's father So. (Hh. 1^), and it ist spent in treating 
caste to liuuor. They make marriage booths at both ibe boysi 
the girl's houHea and tie bunches of mango leaves to a baml 
post. In the evening tliey trciit Iho caslomen to a dinner of mutt 
and pulse cakea On tlia morning of the man-iage day, at thi 
Iiomee, the boy and girl are rubbed with turmeric, and in thf 
uvoning the boy is Hented on horseback and taken in procc«sioa i 
tb j giH'a. Here the boy and girl are made to stand side by side ai 
an elderly casteman throws nnhueked rice on tbeir beads and tb< 
uxi husband and wife. The guests arc given a dinner of riw 
curds and the dny's procRi^dings are over. On the Hfth day 
boy ia seated on the shoulders of the girl's father and the girl 
those of the boy's father and tbcy go round the booth Gvo timit 
A wheat bread iind mulnK*e« dinner is given, ami the tvro familie 
exchange clothes, the boy walks with his bride to her new homo 
and thu marrtugo eoromony is over. Kanj&ris allow widow inarna| 
nud practise polygamy bub know nothing of polyandry. Tl 
married are burnt and llie unmarried buried. After death ho 
water is poured over the body and it is laid on a bier, covered wit 
a shei^t and with redpowder. It is carried to the hurninf 
ground and ia either buried or burnt, 'lliey observe no mciurnini 
exceptr feasting the casta on the third and seventh day on rice and 
pulse. They have a hitttdmau called Mukha who iwttles socia" 
disputes at caste meetings. They do uot send their boys to ache 
and arc very poor. 

Ea'ranjkars, or Fountain Makers, nleo nllvd Dalsingara 
and Jmgars, apnareiitly ijaddlo* makers, are returned al_ 
numberitig IjOl and as found all over the district except in JAvli. 
They say they carao into the district from Bijapur during the 
time of AumngKob, and tliat the founder of their caste was 
Muktadev, Thu men are dark with regular features, aud weur tlie 
topknot and monstneho, but neither the beard nor whiakers. The 
women are good>loakiug, tie the htiir in a knot behind the head, nib 
rwlpowder on their brows, and deck their heads with Hower*. Their 
home speceh iit Mivrritlii, they live in middle class ho uxpit, eat fish aud 
flesh, drink liquor, aud dress like Manilha Bifthmans. Tbey are cle»n, 
neat, orderly, hardworkiug and intelligent, and follow altnost 
callings. Tbey make lanccN, gnns, »words, suddlo-oloths, marria 
head emamcnts, metal pota, and fans, bind bocks, lacqaer bed-[ 




and fralkinj; sticks, hdiI make and mend padlockn and mtdlus. 
They wMrNliip ttio usiiid Bnlbuinnic and local goda and fpxidesses 
and llieir family gnds ara Ambdbii of I'liljfipiir, Kiilubiii of 
S)iiit)pur in 8aUlra, and Khaodob* of Jejuri. Tiiolt' {irieatH nro 
Martithik Ilriihmnii!* whom Uioj grcaUy ruvpuot. On the fifib day after 
the birtU of a cbild they lay sandid, tormenc, vi-rmiliou, flowers, 
burnt inccnso and Hvrcetinvftt before the goddess Satviti and olTui- 
her cooked foo<l. On the eerontb tlic; ii^in worsliip llie 
KwldeBS Salvii and offer ber wet gram, 'ilicir tvnth and twelfth 
day ceremoniefl are the same na those of Doshnslh Urahmaiu. 
Tb(jy gird a boy with tlio sncrcd tiircad before he ie t«n. Tliey 
marry their girla before they tint ten iind their boys beforo (lioy 
are twenty-fire. They burn their dead, hold caste councils, send 
tlii'ir boys to scliool, and aro ft pour but steady class. 

Ka'sa'rs, or Bangle Maken*, ore returned asnumborinf; 3085 and 
KH fmmil ornr the whole district, lliey aredirided into Kilsdrs and 
Uiitii^ade who eat togothor and inlornjany. They are fair, middle 
stiu-d, and thin. They apeak Mur^thi and most of them live in houses 
of thebeltur Hort, oncor two stureva high, with brick walls and tiled 
roofs. Tbcir staple food is milUt, rice, and regetAblce, and tjiey 
dt'ny that they ent fisih or fie>ili or drink ii<(uor. They also decUro 
they eat from the hands of no one bnt ItnUitnans. They dress like 
Br&hmans exc(>pt thnt eomo of them fold their turbans like 
MantthW They are hardworking:, thrifty, and orderly. Tliay 
make and sell broas and copper vessels and pnt gliuts bangles on 
vomeo's wrists. Some of thom sell needles, threwi, and 
miscellaneous articles, small wooden and tJc boxes, glass and wooden 
beads, eomba, dolts, and looking glaasea Otliers aro moneylenders, 
cultivators, and Government servant*. They worship the umial local 
and Brfihmanic [pitbt and goddesses, and obaervu the regular fasts and 
festivals, and never diue without bowing beforo th«Hr honso images, 
I'lK'ir priests are ordinary Mar^tha Br&hmana whom tliey hi^ljr 
re«pct-t. A woman goes to hor father's for her lirst confiDemoDt. 
, The goddess Siitviti is worshipped on Iho fifth day after a birlli 
Md her image is tied round the child's neck. Ulie mother and 
child are impure for ton <hiy8. On the twefth some elderly woman 
oames the child. B<jys have their Imircut with scissors before they 
are one year old, and are gtrl with the sacred throad before they 
are eight. They marry their girls before they are ten and their boys 
before they are twenty-five, Ilioy allow widow marriage, practise 

' " bum the dead, and 
es at cast* nuwtingB 
and rcadnnt those who liavo bcoa put out of caste on paying a line, 
whtd) is spunt in a ca.ste feast. They send their boys to school 
but take them away as soon as they have lonrnt to read and wrilu 
a little and a fair knowledge of arithmetic. Huch of them as deal iu 
pots are gnontlly weU-to*uo and live in houses of the better sort ; 
thoite who deal in bangles aro {woror. 

EosUtis, or Weavers, are returned as numbering 8032 and as 
foaud over the whole district. They are believed to have ortginallr 
ooiuc from Poitliaii aud uro dlrtdud into Muriilha Koelitis and 

polygamy, and except children who are buried 
noarn teu days. They soiile social disputes 


Chapter II 



(Bombay I 



C!lispt«r in. 



Lioj^'ijat Koslitis wlio iieltUer eat togcthor nor intermarry. ni**T ani 
dark, miildtc-oiited, and weak, and spc&k Marithi. Their hoag^^s i 
poor, and, beeidos a. coaplu of handlooms, their houso goodii isclii 
Boine eartlien and u few metal t&kioIa. TImj Ijiugiyat Koalitu adl 
etrict vpgvturiiuis, and the Mar^tba Kosbtia eat tiab aod flesb anil 
drink liquor. Both classvs droas like Mar&tha Eunbis. Tlia 
Licg&yats wear tho Un'j but not openly, liidiag it in ihcir tiirb&u 
or waistcloih, or leavins it in some safe place in the house, lla 
litiy is given them by Jaogama vbo are their pricslfl and an j 
wontbipped by Koshtis on marriage occasions. Thvy an Mbflrfl 
thrifty uid ba^working. They are weavora, a few cultivntoK, aod^ 
obhon clay<labourere, and are helped in their work by their womea 
The Liugdyat Koahtis worship Sbiv only, while the HaMth&s woniliip 
the usual locnl and BriiliuiAu gods and goddecM« nnd k«ep tlw 
rogular fusts and fcjit<ts. The prieeta of the Uar^this are Br^hmaoa 
who conduct their ninrriagea, while at the marriages of Ling&yat 
Koshtis both BrilbnianH aud JangumB ofiloiato although the Jaogams 
only are tbcir priontit. The cuatoms of the Mai-dthas are the same 
of those of Mar^tha Kniibis. The Ling&yats bury their dead and 
observe no mourtiiog, while the Marilhas burn thoir dead and lh«y 
holtl mourncnt impure for ten dayit. They have no headman and 
settle Social diaputea at caste meetings. Koahtis fiend their boys 
to school till they cau road and writoa littto ManithL Their cmft i« 
falling owing to tho conri|iutition of machinu-mitdo cloth and the 
Ko:ihtis have tukea to tillage and day labour. They aie a falling 

Kumbba'rs, or Pottcn^, arc returned as nninbering 12,321 and' 
na fMiinil ovci- the wholo diatiict. They say tho founder of their 
ciiHle waa the sago Knuibh. They have no subdiviaiona. They look 
like cultivating MnrAtbtiM, »nd cannot bo told from them except _for 
thoir dirty mud-atuined clotliea. Thoir homo tonguuis Man'ithi and 
they live in poor houses. Their staple food is millet, rice, and 
vegetablos, and they occusionally eat fish and flesh and drink Uqnor 
rathi-r freely. They dress like cultlvnling Marithilsand aro hnrd- 
working, thrifty, hospitable, and orderly. They make tiles, bricks, 
aud earthen pota and figures of men and auiiuaU. Though their 
appliuncesaro uiottt simple, they aro expert in makiugneat and par- 
tiiiUy oruamonted articlea. All tho members of the ramilv help in 
the work. In villages the potters are included in the village staff 
oud proridi) tho rillagors with earthon pots-for which they are paid 
in gmiu at harvoat time. In some Tillages thoy still bold land. 
They worship the usual local and Brilmanic gods and goddMSm and 
their family uoitios are Mnhadov of SinguApur and Jagadaniba whose 
shriue is in the old fort of SAlinv. They Keep tho regular Hindu 
(nsta and festivals and their prieata are vtllfigo Bnthmims whom 
they greatly respect Among them a girl's father has to look ont 
for a husband for his daughter. When one is found, a day before 
the marnngn the boy aud girl are rubbed with„turmerie at their 
homos. The married women with mnsic go to the waste lands and 
bring mango, j-imhhul, and fig loaves and tie them toa post in tho 
booth. On the niai-riago day at both houses reUtions are [cu»ted 



on mutton, and tba boy ui eeotedon ahomonnd talccn mproco(!sioa 
to tW girl's. On bJB way lionlighlKnt ibe villug«MiinitiVwlibnliv« 
tnon polt Iiim Tritb bMJls of wh««l Hour. He bown bofuro tlie god, 
goi-s to tbe girl'a houfie. and stands at tbo entrance of tbebootb, A 
reliitivu of the girl's comes out. navi>« li coootiuat round his 
liead, and diulios it on tliP ^nmiid. The boy ftligliU, goes into tbo 
booth, and bathea. Tlio Br&hman priest apreada hall a pound of 
rice in thu booth and on the rico svts Rvo botcl packot«. Orer 
each packot ho places n copper, a piooo of dry oocoa-kvmel, and a 
turmeric root. The boy and girl Htand on each side of the sqiinro 
facing cnch other and two near relations hold a cloth or nitmUclta- 
eltila )>6twocn tfaem with thrvo tiirnioric strcnkM traced in tbo mid- 
dle of it. Ked rice grains nrc handed round nmong the giie»tD and 
tbo priest repeata the marriage verses, and at the end llio guesta 
throw tlio rice grains over the boy's and girl's heads, and they aiv 
bo-ibaud nud wife. The boy und girl now sit down and the girl's 
father waaUen tlie boy's feot. The priest tJea together the boms of 
the boy's and girl's clothes and they are seated on the altar. &lar- 
riage brow-horns or Ii(i«Ai;t(7« are tied round Ihoir brovrs, and the 
girl's father presents tbo boy with a metal waterpot, a cup, and a 
dish. A Bh£t generally of the Manltha caste, recites verses and 
at tliu end along with the gneet« throws rice grains over the boy'a 
and girl's heads. I'roBeutH of dotlieii are oxohaneod between the two 
bousos and a dinner by the girl's parents ends the day. Next day a 
winnowing fan Js filled with a ooupio of cocoonuts, a ponnd of nce, 
fourteen dough lamps, and an equal number of wafer biscuits, botol- 
nut«, turmeric roots, and pieces of oocoa-kernel, and twenty-6ve 
betel leaves, and, while the priest repeats versos, tho fan is laid 
ou tho beads of tho boy and girl and their near ruliitivcs. Tho 
prieat retires with his marriage fee of 2*. fij. (Hs. H) and tbo 
guests are treated to a dinner. The boy returns home with his 
bride in a procession and a dinner is hold. Nestdny tho boy and girl 
are bathed and while bathing splaoh ono another with turmeric 
water and rub eacli other with turmeric paste, Fc-mali* guefita also 
throw turmeric water, powder, and water mixed witJi tilth and mud. 
A fcMiti ends tlm marriage festivities. Except that they bum vavding 
or prickly {>our under tho mother's cot and give her hitf'ot to 
increaee oer milk tfacir birth customs are the same as those of 
tho Marith^. On the fifth day they worship the goddess Satv4i and 
kill a goat in her name. On the seventh they repeat tho worship 
but offer no goat. On the twelfth they cradle Uio child, name it, 
slaughter a goat, and feast castcmen. They either bury or burn tho 
dead, and, except tliat the daughter or daughter-in-law wares a 
lighted lauip round the deceased's fuco at tho time of laying thu liody 
on the bier, their ouotoms do not di^er from those of MarAtntb. The 
chief mourner does not get his moustache shaved and each member 
of iho funeral pnrly lays five pebbliw on the upot where they halt 
while carrying tho body to the burning ground. They lave a head- 
man called mketrya who settles social disputes at caste meetings, 
lliey do not send thoir boys to school nnd arc poor. 

Loha'rs, or Dlacksmiths, are returned as numbering o 1 93 and 
as found oror tho whole diatricl. Thoy sny tlioy came into the 

Chapter III. 



IBmnbsT Oatetti 

Chapt«T in. 




district aliout ten gcnc-rntions aeo but from whcro thej canDot I 
Ttieir siirnume:* um Jjidhuir, Karro, lilngilooi, Niksm, uud Pof 
and families bearing tbe samo surname out together but do 
intermarry. Tho names in common nse among men are 
Biilyu, Ouvindji, Nini, and Snnttv ; and among womon Bh/igu, Ji 
Koyni, ami LiikHhumi. Timy look tiku KuubiA, are dork, atr 
robuEt, and regiilar featured. They speak MarAthi and lireuiJ 
middle class Lonscs. Thoir staple food is millet and vogetablnJ 
ThoyoccuMionnlly cat Bnh and fiuali, and when they can afford it drink] 
to excesa. Doth men and women dress like 3»tnith^, are bard- 
working, and work as blacksmiths and repair fieid tools. They eani 
Qd. to la. (a». 4-S] a day. They worship tho ordinary Bnihmanis] 
and lucnl godn and goddesiteH and their family deities are Dhavd 
Khanduba. and Viihoba. Their prie^ls are the ordinary riDanl 
Briibmans who oiBciatc at their houses. They wear tbe sacred thread,! 
but pi.Tf<Liriii uu ceremony at tho time of putting it on. Theie] 
marriage custoiua are tiie same as tbosa of Kunhis, and they psyj 
their prie§ts 2e. to 4s. (Its. I • 2) for conducting their ma 
EsL-opt children they btim thoir dead and hold the doceasvd's (amilf ] 
uncluau for ten days. They allow widow marriago, pntctiM poly- 
gafiiy, know notniug of polyandry, and believe in spirits and 
iritcncrafl. Tboy Bettle social disputes at ca-';te meetings. They do^ 
notsond their boys to »cliool and are ecui'ccly able to niuintmnj 
tbetnselvea and their families. 

Lona'ris, or Cement Makers, aro retnrned as numbering 211! 
and as fuiiud over tbe whole district except in Patau. They havo I 
no subdivisions; hoiho of their surnames are Cbarre, Dhinc, Gtle, I 
K&le, and KAngat ; and families bearing thu tiaiiie suruamQ do not | 
intermarry. They do not differ from Mantthis in appearance, j 
speech, dwelling, food, or dross, and are dirty but hardworking.] 
They make cement, sell charcoal and 6rewood, and serve as daj-j 
labourers;. They are helped in thoir work by their women and] 
children. Their priests are Deshaatb Br&h mans, and their family 
deities arc Ai Bhaviiui of Tiiljdpur, Kbaiidoba of Jejnri, and Brith- I 
moiiAth and Vallama of the Ktirii^tak. 'J'hcy worship the regular ' 
local and Br&hmanic gods and goddesses, keep the nsual fasts and . 
feasts, and in no way differ in religion from Kaabis. Excejit that , 
nl tho time of marriugo tho buy and girl are made to stand in 
bamboo baskets, thoir customs arc the same as thoKe of MarAtli^ 
IiondriB are badly off hardly able tu maintain themselves and their 
families. They do not send their boys to school. 

Ota'ris, or Caators, aro returned as numbering 236 and os found 
all over the di.tlrict. They Iiavo no diviKionjt, IcMik like MonithAs 
and speak Mar^thi. They lire in ordinary middle sized houses with > 
walls of brick and tiled roofs. Their staple food is millet and vege- 
tables and occasionnlly rice, Gsh, mutton, and liquor. Both men ' 
and women dress like Mai'4tbA.s. They are hardworking, making 
and selling brass pota, Jingling bella, too riuga, and images of Ilindu 
gods and of animals. Their wbmen help them in their cidliug. Tboy 
worship tbe usual local and RrAhmauic gods and guddos^eit, and Ihmr 
family deities ave Amb^b&i of Anndh, Jotiba of Ratnigiri, Khaudoba 

of Ji>juri, and Sulhobn of HhosTsd. Their privets ara villftgo 
Br^maiL'i to whotu they paj prent rospcct. Thoy Vtsip the ordinary 
JEn-tU nod festivals and mikB pil^i-iinaRes to Alauui, BeimriA, Jujnn, 
"' ilc, I'unJlmrpur, and TuljApur. T^uy believe in sorcery, wit«h- 

t, BootUaayiug, ocnotit, and lucky uul uiiluuky dnya, tuid codsuU 

orncles. They are bound together as a body, and ^nd llioir boys 
tu Hcli(x)l. Tlieir cAlling is well pud and toey earn enongh U> keep 
themselves and their fAiniliea in ootofori. 

Fa'tharvats, or Stone Oreseers, are retnmed as namberioff 101 
and M (oitiid ovor thu whole district except in EanEd and Koro- 
gaon. 'I'lujy liave no dirisiona. Thoy ar« dwk and strong. They 
spook MariUhi and live in houses with brick walla and tili>d ruofa, 
Tlurir iiiiiplo food is millet, pulse, and vegetabtee, and they oat fish 
and lluith mid drink litiuor. Both noQ and wooton dross like Kunbis. 
Tho women's ornaments are for tltc neck the gold-buttoucd necklace 
or mangaiautTa worth \&a. [lis. 8) and the vn/ratii worth £i 
(Ba. 20), for the hands Bilvurwmtlots or yoi* worth £1 (Rs, 10), aud 
for the foet silver anklets or toiicM worth £5 to£10(lt.i.S0-100] and 
too rings worth 10*. (Its. ft). They are hardworking orderly and 
boKpitablo. I1ii>y are stonu mOMOun and make stone images of gods 
animals and men. I'hey make grindstones, rollers, and han^- 
mills. Their wouion do not holp them in their work. They wor- 
ship the uitual local and Br&hmanto g<Kl!i aud goddesses, and keep 
the regular fasts and festirals. Their family deities are Bhav&ni 
iChandoba and Vithoba, and their priests who oondact their 
miuriago and death oeromonies belong to their own ca»t». They 
lielieve in sorcn-ry, witchcraft, soothsaying, omens, and lucky and 
nnlucky days, and consult onioles. I'hvy miirry thoir girls before 
thtty aro xistecn, aud tlivir bovM before they are twenty-tiTO. A mong 
them the boy's father has to look oat for a wifo for his son. When 
lie (iuda a fitting girl both the boy's and girl's fathers go to the 

Jgv lutrologor who compares the horoscopes and approves of the 
MI if he thiakfl it will be lucky. If the girl s father is well-to<do, ho 
orms his danghter's marriage at his own expense. If ho is nnable 
to bear tlio marriage chargeH, the boy's i&\her pays him £-t to £5 
[R%. -iO- 'jO] HH the price oftbe girl and porsuad<rs him to a(x:e})t tlie 
oBer. When both fathers sgroo, on a lucky day the hoy'n fathor wilJi 
pneortwo fi-iend^ viHits the girl's house and presents her with a green 
lbs and bodice and sometimes with a pair of silver chains if his means 
illow. The girl's fathor wolcomM the guests and tlicy are seated. 
rbe girl is drossod in the soit of clothes presented to her by tho 
toy's folhor, and bowa before him. Tho uoy's Esther marks her 
irow with ffermilion and Inys a cocoaiiut in her hands. She bows 
before tho house gudii. guosts, aud elders, and a feast to the guests ends 
Ibo Ix'trothal or muani. Betel is serred to the guests and thoy leave. 
Booth^s are raised before the houses of both the boy and girl aitd 
be villug*! astrologer or Joshi names a Incky day for the marriage. 
A. dny or two before tho marriogu, an axe and five troe-li-avoa or 
tdntk piilvii), the IcAvee of the dmb<t Maogifom indica, the 
imbar Ficii^ glonierata, the taundnd Proaopia spiooigent, thojambhul 
lyvigiuni jambolanum, aud tho rat Calobropia gigantea, aro tied to 
booth-poet called the first post or inuhuHmedh, as the marriage 
a lina~l2 

Chapter lit. 








gtiardian or d^ah and worshipped with the nsnal offerioKV 
tarmoric f>i»»te, rice, betel, and cooked food. The boy and girl f 
at tlieir homes, are Bpnit'd on a low bIooI placed in u wheat sqi 
marked by the prii-wt, »nd nibbed with turmeric by a lucky 
pirl who i* named by the priest. They ar^ then bnthed and 
browa are bung with a network of flowers and the turm«ric nib] 
ends with n tntat called hnldieJte jevan or the turmeric te' 
friends atid kinsfolk. Kext toominf; sandal, flowera, and 
cakes are set before the fiin)ily goda and iho fnmily-god wonbr 
ilev(;ari/a in comploto. Invitations are sent to frienda and rel 
Tho bridegroom is dressed In rich clothes and taken on b«r»el 
to the bride's with riukic and (riciida. He halts on htK way at tiM 
temple of tha Tillage MUruti, bows to llio god, lays before him ■ 
copper and betel packet, again bows and asks his blessing. Tin 
girl B people meet him at tlio temple and proHent him with i 
tarlwn or waiittcloth. The bridegroom niounta his borae and ridai 
to the girl's with music and fnends and kinsmen. When b 
reacbea the booth, a lemon and cocounut arc waved rotind his heai 
and thrown on one side. He in then allowed to dismount am 
ta^en to a low iftool set in a wheat xqnare marked by the priest. A 
the lucky moment dntwit iK'ar, the bride comes out and KlnndK facin 
the bridegroom, the priests bold a curtain marked with the lU' ' 
cross or nantii between them, and repeat marriage rofscs. 
a«troIog«!r t«IU (he lucky moment, tho priorts remove the eurta 
the gtiesis throw red rice over tlie couple's beads, and they arti 
husband and wife. The pair then walk into the hoaBe> bow before 
tho hooim goda, and are fed from tho «am« di«h of itwcvt food.. 
When the meal ia over they are seated on tlie raist-d altar or bahule, 
•nd their clotliCM are Ictiott^cd together. Music plays and tho prieii 
mark)* their brawa with rerniilion and sticks rice grains on it. Tfat 
other guests follow each waving a copper coin and throwing it in ■ 
diah placed at the foot of the altar. At last the akent or f^rain -sticking 
ceremony ia over, the bridegroom']* ]>arty are trenlod to a dinnoTf 
and retire for tho night. Nest day the robe ceremony or«iiVii ia 
performed at the bride's, whou their fathera>in-lftw present tbfl 
pair with suits of clotbea and orufimentN, and thii couple go to 
the bridegroom's hoaae with music and friendit. 'llio in^niaga 
gnardinus are bowed out and a fcnsl and a return feast at the houses 
of th(( bridegroom and the brJd.! comph-t*; the ceremony. Pjliharrats 
allow child and willow marriage, pmctise polygamy, and know 
nothing of polyandry. At a widow marriage, the suitor give* tho 
widow a robo and bodice for herself and a turlum and jC2 lOr. 
(Rs. 25) in cash for her father. On a lucky nigRl the priest 
visita her house and conducts the ceremonv aboat one htindreil 
yards outsidr of Iho house in the presence of live or six men fritiida 
of the couple. Hie e(iii])1o are seated on low stools in a wheat 
square marKud by the priest, their browa arc marked with vermilion, 
and rice grains are stuck on it, and they bow before tho priest. 'ITw 
widow puts on toeriiigs or jodria but she ia not allowed to weai 
tlie lucky necklace or VMUgahutra. Ikfarried women are not allowed 
to BOO her for three days, after which a feaat to friends and relations 
completes the ceremony. Wien a girl cornea of age, she aits uparl 

Deccan 1 



for tbrpc dnjs, and on tho fourth is t>athed, and lier Inp fi11«cl with 
ricv aiid II i-ocuKniit. On the norotith or tenth iay, she is dressed 
m a ueiT robe nnd bodice, her brow i» decked with flowora, and 
rice cocoaDut betel and fruit nru Uid ia her Ian, Frieiid« nud 
kinsfolk itro trcutud to n diuiiet and llio ago-comiiig ceremony is 
over. Wotneu aa a rule go to their pai-euU for tlivir firiit coufinenieDt. 
M^'hcn a woman ti bruuj^ht to bvd a midwife is called in. 8I10 digs 
ft botth-hole or nhdni in tlie IvJn^-iii room, ctitd the child's navel- 
cord, puts it iu an earthoii vessel, and burt&H it in the bath-liole. 
Thf nintfaor and child aro daily bathed in warm water, rubbod with 
lurmcrio null oil, mid laid on a cot, under which a liropot is set 
and sweet fennel or batii»hop and Ligaiiticuin ujwten or onva are 
burnt iu the firepot. On tho fifth night an embossed gold or »ilvor 
imago of SatvAiiidaidonalowstool ia the lying-in room, atiddowenr, 
turmeric paste, vermilion, cocoa-kernels, betel, burnt frankincense, 
and cooked rico, pulse, and vegetables are set before the low slool. 
Tho luothor with tho child in hvr uruis bows before the goddesa and 
next day tJte image is tied round the ubild'K ueck. On the twelfth 
Ibe mother's iuipunty is over, the hoase ia cowdungod luid tho 
mothcr'it clothuH are wiLshud, now bangle* aro pat round her wHat:t 
and »be is dressed in a new robe and bodice. Women neighboftra 
and friends meet at tho mother's, lay rice and acocoaaut iu hvr lap, 
present tho child with a hood or kunchl, «ing songs, and cradle and 
name the child. The guests are trratod to a diuner ; betul and boiled 
gram arc served to them, and tliey withdraw. They barn or bury 
their ilead and mourn ten days. The dead is bathed in warm 
water, dressed in a white sheet, and laid on a bier. If the deceiucd 
ia a Diarried woman sho i« drettsed in a green robe and bodice. 
A roll of botvl and a pioee of gold are put into the dead mouth, the 
body is tied ^l to thebier and covered with a white sheet, redpowder 
and hotel leaves are thrown over tho bior, and some married girl 
of tho house, cither a chiughter or a daughter ^iu -hi vr, waves liglits 
round the dead, and with a low bow withdi-avrs. The coraHe-bdarvrs 
tie a copper aud a small cjike bo tho horn of the shroud, lift the bier, 
aod follow the chief mourner who takes the lead carrying tho (irepot 
hung from a string. Ou their way to the funeral ground, thi> 
mourners halt, throw the copper coin and tho bread that wore tied iu 
tho shroud to one aide of the road, change places, lift the bier, and 
walk Htniight to some stream or rivor where they burn or bury tho 
dead according to the chiuf monmcr's means. Tliu chief mourner 
bas his head except iho topknot and his face sliavod. Tho funeral 
rites aro over and the mourners bathe and go home. Ou tho third 
day they gather the ashes of the dead and throw them into the 
river or stream. Tho chief mourner waslK^ tho spot where tha 
dead was burned or buried with cowduug, sots a stone in tho name 
of the dead at the place, Uya sandal paste, flowers, vermilion, rice, 
Iramt fmnkinconM), and fiwd l)r!foro the stone and withdraws a little 
to see whether the crows touch the food. At last he bathes and 
returns homo, and a caste foast ends tho coreinony. Pitthari-at^ do 
not ask DeshuNth BrAhmans to their bonaes, but priciirtd of their 
own <'hi8B conduct their ceremonies, and receive a pair of shoea 
2«. (Ko. I) in cash at every di-ath rite. 

Chapter C 

When a woman dies iB 






childbed, eho rc-coivcH every mark of lionoor vcliich a marned wc 
ought to haw. While she is b«iiig carried to the fuD«ra] (rroond 
man closely follows the corpse- b«irer« hItowidr the path with r 
I'anicuin italicutn wtxl thi^L ih» Hpirilof the dead may not returu4 
hftutit the living. Pitharvats Lave a caste conncil and a ho 
calli>d Mhetrc, and eettlc social disputes nt cai«t« moolingK. Br 
of social rules are punii<hcd nilh tin«H which take ibe furm 
viude feiuttn 'Hiey aeud tlieir boys to school but do not keep tl 
loug at school or take to uew parsaits. Thoy arc a steady clasa. 

PatvekftPS.orTaswl Maker*, nr« returaed a« Duml>ering 1 KJan 
as found onlj- in Pitnn and Sotira Thfty day they came orijfinal' 
from Onjarat about two hundred years ago in search of work. Tl 
have no diriEions. Their »iim»incs nro KabAdc, Kutire, Pot 
Shnlgnr, and Sbiiilkar. The names of their ^mily stocks 
UhtLradvij, GantaiD, KAabyap, and N&radik, and femdies of the i 
Buroame and stock cannot intomi&rry. The names of tb« moo 
Bob^NA, l.iikxhuiiviinsa, MiiiiikMi, ftndTiikilr£ii8a;aDd of the woe 
BhAgirthi, Chandra, Koyua, and Yamuna. They look like high i 
Hindus, the men keeping the tnp-knot and nioiislacho but nofcj 
bcnnl. I'heir home tongue is lltijar&ti, but with otbent they 
MarAthi. They live in EonBes of the better sort, one or two stor 
high, and own metal pots, cots, boxes, and budding. Tlioy kc 
MTTanta and hare cowii, bultockn, ponies, and goat«. llieir m»f 
food is rice, pnUe, and vegetables, and they are fond of sonr ai 
pungent dishes. They say they ost mutton onco a year on the Daaat 
in £iopteniher-Oct<ilirr, and on no other occasion. They drii 
liquor. The niL-n di-ess in a waiatcloth, a coat, a tarban ora cap, i 
a pair of Klmuf), Hud thf women in n full Mardtba robe and bodice, i 
mark their brows with redpowder. They do not wear fuUc hair, i 
their girls deck their heads with flowent. They are a Imrdworkin; 
simple, quiet, and hospitable people. They are silk workers, make an 
dye silk threads for necklaces and jewelry and home and palani^ui 
trappings, and go hawking them from vilhige to village. Tlw^y worshr^ 
all the usual locnl and Bruhmanic gods and goddesses and thcif 
chief family goddess in the Jtigadamba of ToTjApur to whom tbe] 
make tows. Their family pricsta are rillugu BrAhnuins anc 
their ndigious teacher is a Brdbman named Oopaliidth. They alio 
widow marriage, practise polygamy, and barn the dead. The 
hold caste councils and settle aocial disputes at coslu nicotinj 
They wnd their boys to school and are a steady people. 

Ranga'ris, or Dvers, nro rotm-nod as numbering thirty-Gve nn< 
aa found in Karid, KhiinSpur, SiltAra. Tii«gaon, and Valva. The 
hare so dirisions, speak Maritbi, are fair and good-looking, clca 
in their liabito, sobor, and hardworking. They do not differ froE 
Mar&th^ in bouse, food, or drocs. They prepare colours and 
and dye cloth, an^ their women help jn their work. They i 
widow marriage and polygamy. Their ^rnily goda are Bahirol 
Ehandoba, and Vithoba, and their priestsare ordinary Mar' 
HrAhmans. They hold caste councils. They send tliuir boj 
school but keep Ihum at Bcbool only for a ^ort time. They 
profporoua chus. 

^ rafDBBaMi niHt rmwhu ; Mill tmomff 
I BhA^, Gaoga, Koyiia, and B«khiiis. 'Hiey «« liordwork- 
1^1, Kid respectful. Bugging i% their borpditary calling, 
ey irmre strips of ooarse cloth, t«pe, udd racking. They aro 
toguUier by a strong casta-faeliag, sead their boys to aohool, 
e poor.' 

i>l« district . Thuy f*y I hiit acoordiiip to tli.rir sacred books tbo 
wof their oaate was Kuiiianl who wa* born from the month o£ 
ishvarortheSnprcmeBetD^. Onvdiiy Fnriii(tshvar asked Suimint 
ebim a picGo of doth lo wear. As Suiunnt hud nono, tho 
bty jptayed to the minor gods wbobecameinstrunientsofweavinff 
■r toia Teaeou nrearinc tools have the names of gods and saiiv>a. 
ire divided into LingAyut tuid .\f ar^lhi^ Snkut or Good-familicd 

TIte ManfUlLto are dark, of middle statoro and ordinary 
Af and their home tonffiie is MadUhi. Tbey life io 
one or two storeys fai^h with walls nf brick and tiled roofs. 
Itwle food is niillol, but they cut fUh and flp.-<Ii and drink 

Both men and women dress like Mar^thiU and are patient 
nrking and orderly. Thoir horvditary calling is weaving and 
^ in cotton and wot^llen cloths such us waistclolhit and 
to. Thuir family trutU are Bhar&ni of Tulj&par, Khandoba 
i, and Mahidev of Siiif^&pur. Thoir priost« arc the ordinary 
■ BnihinaDJ^, and their miirnag^; rind other cuslonis and HtM 
. difI>T from ihiisfl of the Poona Silia.- They have no head- 
ad settle social dispates at caste tnccttn;:;s. They send their 
[> school for a short time. Th«ir craft in fiUlitig and thoy aro 
j toned circa mxtan COS. 

|sars,or Wool-weavers, are retnmod as nnmbering 2837 and 
id over the whole district. Thvy hn>-c no divisions, speak 
li, and look liki.! Knnbis. ITicy live in hom^es with walls of 
uid tiled roots. Thoir houses contain nothing except a fuw 
and clay pots, a conple of blankets, and a cx>t or two. They 
h and fiosh and drink liquor. Their staple Food is millet 
bles and pulse. Both men and women dreas like Ulartfth&s. 
sn hardworking, fmgal, and hoepitahle but dirty. Their 

rSombaj Gautu«rJ 


Chapter III. 



name tlio cLild on Uie tivoUth. Among them a boy's 
hnK to loolc out for a wifo for bis hou, atid wbcn 
found, both the boy's and Birl's folhors learn from the 
astrologer whether thi! stitr.t fnvour tho inntch. If th« astroti 
BRjrs the trtarH favour thu match, the boy's fiithvr prwm-nts tho- 
W it h a new Rreen robe and bodicr.arupoe, anda co«>aQut, a»dr^ 
hor brow with rt-iipoTCdcr. A dintior to cai^t^.-mpn is given at (li 
joint cxponKO of both Iho fatherH. I'^rom a day to three yMr» »f 
coiucH the lUBiTin^. Boothsaro bnilt in front of both houses, and I 
boy and girl are rnbbod with turmcno at (heir houeos. Theirmarriaf 
gu^rdiitn or derak is the tive-treu leavos or ydttrh piitrw, tho 
umlntr, naitntlad, jdmbhu[, and rut. Oa the marriage day, 
on his way to tho ^■irl's, tlio boy goM to tho village tcntple, layi 
dagger before tho gu<l, and Kwoars that ho may foriuiko bis 'lac _ 
bnt novor hiit wife. He lays a packet of betel before the god, anl 
taking back tho daggor goes io procossion to the girl's, and takes hi^ 
stand bcforo thi- door of iho booth. One o£ iho girl's fcinsmeifl 
wartai a leuion and a cocoannt round the boy's head and tlie boj'^ 
dismounts and n-alks into tho booth. The boyand girl are then bathed 
and, dressing in now ctolhus, staud facing each other. Behind tbeia 
ntand tlieir inateroa] unclos with knives daf^^era or other weapon* 
in their hands; tho BrAhman priest ropoats marriage verses, and, 
at the etid, along with tho giiwls throws rico ovor the boy's 
Mid girl'n lu'iidx. I'ho hems of their clothes are knotted lovothor 
and the boy and girl axe t^en before the house gods. Whilo 
bowing before the gods, the boy robs an imago and hides it about- 
his person, and does not give it back until his gives 
him n mrw wjiinteloth. The boy and girl dine in &out of the house 
gods, and go and' tuko their seatK on lui earthen altar raised in a 
comor of tbu booth. Tho broHS of llie couple aro rubbed with rod- 
powder and turmeric ou which rice grains are stuck and in the even* 
ing proceedings end with a. feast. A <lay or two after, the boy goe~ 
back in proco.*sion to hia houtte with his bride, niosiciuuit, and roU 
tires and friends, and, after a feast, the guests retire. Whuti » gir 
comes of age they seat her by herself for four days and on tho Gf ' 
fill her lap with fniit anil present her with a new green robe 
bodice. Hangars allow widow marriage and polygamy. They eill 
bury or bum their dead, their funeral priests uoing Jan^ms. Thejl 
hold tho family of the dccetijied impure for three dnysjand, on tl 
moriiingof the fourth, they sip cow's urine and are pure. They holJ 
caste councils, send their boys to school for a short time, ana are a\ 
poor class. 

Bhimpis, or Tailors, am retnrnod as uiimboring Wdi and as found ' 
over tilt- whulo district. They are divided into Jain Sbimpia and 
M&mdev Shimpis. Tho Jain Shimpis get their name from their 
religion and the >iiutdevM from the poet and xaiut Ndmdev.* The 
Jain bhimpis aro a small body found in Karid, Tdagaon, and Valv^ j 

' Nilmdwv. one ol tlie uldut Mkratha ]>(H<t>. Bwirit tu have lircd in thu foart««it1 
Motury. He lit^Tongnd t« tho V\]'k.-iri pi nih or iluy-keeping auct, &U'l wu a grwtt 
vTonihiii(i('r uf \~ittaoba ol Puidliarpur. DnUuU am given in th« AbinadiiagK 
Stalisiwal dooount. 




b not <»t or marrj" with tlio Nimdcrn. The home lonjf iie of llie 
is GujartUi anrl of thv Sflmdcva Marjitlii. Tliey are clean aod 
and liioir women ara dark thin and rpgnlar-foatured. The 
ytvnr thu topknot im<] tiiim9itju.'he but ni'ithcr whi^kcnt iior tho 
d. They life in houses wiiU walla of brick and tiled roofs, 
ider ShimpLs oat tish ami flesh and drink liquor, but the Jaina 
trict TcgvUnniitt. Both drC9~-t likv itr^liritaait, the men in «raiHt- 
i.cuat, tiirbau, atiil shoes, and the women in the fall Uaritha 
I aiKl bodioe. They nro hardworking, sober, and bos]iitable- 
fBewand atU cloth and Ivnd money on interest. Their women 
them tu sewing cIot3tes and in some of the larger towns a few 
i begun to make use of feviog machines Their manners and 
mm art' tho siimu as tlioito of the Puona Jain and Ntitndov 
iWJt. Except children they bam their dead. The Jains wor- 
nltasnUtb, and the Nimdere worship tlic usual local and 
imnio god)i and goddesMW and (heir prieHls un> the ordinary 
Bn&hiuanH. I'lieir chief god in \'ithoba of Pandliarpiir and 
make )>enodical pilgrimapcs to his temple. They dine either 
ilk or wooIIkd waistt-lnths and seltlu aocial dibtputoK at c%«(u 
ingf. They send their boy-t to school snd are a well-to«do 

ilia'rs, or Ooldsmillis, are retumod as nnmbering 8231 and 

iouud ill all tnwnx and large vilhiges. Some have conio into 

dtBtrict from Gujarat, tho Bomlmy KarniLtak, and Madras, 

othera belong; to the district. Thc»u diTi;!iontt nvitiior eat 

thor nor intermarry. There is nothing remarkable in their 

•tance. The men wear tiie topknot and moustache and no 

d. Tho homo tongue of tho difft-n^ut SonArs is the language of 

country, lint with others all HpeiUl incorrect Afaralhi. They 

a slang language knovrn to themselves only which they u»e in 

ICO of their cuHtomers. Most lire in one^ton-yod houses with 

of brick »nd ston& 'lliey guncntlly luive no servants in their 

bnt in their shops are helped by men of their own castei 

ordinary food is millet, Hoe. pulse, and vegetables, and when 

can afford them tinli, iWh, and liriuor. They take their mcaU 

eeu ten and twelve in the morning and seven and ten in the 

□g. With them as with other castes the opportunities for feasts 

mliday^, niarringos, and other family ceremnnies, anil the 

al of important guests. On sncb occasions their chief diithes 

Bkesor balls, and their feasts cost 23 IV*. lo £3 (Kb.25-S0> 

nndred guests, llioy drv«8 like Mar&tha Br&hmans and only 

have a store of sncn rich clothes as silk robes and shawls. 

' are nont, clean, hardworking, aud skilful. TIjoy work in 

Fand silver and alito M-t gem.-t and other precions stones. They 

faroverbinlly dishonest. It is the general belief that gold or 

V pai^King throngh a goldsmith's hnnd.t not only loses weight 

leeomes mixed with base metal. The men work from six to 

•6 and again from two to eight. Tho women do nothing bat 

I work. Boys up to eight go to school, and after eight work 

(ir fathera' shops. Their tools cost them 12*. to £5 (Its. 6-50) 

hey earn I6«. to £2 (Rs. 8-20) a month. Many uru taking to 

than iliuir hereditary calling. Some are writers and others 

Chapter UI. 

M M 







their ova CHtc, bat whea a prtMt c< their own owto M aol 
BMiliUa ihqr Mq)l«r DiAwth or olfav Br&famaw. Of lato Ot 
Boain who lofv thwi— hw MaHinifai BcAmanB, or Brih^ 
naaf froathe aooth of Braban, hare taken tocomDnl toaemaj 
In* maui wtrma aaed to rabgiooa c ar a w Q a iw, but they knov tha 
aaA |in»cMtae« than to badk that th*; do not optmlj- rcpeM ikia 
ia prewaee a{ BiAaaaa "nwir eoMDma difler little fnm tboM«f 
B^ftnaaa. IV7 ntlle social diipetes other ■» ouCa mmtag* « 
bgranfamweloaeooadloCcBelo dtes. They send their tw;* 
•chool and wo Curly oS. 

Suta'rs,brCu^»TiterB,u«retnnedM Bttmbering 1 1,043 oadu 
fbond gn>r the whole iJisthct. They hare ao dtTiaiaB9L TbRT tank 
witfa or higher then EoDbii and are hirer and elaaaer tbna KdoIui 
hot leat robaat. In rillagea they nfmir field toola and ara paid W 
the riUagera m gnin at harvest tune. As carpeotera and woo»- 
carrcra too town sotirs are good workora and ara easily truDed W 
hutdio Earopeao totits. Their dajr'a wagei ^^T form U. to Si. 
(Ita.l-I|). The wooien do not helii the men in their wtnk. 
Their staple food is millet, pnlso, and rcgelahles, and ttuj do not 
oat 6&h or flesh or drink liquor, "nio men wear the w&i&tclotfa aail 
ooat, and the tnrbao folded either iu the 3l&ritba or the Brdiaaa 
Cuhien. They gird their b(^a with the Minrd thread, tbo oeremoDj 
being performed by ooe of their own oaelo called gur» or teachv. 
They pcaetiM polygamy and forbid widow raarrtase. Exempt no* 
weaned children whom they bnry thev barn their dead. Tlioir mbuIt 
deities sre Bharioi, Kliaodoba. and v ithobft, and thuy keen the tisou 
Hindu (Mate and foatirals. Their priesta are Hanltha Brahmaaa 
whom ther consult as to the Incky moment for namto)! and marrriag 
their children. They settle social disputes at caste meetings. Tbef 
send thuir boya to school bet take them away after they Imvo leant 
a little reading and writing. They are fairly off, especially tova 

Telis, or Oilmen, arc rctnmed as nnmberiag 9499 and aa kmii 
orer thewholedifitrict. llieyare divided intoLing&yat and Uarit^ 
Tclts who do not cat together or intermarry but do not diffi-r mack 
from onch other in work, dress, or ciiHtums. A* n rule Telia at* 
diirlc TOell-biiilt and robust, but dirty iu their habits. They speik 
Unritthi. Thoy live in boti«o8 with walls of brick and tiled roofa 
and own metal and earthen veBBels. Their staple food is millet 
pulK and Tegvtablvs. They drees like Man&th&s, and are haid- 
workiug, hospitable, quiet, and well-bcbavod. They preaa aomns, 
drr cucon-kortiel, ana sometimes hemp seed, and sdl oil and o3- 
cnkes, The Lin^yntK worship Mahidev only and their priests aia 
Janga m s ; the ilkr&tluis worship all the osual local and BnihniaaM 
godi and goddesses and keep the regular bate and fi 



implo;)r as priests Uic Dnlitiary viUaffo Br&kmsns. Except 
ke tiiugdf »tii bdld nu oIoUi or anlarpiii between tlio liriua 
nriilttgroom at tbe time of mnrringo, ihoir uinrriaj^^a are tbe 
Ks those of Kiiiibis. Both Liogiiynt and Mardtba Tebs bold a 
ipure for four <la_v8 after she ('\>inc-s of a^e, and do not toucb her 
w bofl bathed on thu morning of the liftb ilny. Both pruclijte 
r niorrisf^ ntid {wlygituiy. Uiiliku the Marilb^ they bur; 
lead, and consider tbein&elres impure fort«ndftya. lliey s«ttla 
j^unmtes st caste meetings. They tnm oat any ono proveil to 
KokeD tliotr social raleit bat let him hack on payinf; a fine. 
«o ni.>t s«ud their hoya to Mbool or take to uow pui-saite, bnt 
irir off, 

idars, or Enrth Diffgors, are returned as Dnmbcrinf* 2388 and 
inii over ibc whole district exoepl in Jitvli. They are divided 
Miti or Burth and Dagad or 8louo TaddrH, who eat t/i^lher but 
it tnterniarry. Both Esrtb and Stone Vatldrs are dark, slrouj;', 
it, Bod nardyrorkint;, but ignorant and given lo drink. They 
DO fin-<l dn-eliin(r* and gather wborcver they heap of work. The 
id or Stone V'^iara who quarry and brtiak Koueti for buildhig 
aid to iiave been the (fteat bitl-fort builders. They also malio 
ones. Tfao MAti or Earth Vad&ra work in earth nnd dig 
id wellfl. floth irlaxMNt Vivn in rode hutH of mabt and sttieks, 
almost anything, being nolabiy fond of luiee and rats, 
tbeybure uotfiin^ else to eat, tbeygorat-bnntingin the Uelds. 
liomo tonpt'o is TelMRn, but with others lliey spwik n. corrupt 
Ithi. Thi- men of lioth cla.<u(eii WLNir a loincloth, n waitttcioth, 
■ tattered turban, and the women tlu? robii and bodice. Their 
: deities are Bhardiui and Khandoba, and they consult Briihnians 

for a nnmo for thrir children and for a lucky day for thoir 
]iag». Th(-y prootino widow marriagu and polygamy. They 

a caste council and settle social dtapul«sal caate meetings. 
r do not send their boya to school. Of lat« years Vaditrs of both 
a* haru found conetimt and highly paid cmploymont at thu 
I Nim water work* and rm tbo new Dccean railway.*. At both 
r and railway works Vadirs have proved tlio most valuable 

of local worltmen. They work by tbe piece, and both men 
iromoQ arc surprisingly ofTcctivo. Most of their earnings go in 

nsiciana include three classes with a strength of 11,909 
er cvnt of the Hinda population. Tlic details are: 

SdUra JUtaiaaiu. ISSl. 






IViUI . 









* Chapter ni- 


sis, or Musicians, ar« returned as nnmhering 609 and as 
d in large towns chiefly in tbe east of the district. They have no 
tioQ of Uieirorigia or of any former sottkmont, and areconsidorvd 





[BomlMk7 Guielb 


Chapter III. 





the fftrlicst people in tho district- They have no subdirisio 
nnd claim do roliitionaliip with miy other tribo. They are da 
than KunbiR, middle sized, and louk tuoro liko Mllngs and oUier lo 
castD Hindus than Ennbis. The men wear the lopknot, itioi»ia«h^ 
and so ID (.'times whiskiT!!, bat not the benrd. They speak SltirJt" 
Their atiiplc fond ia millet, N»lt, chillies, nn/l oil, aoa th«ir dinne 
parties consist of meat, pnUo cakc«, and liquor. Thoy t«t nitboa 
taking off any of their clothes, and, at'fcer dinner, tti I ninging 
vholo ni^ht. Tlicy dress Itko Marath&s, are la^, extravaff 
and fond <■! plnaaure, and nuiii^to their piitrous with tfacir songs : 
music. They are renovrned singers and playera and perform at tl 
houses of BrAhmans and other Iliadns. Though their nhado 
18 not now thought to defile, high cnsto ilindus do not so freely 
then) to thfir houses as thi>y aftk Gumvti. Tho hereditary talliE 
of all seems to have been music, but mauy have taken to agricultur 
day kbiiur, and other means of subsistenee. They paint 
bodies red and black and beg by acting as Bahurupis or meD 
many faces or characters. Ah laliuurers men cam 3iJ. to Is. (3-8i 
adayand vromen IJfj.toltil. (I-Suk.). Their monthly expensee 
frtfm Sit. to £1 (Rs. 4-10). They marry their girls between eii 
and twelve and thi>ir boyH between twelve and twenty-five. Tb 
spend £:) to m (lis. 'JO -40) ttn the marriage of a girl «iid £4 to 
(Ita. 40-60} on the marriage of a boy. They allow their widow* 
marry and the men practise polygamy. They either bury or bii 
tfattir dcful C|H!nding about £1 (R». 10) on a fnncral. They worsli 
all tho UKunl locitl and Briihinanio god^ and godilcsacs, chit 
Bahiroba and Khnndoba, and they keep all the regular fasts 
feasts, Their priests nru ordinary Maritha Brahmans whom tb4 
pay 1 \d. ( 1 It.) »l a naming, '2s. (Re. 1 ) at a ninrmge, and 6(i. (4 1 
at a funeral. Child marri'ige, polygamy, and widow marriage i 
allowed and practised ; polyandry is uatcnown. Their social i 
religious customs are the samu as MarfLthn-Enubi customs. Tl 
hare a caste council and Hctilo social disputes at custo meeting 
They send their boys to school and are a steady people. 

Guravs, or I'rieste, are returned as numbering UfiO!) and as fen 
in ones anil twos in towns and largo villages. They have no trn 
tion or memory nf their arrival in tho district or of any former settle*' 
mont. They have no divisiouit and speak Marithi. Tliey generallb 
live in small one-storeved houses close to the temple where they aa| 
ae miDistntDts. Their staple food is millet, rice, pulso, nn^ 
Tegetables, and they say tlicy neither cat fish nor flesh nor drink 
liquor. They dre^K either like Mnrdtha Br^mans or cultivating 
Kuuhis. They are musicians aud attend to and clean tho tomplcs of 
tho village gods and have the hereditary light to the olTuHugs made 
to them. They supply b^l luid tri}*i leaves and flowers to the chief 
villngcre for the worship of their house goda. They make and soil 
leaf oupH and plates and play music on marriage and other occasions 
at the houses of Br&hmans and other villagers, cscept at the bouses 
of Mhars, Mings, and other low caste people. A few hold email 
grant or i«<iin lands. Thoy worship Maruti, Shiv, and other 
village gods, keep the uKual Hindu fasts and feasts, and make 
pilgrimages. When a Gurav woman U brought to bed, a midwife ij 



_ led in and is paid Sd. (2 tu.) if the child is a boy and lialf a 
coeoftmit if it is a girl. Thm midwifo cuts tlio child's navel-cord, 
bathos both the mother aiid tUti ohiM with wi^nn water nibbing 
them with ttirmctric paste and oil, and lays them on a <.'ot undor 
ivhich a Grepot is laid to f^uitrd af^inat cold. The motber'a 
impurity Wt«t ton da^A. On tlio fifth night aa em boBsed ffold imago 
oE Satv^i iii set on a low stool iu the lyiug-in room and tiirmerio 
paste, vermilion, five betol leaves and nule, boiled gi-aiu or gkayria, 
and Hwootmoato are laid buforti ihu f^ddous. Tho mother bowa 
beforothegoddoris with the child in lior arm!i and a-iks hor blL'sHing. 
Next day the embossed image ie tiod round the child's neclc and the 
child if a girl is named on the twelfth and if a boy on the thirteenth. 
Tho hoii8o i» cowdunged on the naming day and friends and kins- 
podple are aaked to the hoase. The mother ia droitsed in a now 
green robe and bodice, new bangles are pat round her wri.sta, and 
rice and a oocoanut aro laid in her lap. W'omou neighbom-s and 
frienda present tho mother with bodicM and thu child with hoods or 
kunchin, and name and cradle the chili], amidst cradle-songTi or 
jialn<l» §nng in honour of Ram or Krishna, ondiug with the chorus 
' Sleep my darling sloop." Tho guests aro troatod either to a dianer 
or to betel and withdraw with haiidfuU of boiled gram or tfhuyrU. 
Quniva marry their boys between ten and twen^-five and their girla 
before they comu of age. Tht*ir murriages are preceded by 
betrothals, when, on a lucky day named by the village ««trologor, the 
boy's father with a few of hia friends vieita tho girl's hoaae and 
presfntfl hor with a gnren robo and bodice and a piiir of silver chains 
or s'inkhUt worth 1% lOs. lof^J (fla. 25-80). Tho guests are 
welcomed to a seat on the veranda by the girl's father and auch 
of bis friends as he has asked to tho honsc. The girt puts on the new 
olsthos, tho priest attends, and tho boy's father marks the girl'a 
brow with vermilion. The girl then bows before the bouse gods, tho 
gnest§, and her elders, and the betrothal or mdgni ends with a feast 
to tho buy's fstthor and his (rii'ndifL 7'he fataors go to the local 
n)(tn)I')^or and hu n»ini-ft the lucky day for tho murriago. Booths 
are tuiiied bef'jre the boy's and girl's houses and invitations are 
sent to friends and kinsfolk. At tho house of each of the pair, an 
umhar Picas glomcrata post is fixed in one of tlio corners of the 
booth, molasses and betel are laid before the post, and a tarmerio 
root and bctelnut are tied to it in a piece of yellow cloth. Two or 
throe days before tho marriage, tho girl is rubbed with turmeric 
•t her house by fi'vv lucky married women named by the prieat, who 
take what remains of the turmeric to the boy with mnsic and rub 
hira with it and bathe him in warm water, while masioians play and 
tho mnrriod womon of tho boy's house sing songs. A feast called 
tho turmeric feast or haldiche javan completes tho turmcrio rubbingj 
and the women of the girl's house return with presents of betel. 
A raised altar is prepared in tho girl'a wedding booth and new 
earthen ve^isels brought from the potter's aro phioed at its comers. 
On the marriage day the bride goes with music and a band of frieada 

Chapltr III. 


1 He UiLritU is i Jvj^ r« irJ> Mb,/»^ 

iBomlny O&utteer. 



CttKpter III- 




to the rilUgc Milniti, bows befun- tlio god, and, lapog before 
a bot<'l piK'kvt and a copper, nxk» h'u bleH.'^iii^iitK] rt'torn'i hontp. 
briil4f,'r()rnn goeson horBeback to thu bride's wilh miitiiu and fnctndiyj 
and ia welcomed at her house by tho girl's fatUcr. As the Incky 
tnotQont draws near, tbc priest proparcs a square spot, seta two 
low stooU in it, and iiinkos ibo bridegroom and bridv stand (acin^ 
ViK'h other on tbe stools ; a yellow sheet is held between lliti pair and 
marriage verses are repeated by tho prioat who, at the Incky moment, 
draws aside th© curtAin, tltrows red rico over tho couple, wbilo tfao 
masicianx misoadin ot munic. The hein;! of the pair'it gnrinoala 
are knotted together, and they wulk into the boose, bow before 
lioiiae gods ana elders, and are tuado to cat from the same dial 
Tben the sdda or robe ccrumouy is performed, and the party o 
the bridegroom and the caato nnople are treated to a dinner. 
I.a.<tt]y the bridegroom takes the bnde to his house with mnsic and 
friends and feasts and return feasts at the hoosee of the boy 
and girl end the ceremony. At every martiogo the prii-rt 
rooetTM a turban and ■Iv. to Ga. (Rs.2-3) in cash and tho whole 
marriage eipenaes generally amonnt to £10 to £30 (Ks. 100-300 
Alhong Gurars child marriage and polygamy are all 
and polyandry Lt unknown. A girl sits apart for throe da; 
coming of age, she is bathed on the fourth and her lap is fil 
with rice and frait A gaily docked wooden frame is mad' 
and the girl is seated in it for tho lirst sixteen days while the 
musicians aro a»k«d lo the house to piny drums and pipe^t. Her 
female frionda and relations present the girl with sweet dish&t aod 
clothes, and her futher and father-in-law present bor each with a robe 
and bo<licc. The girl's fnthur treats his son-in-law to a dinner and. 
pn^scnts him with clotlics and bedding. Tho couple are so*t< 
together on* low wooden stools, the women neighbofirs meet at tb 
honae, and lay rice and coeoaouts in the lap of the girl, and th: 
puberty wremnny is over. Gtimv-s bum their dead and loonrn 
days. After di-:tlh the bndy in seated leaning against a wall, wa< 
is heated, and a bier is ma^le. The dead is bathed in warm water, 
sbroaded in a clean white sheet, and laid on the bier. A piece of i 

Sold and a roll of betel leaver iiro put into (he dead mouth, nn^l 
owers, betel leave*, and redjiowder are thrown over the body.^ 
A married girl, generally ihe deceased's danghter op daughter-in- 
law, wares a light about tho face of the dead, four of the mourners 
t.n.keiip tht'bi'T, and the ehief uiourner lieada them wiih the wirthca 
jirepot iu hin hand, hung from a string. Before reaching the burning 
gTOiind they hslt, to rest, the bearers set down the bier, and each 
picks five stont's and instead Imys n copp<^-rnn tho ground. Tho 
bearers then change pliuvs, lift the bier, ami, wth tho chief moumor 
in front, walk to the hnrniog ground. The pile is ready and 
the dead ia laid on it. The priest repeats texts and the chief 
mourner places five wheat flonr balls on tbo boily, two on the faco 
two on the two nnn.i and one on the choal, and lights the pile. 
As soon as the skull burst*, the chief mourner 6lls an earthen pot, 
lUid, carrying it on his shoiililer, walks three times I'ound the pile. 
At the end of each turn liuother man walks with him and piercea 
the pot with a stone called the lifestonc or nahma so that 


w»tor goafaea out, 'Wlipn three turns are maile and the pot is 
tbrico piereod, tlio cliidf mourner throws il over liis back nii<l bvnta 
fain tnouth with his right palm. Tho priest is girvn S<t. [2 nii.) aud 
thp funeral party bathe aud returo home. The family of the dead 
art! impiiru for tvii dnjs and cWnso thcinsolves by dnnking wator 
brought from iho priiMt's. On tho third day iho fhicf raoiinier 
oroea to tho burning ground, gathorn tho aahcs, tinA throws thorn 
into ^ome rivor or stream. He cowduuge tho burning place, sets tho 
lifostono on it, and hijit befoi-o tho stonu randal, vermilion, flowcrtt, 
turmeric, burnt fmnkiDctmsQ, and cooked rice mixed with clarified 
butter. The chief monrner liaa bis face and bead except the topknot 
ehavcd and tho cju^to people including the bearers are foMbcd 
on the thtrtcuntb if th» dead has a «ou or on tbo twelfth if be haa no 
Bon. Tho priest conducts the death ceremony and receives clothes, 
a pair of shoos, and 4«. to 6«. (Bs. 2-3] m cash. Qureva hold 
tlml [icrHOns dying with their wiahes unfulfilled become Bpiril* and 
haunt Iho living. They believe in witchcraft Koothsayiag and evil 
spirits. When a woman dies in childbed, while fihe is being taken 
to tho burning ground, oails are driven into the throHhold, a lomoQ 
clinrmed by a magician is buried undi^r it nnd a man follow^^the 
body strewing rdla seeds, that the spirit may not come back and 
trouble ihc )K-<ipk> of the house. Guravs hare a caste council and 
settlo Bociiil disputi'.t at mwjtiiiga of tlio cidcrii. A few Bcnd their 
boys to school, but they take to QO new purauita and are badly off. 

HoIa'rB, literally Field Uen, are retnroed as nnmboritig 160t 
mt<l UK f.'iiud over tho whole district rxcept in Jdvli. I^oy have no 
m I'Or origin uiid u<> memory of auy foniier settii'ment. Their 

K : I uame aud its apparent derivarion from Ao/ (K.) the ground 
Mem to Hhow that they are one of the early locul tribes. They 
have no Mobdivitiiotis and claim no relationship with any otbor 
tribe. They are the same a* hllu&rs with whom they eat and 
marry. They speak Mardthi, and live in houses with mud walls 
and tilbd roofs. Their houiw goods include e-nrtbeu, woodon, 
and metal pot«. Their staplo food i» milliTt, aalt, chillii-s, nnd oil, 
but they cat the flesh of almost alt animals including the cow and 
excluding the pig. Lilco Mhdrx tbcy eat the flesh of cattle who are 
found dead. In honour of birth, marriage, and dnlli they give 
dinners of moat, pulse cakes, and liauor. 'I'faeir women cook, and 
the guests Hiue off plates which they bring with them and without 
taking off any of their clothes. Liquor is sometimes Mtrved and 
the guests fit xinging the whole night. 'I'heir dresx Ut tho same 
as that of Kunbis. They are a ^niet and orderly people, are 
caccllont musiciaua and songsters, and play on pipes and drums. 
They makcslioes and bridles and as liibourors the men eairaSd. to l», 
(2<8 a».) and the women l^d. to i{<t (1*3 a».) a day. The monthly 
expenses of a family of five vary from 8*. to £1 (ns. 4- 10). Thoip 
fovourito gods aru Jotiba, Khandobn, aud Vithoba whoae imngea 
tbev keep in tbeir houses. They worship their deceased anoestcint 
ana make pilgrimages to Ftodharpar and Batniigiri in the South 
Konkan. I'hey have no ascetics among them. Their priests are the 
ordinary Tillage Itrdhmans who ore pnia 1 1'/. ( 1 n.)at n birth 2f>. (Ro. 1) 
at a marriage, aad 6<i. {-i lU.) at a deuili. The Urdhmaa who 

ChapUr in. 




(Bombay Gazet 


' XII. conductji Iboir ceremonies, fltandiog outaide of tbeir boasos does 
soSer de^n^^tion for a«»ociiitiDg ^th thorn. They keep nil 
nsnal Hindu faats and feaitt«i. Whi^ri tli«y naino their children tl 
dUtrihuto moIaaHea or ytil, and when a girl coraea of uf^o 
diatribttte packets of hetelDutnnd leaves among friends and kit 
and feast castcwoiucn. They murry their girls WtTfCcn fight j 
twclvi!, and tboir hoTii between twelve and twenty-fiTe. A 
mairiuge coate £» to £4 (Ka. 30 - 40) and a boy's £5 to £6 (Rs. 50- 
They practise widow marria^ and polygamy. Tliey bnry the 
dead, spending about £1 (Rs. 10) on the fnneral. Tber have 
hvadmiiii itnd Wro the sett lenient of diaputea to some of tneirelde 
Adultery and eating with a low caate man are pnoished wiih Ic 
of caste, but the offender is lot back on paying a fino which gcnoralljj 
takea tho form of liquor. A Holur's nhndow is nut now Ihuught 
jwlluto the higher classes. A few send their boys to school 
ai'O a miserable class. 

Servants include two classes with a Etrcngth of -1,891 or 2*13 
[tor cent of tho Hindu population. The dutiuU arc : 

, BMra SereatU*. tStt. 





KULlU _ ... 
PartU _ _ ... 

Toul ... 








Nha'vis, or Barber*, are rotwrued as numbering I4,2ol and 
found over the wholo diatrict. Playing on thoir name they say th< 
areborn from MnliAdcv'a narvl ornttbhi. Accordinglo another acoouDl 
they have sprung from a Ur&hman father and a Kunbi woman 1 
was not his wife. They havo no divisions and their surnames 
Qiikartld, .JAdhav, Mohito, PovSr, and Shirkc. They look lika 
Knnbis and their home tongue ia Mar'ithi. They live in middled 
class bouses generally one-storeyed with walls of brick and tiled 
roofs. Their slnplu food is millet, pulse, and vvgetnblcs, and thoy ^ 
«at fiab and Desh, and drink liquor. Itoth men and womon dresafl 
like Kunbis. Asa class they ai-e intelligent,- fond of goasip, and^ 
proverbially cunning, as tho proverb says The barber aod the crow.' 
They shnvo, hold torobus nt woddingK and boforo gront mon, and 
play the drum or ekaugfiaila aud the clarion or »anai. In almost 
every village a Nh£ri holds gruot lands. As surgeons they bleed 
both by cupping and applying leeches, and thoir women act as 
midwivcs. Thvir family gocU uro Jotiba of Ratn&giri and Kbandobft 
of Jejuri. Their mannera and customs are the same as those of 
Kunbis, They aro bound together by a strong caste feeling and 
settle Hociiil disputes at castfi mcfiiugs. They do not Bend thoir boysS 
to school iiriid are a steady people. | 

Farits, or Washermen, are returned as numbering 70-10 and as 
found over tho whole district. They are divided into EimSthi, 
Ktinbi, and Pnrdcshi Parits who neither oat together nor intermarry. ; 

1 Tb* Mwfttfal TuiM, YAfii'd ifau Xapit. 




KAmathi Parits say tho/ camo to tho diatrict from tLo Nixitn's 
country more tbaa tiro geiieratioQii ago. Tbcy haro no dirisioas 
Bdd their suroamos are Alakooda, Angirvani, Uilkor, Kot^rinrura, 
Ktid Fipftlgarvaru ; riitntlies boariog tlio sanio surname eat together 
but do not intermarry. Tlio uainos io ordinnry use among men 
arp Ba!u, Diva, Iraiya, KotUH, Liiiffxi, Miuihitji, and KAmaya ; 
and ftmong women Bbagamma, Ganga, Lin^, Naraamma, Shtra, and 
Vyakaiumu. Thi-ir home speocfa is Tfluffu, but with others they 
Eipeak Mar^thi ur Hindustani. A Kittnilthi Purit is ciuily known 
by his custom of wearing a gold earriug in tha left car, and a 
Kilinj^thi wanherwomaa by her peculiar way of wearing tho robe. 
The robe in front is gathorod mlo scanty puckers and ia paased 
back between the leg» being dniwn tightly over tho shins and 
tucked in at the waist behind. The upper end of the robe Li passed 
round tht; wi)i»t and is drawn over the breast and head. They are 
dark and clrong and live eithur in houoes ono storoy high with tiled 
roofs or in thatc^hod huts. Thnir huusca aro well kopl and oontaiu 
goods, along with the appliances of their calling, worth about £10 
(Rs. 100). Their staple food is millet, split pnlse, and vegetables. 
They are also fond of (mh and flesh and S'ltnctimos add those two 
dishes to their daily food. The only sweet dinh thi-y know U tho grvm 
cako or puran poli and this they xa& od ceremonial occasions. They 
offergontaaudoocksto their godsaad feast on thefleshof the sacrificed 
auimfi1.4. They drink lirjuor. Tho men dri!.4H liku MarAthfts in a 
waistcloth, coat, sbouldercloth, Mar&tha tnrbaa and shoes, and 
the women io the robe and bodice. Tho men's ornaments are earrings 
worth 10*. to£l (Ka.3-10). silver fingor rings worth 4». (Ra. 2), 
and u Kilver whi^t girdle worth £3 (Ka. SO), l^e women's orna- 
ments are a nosering worth £1 (Ks. 10), earrings worth tS 
(Rs. SO), the lucky necklace or mati^'tUutra worth G«. to 10«. 
(Rn.3-8), Kiivcr bracelet* worth t\ (Rs. 10), and tooriugs of bell- 
metal worth Cd. (4 at.) KAmAthi Parit» are neat, clean, hard- 
working, thrifty, and orderly. They work as washermen and earn £1 
10«, to t,'i. (Rs. la-£0) a month out of which they spend IO*. to li3«. 
(Rs. Z -8) on cliarooid soda and soap. Tho women and children help 
the men in their work. They have two seta of gods, one inclnding 
Naraoba and Yallamma their family deities who are kt-pt in a 
wooden shrine, and tho olhor including ^tmasammu, Raliinimn, 
Bangar, Mnissainnm, and Pochamma, who are placed in a niche 
or dKuli in a wall in the house. Their priests are Tillage 
Br&hmans. They are not particalar about keeping fasts, only a fow 
fasting on the Ekdia*h{» or lunar elevenths of OMoh month. Their 
religious head, a man of their own caste, lives at Uaidarabad 
and occasionally rij^ita his disciples. An elderly woman of the 
family a(;ts as midwife and buries the navel-cord and after-birth 
in a hole in the mother's room, over which the mother and 
child aro bivthod regularly for twelve days and rubbed with tunncric 
powdur and oil. Un the fifth day an imago of thu goddess Satvtii and 
an earthen water jar are worshipped near tJie bathing nit, and five 
pieces ofdrycocoa-komei, redpowder, turmeric, and betel and cooked 
food are offorod. The mother is held impure full eleven days. 
Un tho twelfth all tlie house people are bathed, and their clothes 

Chapter in> 




rBombay Oa 


Chftptor III- 



vnsbvd, tho Iiouae ir cowdimj^i] ami cov'k urinodrnak. Ncnr fon 
rc-lat.iotiit gather at the mothei-'ii Iioubo, cradle and name the chiV 
and the ^est« retira with presents of boiled wheat and f^ram. 
the cvoning ca'!t<'iiifii iiro trciiU'd to liquor. Except that (hey ma 
thvir chililn^n ^iltiti^ ciide liy hiiIu on rice and that lhi;ir mater 
UDcloH ntatid behind boldiog in their bands aickles or weeding 
tbetr raarringes aro tho same aa those of Kanbis. Their mar 
cost about £15 (Rs. 150). They allow widow marriapi, the wh« 
vxpenisv, about ti (Kn. 40), being feud by the widow's huiib«D^ 
They bury tlieir dead, uonrn ten days, and spend £S to £2 10s. 
(Rs. SO - 25) on the f uuoral. On the third day thoy level Ihe spot 
where the docMtMd was buriotl and uark it with n ru<l 4toii«. Un tbo 
twelfth the ott.tte ix given a dinnor. Kiinuithi Parity hold canto 
coun<;ilii, .tend their boys to school, and are better oS tliai^ 
Kaiibi I'arils. fl 

KuN-Di pAKiTi! bare no (liristoDS, speak MnMllii, and differ in off 
reitpeot from Kuuhin. They live in hut^ with thatched roofs and 
their staple food is millet, nulse, and vegetables. They cat fish and 
tho flcrih of ;;oHts, sboep, nure, deer, and fowls, and drink tiqnor. 
Thff villa^' wiixlierinnii is generally a Kiinbiand ix lucally knuvruaa 
I^riL He washes for all Ihe villagers except MliArs and Mings 
and other impure caster, and the men are helped lo their work by 
their women. Bewilcs by cleaning clothes, Pant* sometimex cam 
llieir living by labour. They aru found in ttrery village and ara 
paid in grain. Their favouritedcities are ilabiroba, Bhar&ni, and 
Kbandoba, and they also worship deceased aneestors. Thdr 
priests are tho ordinary fillnge Brdhmans and they keep the nsaaJ 
Hindu fasts and fi^astK Tlieir oustomN are tJie same as Kunbi 
cnstoma, they either bury or burn iheir dead and allow widow 
marriage. They settle Boci;tl disputes at casto lueotinge. They do , 
not send their hoy* to school and aro poor and in debt. ■ 

Of PARDGBRior Uc.vnELR Dhoiiis One family is found in SjitAm tn^ 
theservico of Europeans. Theysaytbey came fi-om Upper India, but 
in appevrauco and apeoch differ little from MaMthi&:<. llie name* 
in common use among men are Krislitia, Rima, Ijakshiiman.N&nlyan, 
and SakhArdni ; and among women JAnki, I^kshumi, Mobsna, 
Monyn, and Rddba. In house, food, dross, and religion they differ 
little fr»m Mnriilhn Kunbis. They nre washermen and follow no 
other calling. Thi^y many their girls before they are sixteen or 
oightoeu and their boys before thoy are twenty-five. They bum 
tbuir dead, mourn ten days, hold caste councils, send tboir boys to ■ 
school, and like MarAtha or Kunbi Pants arc poor. ■ 

Shepherds ^xnd Cattlc<ki>epersiacliidti two classes withastrengtb 
of 4I,tJ<jO or 4 US per cent of the Hindu population. The dttaiU are : 
SOMra Shfphi-rdt, IMSl. 














DbangarS, literally Cowmen, are returned as numberiog 41,547 
andaNfoundchieily in the Jflvli and PAtan hillaand uplands. Tbeyi 



no IraditioD of their coming U> tho district nml no mmnot; 
my former settlemeDL They are du-kci- tluui K»i>l>ii>, tsU and 
~ tic. aaay of Sbivftii's infantr; weTe &4t(ira Dhangani. Still 
li good soldiers tfaey are a quiet orderly tribe. Most of 
baro tiioir hoad-quart^re in tliu unst of the district, keep aheep 
deal in wool, lu the fair ruoniliH tliey travel long distances 
to the bills many going on to the Konkan. They oomo 
before the eod of the hot weather whea most of them make 
way to the cast, as, daring tliu ruins, thu raw damp of the 
liilb IS KhaI to sheep. During the fair ftcaiton n-t they 
over the cunntiy the landholdern, for the sake of the manure, 
I»y them to pen thinr flocka in tho Gelds. Tlioy have dogs 
bet4«r brcvd than tho ordinary rillagu dog. Aa a claas 
are noted for their dirty nloveiily linbits. Though most of 
bosehead-quarteraarein Ibecsat and who keep their flockn 
(bs oast during the rainy season are shepherds, cow and buffalo- 
iag Dluuigan on tbo western hills aro not uncommon. Cow- 
ig DhangKTS cbivfly e«ru tlioir living by the mlIo of clariticd 
lattor. Some among them also arc Iiuabandmeii. Some settled 
DhsBgan are birly off but as a class they are poor. From the time 
tkeir boys nr« five yeers of age they are gencmlly ompIuyiH) in 
ig the mttle. They eat flesh mid drink liqnur. Their 
is scanty, tlia men weiinug n turban, a waiatclotb, and a 
Uwlcttt, together costing about 6«. {Rs. 3) a year. Their marriage 
omonies and litea are nearly the same aa those of Kutibis. Ttiuir 
diief god« are Khandoba and Mluu»oba ; Biroba is their tutelary 
bome god and his image is buried with the bodies of the well-to^o. 
IWy do not worship their house gods daily, only on Saturdays and 
SandayB. Sccial disputes are settled by the morabont of threo 
bailies: thvUnrandes, M&nus,and lUgjoa. If one of tliem is not 
St band, be is sent for and the dispute stands oror till be comes. 
BrDoches of caate rules are punished bv making the offender give a 
caste fea«t. Tho Dbangars never send their boys to school and take 
to no uew callings. 

OaTliH,orCowkoepers, are returned Asnamberiog3t9 and ufonnd 
orer the whole distric-t. Thoy rank liighor than Kunbis, and aro 
elekD, orderly, shrewd, houest, and skilful in irt-iiiing cattle diseAseu, 
and in brooiitng cows and baffalocs. Their customs do not differ 
ftDm Knnbi customsand they keep thu iisotii Uindu fasts and feasts. 
TTioy hold caate counciUt, send tlioir hoys to school, and are fairly off.' 

Fishers include two classes with ft strength of 7063 or 0-70 per 

S Hindu popalatioii. The detmla ore : 
)r Fishors, are returned as numbering 2078 and ttn found 
over the whole district. They aro dark, good-looking, sturdy, and 



PtnlM. 1^>l■l. 


Kolii .„ „. 





AMI ... 




j B VS 

1 DitiUt ol CavU oiuMbu arc girtm in the Fooiu Statistiwl AcMuit. 

Chapter m. 





iBonbay Ojuetuat.1 



iiapter III. 



hnixiworkiTijif. Most of tliem mako tWir lifing by cstcbitif futKl 
Oho o[ their oliUrf former occnputiODa was otrrying [Mlanquins and] 
litters, but, nith the opening of roadx, litters hove nearly disappeared' 
and tbey bare taken to a^cultore, fiahiug, and labour. Tbey nQ< 
proEo«8 to look down on palanqain can'yine. Thoy ntt fisb 
flesh and drink liquor. Tbpy mnk bolow KoIih, but do not dil 
from tbem in marriago and otbcr customa. Tbey bold 
councils, do not send tbeir boys to Bohool, and are a poor people.' 
KoUSjOr Ferrymen, are returned as num boring 4&90 and wi foui 
io lilinost overy villago, especially in JAvli, P&tan, apd parta of W^. 
All S^tdra Eolitt arc wattT-fillcrs or onnhharin. They seem to bo 
different from the Pooua and Abmndnagar hill Kotis, the origin of 
whoKo name is doubtful. Ueatdes P&nbharis, they arc called Cbninli 
Kolis from wearing a twistod cloth on their head when tbey carry a 
waternot. Thoy are fitii to associate and occasionally to eat with 
Eunbia. In several of tbe chief hill forts, Rinbgad, Torna, and 
Blljgad, men of this tribe formerly bad the duty of guardit^ the 
approBohes to the fort. They are quiet people mnking among Tillage 
Beri^nts and get the grain in retom for bringing water. Unlikeus 
Kolis of Khed and Junnnr in Poona, thev do not join in 

Sing robberies or become outlaws. Tbey are the same as &lnriliha 
unbij* to look at, but they do not generally eat in the same row 
with Mar^tha Kunbis and they marry among themselves only. 
They make the cement which is oaten wilh betel and a few of them 
catch fish. As a class they are a fine, good-looking, robust, and well 
made people. They are now quiet, orderly, settled, and hardworking. 
Besides fishing they work ferries along the Krishna and in tbe rainy 
months show groat daring iti scciiriug timber floated down when the 
rirer is in fiood. They grow melons iu river beds with much skill 
and are found in every village as water fillers or p'lnHan's; some 
are huAbanilmen and others cement doalers. They generally live in 
thfttchcd huts, eat fish mid flesh, and drink liquor. Theirsocial and 
religious customs are like those of Knnbis. They usuidly bury the 
dead, and the cJiief mourner is held impure for ten days. Their 
fevonrjte gods are Hiroba and Ebandobu, and tbeir priests are 
Brdhmana whom they gn'atly respects Tbey hold caste councils, 
and do not scud their boys to school. In some villages they bold 
grant or indm lands in return for their service* as water carriora. 
As a class they are poor. 

Tlie bulk of the nnskilled labour of the district is done by the 

poorer Knubis, Dhangars, Vaditrs, Eiimofthis, and Mhftrs, Bniidos 

these, two small classes, who are cLiotly labourers, Pardeshis and 

ThAkurs have a strength of 1603, Tbe details are: 

Sdldra Labtnirm, !SS1. 





TUknn ... -. 



nt 1 ira 


> DtUilBofKolicuatcin<iregiTciiialJw Poona and A^InadIlllp(StaUlllie«lAcI«uut•. 

eccan I 



Pardoshis,' or Oiitsidcrs that is Upper India Men, uro returned 
U3 numlicriug 1190 iwd ii« found over the whole district. Thcyiiro 
t«Il ittroug and well lOAde, the men mroaring the topknot and 
moustache aud sometime!) the board uud whiskcra, Tneir home 
tonguo is Hindast^ni, and they are sober thrifty aud proud. They 
are prJOHts to their own poopio, watchmen, meBseug^ers, shopkvcpon), 
petty traders, and lahoiirers. They own no dwellings, and their 
staple food is wheat, bultor, pulau, and vcgetableti. The men dreaa 
in a short waistclotb, jacket, cap, and somettiues a turbnn folded 
in Mardthn faxhiou, and pointed shoes. They are SmArtx, wonihip 
tho uMual Br&hmanic duitios aud keep the regular faata aud fenats. 
Few of ihem bring their fainilieit with thum. A» a class they are 

Tha'kurs,^ or Chiefs, are returned aa nnmbertng -VI 3 and ufonod 
O'er the whole difttrict except in Sdlttra snb-division. Thoy »ny the 
founder of tlieir tribe was one tiangiir&m Bhat and have no tradition 
of coming into the dUtriot or of any former settlement. Their 
Burnamea are ChavAn, Giikv^, More, Povir, and Sinde. The 
men's n»ni;>3 are Ganu, Lakshuman, MaMda, aud Kiimn., and the 
womimV Bhinia, Kondi, Ltikshumt, and Rtikhmi. Except that thoy 
are darker Nkiiim-d, in appcaroncc, dwelling, food, and dreaa they 
do not differ from Kunhis. Their home speocli is MarAthi. They 
are a quiet, hardworking, thrifty, and hospitable people, and are 
huxbandmon, labonrcra, and meftsungers. They rank below Kunbis, 
and eat with them but not In tho sikmo row. Thoy marry among 
themselves. They are among the village fltafT of halutfiddra or 
servants. Among the Kunbis, when the father goes to aee the boy 
or girl bnforo marriage, ho takes the village Thikur with him. 
The Tbiikur in also somotimvs sent when the father does not 
himself gn. The Th^kur itt used as a mectonger and calls the 
name of the giver at marriages when presents or dhnrt are made, 
and when tho present in a turban helps the bridegroom to nut it 
on, Ou the thirteenth day aftor n death, when friends bring m the 
tnoiirniug turban or ilukhnvla, the Ttulknr helpn tho chief mourner 
toputiton.andis giveuacopperand betcliiutwitb fourleaves. Their 
family gods are Bahtroba and Khandoba, and their ceremoniea 
are conducted by their own oa-itemen and not by Brithmans. 
On the fifth day after the birth of a child they worship the 
goddess Satvii, and offer her redpowder, lampblack, cocoa-karael, 
betel, and millet bread, pulse, and vogutabloB. In the evening near 
relations and cjistemeu are feasted on bread and pulse :>auDe, and 
on the following morning the goddosa SatrtLi, which is generally a 

Chapter III> 





' Dttaill of Fknlnhi coitonu are civen in tho SholApui SUtutloAl Acixnuit. 

* Tha luaie TbiLkar fToaeriy hcUmgt to GujaiAt lUjpnu. lu Kitoik it b umiI oI 
UiTM clasHi the wriion who m liuiontt arc knovn u BtabinaluliatriK, a daw of 
oarMnWa from UulnrAI, uid the hill Iribo who ore most numcroiu in Tblos »ai 
KoUba, ud u« aUo fooad b Poona AhnutdiMgu ftnd Kbindcah. Tho Ni«lk um 
ef l^« irortl ThAknr to two clwHi who cluim a part Onjarlt Bajpnt origin faroun Um 
lat« Dr. J. WUmb'* *iow Hut tho ThjUu hill ThAkun got their o>i»e bocwiM 
Ibny wan at man Uawjoiaed and lad bf GDj^rit liajpul outl»wB. Aa tboy >>ra 
doMily oonnaotad wHIi BhAta tboM SaMra Tliiilinni. nho •ccm to hate nothiitg to do 
with any of thalr nimmkaa. hava probably tome GujArit itiaia. 


lBoa&1n7 OazettMr.1 


CliBpter III. 




round piece of silver, U tiod round the child's neck. On the momiDti 
of the tivulfth a&y iht houso is cowdungud, tho mother's clott 
»n> wash(Kl, and thu child niid itx tnotbur are bathod. The mothar, 
taloDg the child in her arms, acta five pebbles io front of her hooM 
and worships them with lui-inenc and redpowder, Ufs betel snd 
molauos before them, uud goes back into iho hottsc. A coaple of 
married womon who »ru Mtaked to dine, orudlc »iid nnmo the child, 
aud retire with pre.ieiila of betel and boiled gram. Kxcept tbnt 
their own ca^te people condact their marringes and repeat tbs 
marriage verses, th»ir marria^M do not differ from those of Eonbia 
Tho fivo days after a ^rl comes of ngv is the only occasiou on 
which Uiuir monthly aiL-knoKS is held Co make women unclean. 
Their marriages cost the boy's narents Xlt) (Rs. 100) and their J 
deaths £1 (Rs. 10). Tlwy allow their widows to morry and tbeyj 
bars their dead. Thoy have a caeto conucil and scUJu Mciall 
diHpntes at dwte meetings. A few among them send their boys toj 
school and as a class they are poor. 

tTDSettled Tribes include three classes with a strengtli of 
20,l>00 or I'Jb per cent o£ the Ilindu population. The detaiU arc : 







ValUlt ... 

Total ... 










Kailca'dis, or Baskftrmikors. arc returned aa nnmbering 
They are a waudencig triliu and eiirn llieir livinK by making basket* 
of tur Cajanus indicus and cotton stalks and by roughening and 
repairing grindstones. Their homo spoech is » corrupt ManUhi 
and in look, food, dress, and cuntouis they do not differ from the 
Kaikitdis of Ah mad 11 agar.' 

Ba'moshis,- or iJiwondants of RAm, are returned as numbering 
17^8 and as found over the whole district. Thiy have m> memory 
of any former wiittlomont and no story of their arrival in tho district. 
They have no sobdivltinnii and claim no rolation with any other tribe. 
Their house goods include earthen wooden and metal vewels, aod 
their clothes are blankets, waistcloths, tnrbans, wnislcoats, robes, and 
bodices. Their staple food is Indian and spiked millet, salt, oil, and 
chillies. Thoy give dinners of meat, pulse cakos. and linuor in 
bo&OtlT of births marriosoa and deaths. Thoir women cook, and 
the gnesta dine ofT plnl^n< wlii<;li tbuy bring with them. They do not 
take off any part of their dress before dining. Aftor dinner tbo 
gnests sit singing the whole nights Whon they name their 
children they distributo molasses or t}ul and packets of bot^lnot 

' DctAEIi uf thu Kiikftili cnitom* luw given lii ttiv Ahnkdiufpu' Statiitiol Accouut. 
■ OetaiU uf the iUmiwhl Rlniojfi In 1830 uu uivuu uader Jutlac. -lad ol HIuimU 



muiKim* ill the Vonat Stativticnl Acoonat. 


and leaves and fcaet caetewomen. Thoy marry tfaoir oirU betirccn 

e%ht and Lwctvu and tliuir boj» botween tnclrc and tnentj^fiye. 

Among UiciD widows niarry iind meti procli^v polyiratny. Tbey 

burr tbeir dead. Tkeir favourite gods are Jotiba, Klmiidub*, nnd 

Vitfaoba, wboae imagt-s thoy bavo in their huascs. Tlit>y worship 

dt'ci'wsud ancestors and make pilgnm»gf« to Jejori, Pandlmrpur, 

and KatnAgiri, I1>ey hare no a«colica among Ihom. Their pnosta 

ara yillagv DeabastL Brdhnuna whom tbey pay l^d. (la.) at a 

Inrtli, i«. (Re. 1) at a marriage, and dd. (4 m.) at a death. 'I'ho 

BnUiman saBvrs no dcgmdntion from cwnducting thutr cercmoniGa. 

They keop the DKual HrAhman £a8t« and (etatt and their social 

and religious cuBtoma are tlie same as tliose of the KAinuiihis of 

PoDDa. They hsvo a caste council and a headman called tuitk or 

Wdcr. A fi-w of thom liond thoir boya to school. 

Vanja'ris, or Cararan Ucn, aro returned m numboring 2046 and 
M (noDd over the whole district excejit in Jivli, Kort^giion. Piltan, 
ud WiL Tbey say they were once Lingiyata and tell the foilovping 
itatj of how tney became followers of Khandoba. The founder of 
Ikirclanwhilu tnTollingwitb his bullocks grew weary, took thoir loads 
d his bullocks, and Bat under a tree to rest. A Vilghja or dorotoo'of 
idoba paasingby.adTisedhim to keepthalday,thesixth of MArga- 

irtk or November. December sacred toKbandoba. The Vanjiri, who 

Irish to leave hts own faith, sat silittit. \V'hen ho was rested he 

hii handn on one of the loiul.'<, aud found it so heury tlrnt ho oould 

_ lift it He asked tbe Vigbya bow the load was 6fi heavy. The 

'if^n said. Offer a sheep to Khandoba and the load will be lighter. 
The Vanj&ri offered a shwp, moved tho lend with eu»e, nnd becamo 
■ follower of Khundobu. Tbe S^l^a ^''Huj]l^iK say they have no 
nh&risions. Tbey are dark, strong, hardworking, hospitable, and 
oMy. Their home speech is Mar&thi. Their staple food is 
■illct, palse, and vegetables. I'ho men but not the; women ent fle^h 
■ri It marriag(n flexh In furbiddc-n even to men. Both men and 
maeo dress like Kuubis. A considerable number of them are 
liiu^tuiidmen and some are village headmen. Thoy are generally 
nlito-do, and keop cattJv and sheep, whoMo sale brings tbem good 
ptitg. They do nob shear their sbeep as they anv shearing la 
Ubuigar's work. The women, besidea bouse work, help the men in 
tlisiidds. They worship the usual local and Bnihmanic deities but 
tUr boose god is Khanuobu. They hold the Mixth of Mdrgaahirth 
Ja Novambcr- December sacred to Khandoba, aud on tliat day, 
Mure eating, offer him new millet and onions. Their marriage 
tnoMiiues do not diffor from tboeo of Kunbi». The well-to-do 
DViy their boys at twelve and their g^rls nt six. They can^ tbe 
Mtmd dead to burial on a bier and the nnmarried dead in a 
dctk. ISxcept the well-to-do who bum tboy bury their dead. 
Tbtiy settle social disputes at ctuito meotiuga. They do not send 
ll«ir boys to school aud are generally well-do-to. 

Of Depressed or impure Classes there aro fonr with a strength 
•THO^ or 10-76 per ceut of tho Hindu population, llio details 

Cliaptar IIL 




tBoiatw,y Ouettaer 



chsptn ni. 



84Uni Drpnmtd Ooitt*. IS$t, 





sas* ■:■ •- 









Bhangis, ^r Ni|r)>ti;oiI Men, arc returned oa numborin^ ee* 
Bod lui loiinil ill toiviix niid Inrge Tillages, except in Klutnipa 
KluttAv uid Min. 'I'tiey have, no dimtona. They look either iik 
MoBaltDins or low class Uindae. The toea wear the moaiitiicli 
and beard anci sbare tbe head except the topknot. A. Bhanf^ cao 
be kuown otity !>}■ bis biukot which fau carries oi> his bowl uid kit 
broom which be carries in his right hand. The^ spsalc both 
HindostAni and Mar^tfai. The? live onUide of toiroB in houses witb 
watts oi mud and tiled or thatched roofs, or in iitr«w bats. Their 
dwellings an often dirty and tlieir honso goods inclodo nslsl 
mifA tnruieii vessels. Except » iilio-goat or two they koep no oatds. 
When they retaro home from work in tbe morning, they Imtbe, 

!iat on fresh clothes, worship their house gods, and dine after offenag 
ood to the gods. Their staple food is millet bread, rioe, regetabkl, 
wid dqIso, bat they out fi»h nod flesh, drink liquor, smoke tohactt 
aodbemn, and eat opinm. They make wheat cakes stufli^ «n(h 
gram and molassea on Da»ara in September-October and on Direti 
in October- November. On other holiilAys and festivo occasions they 
generally get svreetiDoats and otlier dishes from their employers. Tfai 
men dretts like Mosalmins or Mardthdis, and the women weiu- th* [bU 
Manitha robe and bodice, rub their brows with rodpowder, and ti« 
their hair in a knot behind the head. The men's ornaiRunts are gold or 
silver linger ringH worth 4«, to £l 10a. (Us. i-}T>], and the women's 
the lucky necklace or mangaUutra, a nose ring worth 10*. to lif. 
(Its. 0-7), silver wristlets or goU worth about 1 6«. (Rs. 8), and belU_ 
metal tooHugs orjodots worln 4|(i (3 an.). Bhancis as a class 
strong luid well made, honest, orderly, and hardworKiug. Thoyi 
ni^htfioil men uud ecarengera and earn 10«. to £1 4s. (Ks. 6- it 
month. They are either uindus or Musalmfins and are ooDsi^ 
the lowest class in thu coiomanity. Tbey arc a showy people 
in the evening when their work is over dress in bright gay 
They worfihip the usual local and BrAhmanic deities as 
Mijsalmia saints, and thoir ^mily gods are Bahirobu, Devkdi, Ja 
Jotiba, and Naritobn, of whom thoy keep imnges in their bos 
They believe iu witchcraft HoothHiiying ana evil enirits, allow child 
and widow marria^ and practise polygamy. Tneir niannen vAj 
oostoms are thsnme as thosoof the Poona ItaUlkhors.' They bai; 
tlie dead and keep no mourning. Tbey have a headman or mhetr 
who settles social disputes at caste tncoLiiigs. Thoy do not 
their boys to school, and are a steady people. 

1 DctsUa of HiJdIkhor eu*tonil Ut givsu in tb« Fooiu ftt*lutic«l Ac«««nl, 



Dhors, or Tnnnera, are returned ah nnmbenug I63S nn<l a« ioand 
orer tliv wlifilo liistrift. They bave no memory of comiug ioto the 
diatriot or of any fomiirr i^i-ttlumont. They h»vo no Eubdiviiiiona 
and claim no rolutionahip with any othor lribi.o. They look liko 
ilardthAit and speak Alantthi. I^hey live in poor and dirly Iiohhoh 
sod their hoiiso goods inclade metaJ, earthen, and wooden pots 
and paiiH. Their slaplo food is inillvt, salt, oil, and chilliea, aod 
tkey Kive dinners in honour of births marriagcH and dontha, when 
diabes of meat and pulse cakea are prepared by their w>ini«n. The 
leets bring their own plates and take off none of their clothes 
fore fating. Liqnor in ooinotinips eorrod and the gaeeta aifc 
inging nonga the whole night. Both men and women dress like 
'ar^th^, and their clothea are waistclotbs, blankets, turbans, 
''nistcoats, robea, and bodicca. Their hereditary calling is tanning 
bides, HT)d tboy also sonro as day tabonrere. They worship the 
naual l'i«il titid Krdhmanic gndit nnd goddeasoe, and their fnvonrito 
ffods are Jotiba, Khandolia, and Vithoba whose imagen they hare 
in their houses. They worship their deceased ancestors and 
knakcH, and mnko pilgrimages to Jojnri, Ratnig^ri, and Pandharpiir. 
They have no oacetim or ciiiM u^r among them and their pricstB an 
the ordinary village Brdhmana who are paid 1 {d (1 n.) at a birtfa, 
'. (Re. 1) at a marriage, and 6i^. (4 m.) at a death. Their shadow 
not now thotight impnre, and the Brdhmnn who conducts their 
moBies saffers no social degradation. They keep all tlie intuiU 
inda fasts and feoste. They worship the goddess Satr&i on the 
th day after childbirth and distribute moluBOe when a child is 
mad. They give a feast to eaalewoincn when a girl comes of age. 
t the betrothal thf^ present the girl with clothes and ornament*, 
hey marry their girla between ^^S^^ "^^ twelve and their bora 
etween twelve and twenty-five. They present the boy and girl 
and their parents with clothes, iukI feast relations and friends. 
Their widows marry and their men have more than one wife at the 
same time. They bnry their dead, spend less than £1 (Re. 10) nn 
the funeral, and feast relations and friends. They bare no head- 
loan, and ask an elder to settle oaate disputes. Adultei^ or eating 
irith A man of lower caste is punished with loss of caste, but tbe 
offender is allowed to come oaok on payment of a fine which tak«s 
the form of a caste foost. They do not send their boys to school and 
ire a poor people.' 

I Ha'ngB are retnmed aa nombering 20,919 and as fonnd over 
the whole district. They cannot tell whan or from where they 
came into the district. Tlier have no divisions. Their homo speech 
Eb Mnr&thi, and they are darV, strong, and middle-sined. They live 
Dutsido of the village in dirty nnd wretched hovels and their hoose- 
vooda inclade earthenware wooden and metal pots, blankets, a 
Sot, and a couple of planks to serve as stools. Their staple food is 
Knillet bread, vegetables, pnlse, salt, chillies, and oil, and they vat the 
peeb of goats, ueep, and pig, and dead cattle. Theyare excessively 
Bond of drink. They give mntlon and pulse dinneTS in honour of 

> Dcbdla of DhoT duitomi u« glvoi in the Fo«no> Statutioftl Acoonst. 

OkaptsT III. 



IBomb&y Oautt 


Chapter III. 



birtbs, botrothals, niurringos, doatlis, and rolurus to cnste. TIib l 
is cCDCrullycookH by tlie wonion and ciatvii by the raon guctU 
wiuiout UJcing oil auy articles of dresii and eocb gumt bringing 
hia dish with nint. Liquor is eometiraes sapplied, and, after it it 
drunk, tho guests sit singing the whole night. The men dress like 
Mnrilthlis in a wnixtclotli, vniittcuiit, turlwn, and tMiiidals or ehoee; 
and the women in the full Mar^tha rolie tuid bodioe. They »rr Imrdy 
paeeionate and reveugoful. Tho MhflrB and M^uge are heredtUr; 
riraU eotrh longing for Ihu chanou of ruininj? Iho other. 
MAngsare very uaeful and trustworthy viihtgo wulchmi-n. They 
also scavengers, hangnien. musicians, and aongst«r«. They 
andsellbroomaaDd baskets, and ropes of coir and lestlter. Atthetii 
of naming their children they distributo molasses or j/ut and packets 
of bet«1, and fea^it oastowomeii when u girl oombs of ago. At tiie 
betrothal they oresent the girl with olotheH and oroainonta. Thoy 
marry their girls between eight and twelve, generally before ihey 
come uf age, antl their boys betwi-cn twelve and twonty-Bre. They 
present the boy and girl and their parents with clolbos, and feast 
relations and caste fellows. A lucky day for holding the nuirmge 
is>chosun by a holyman or sadhu of their own caste, and BrihmaBa 
conduct their marriages from adistance. The Mang priest or 
has fifteen to twenty villages in his charge asd Inui to keep goi 
and down his parish. His presence ia not necessary at the ma. 
time. Widows marry and men havo more thau one wife at the sai 
time. They bury the dead ^pnudiug up to £1 (Rs. 10) on the 
funeral and in feasting relations and frienda. They have a hcadmai 
or mektar, whoso presence ia necessary at marriages and 
caste meetings. Tbo usual punishment which the caste inflicts 
an oQeuder is a fine varying from £1 to £2 (Rit. 10-20). But 
adnltei^ and oating with a low caste man are punished witti la 
of CSMte and tho offendiT is admitted back on giving a caste fi 
Except a very few they do not soud their boys to school and are 
poor people. 

Mha'ra, or Village Messengers, are retnmed as nnmberiog R7,67{ 
and a» found nil over thu district. Of all the lower claases the 
M hfirs are by far the strongest. Tht-y are divided into Mh^rs proper, 
Murli Mhars.Gavsi Mh&rs, and Jogti Mlito. The Murli Mhfirs aro 
said tobo t)iuo(TspringufaMhi(T girt who was devoted to the servico 
of the god Kfaandoba; Quvsi Mfai^rs are said to be the children of 
Uh&r parents born in adultei? ; and Jogti MhArs are said to be the 
descendiutts of bastard Mhfirs who were devoted to the service of 
tho Karu&tftk goddet^s Vnllumma. All the sobdiviaiona eat together 
but do not intermarry. If a Mtulr proptrr marries cither with a 
Murli or a Gavsi Mhiir he is put out of caste and is not atlowe<l to 
come Ijock. A Gavsi Mhitr, who performs certain purifying rites, 
is admitted by the Mluirs into their cnsto and eats and marries witli 
them. In appearance the Mbdrs are well made, muscular, dork, sad 
hardy. Their home tongue is Mariitlii. Their houses have stoos 
and unbumt brick walls and tluttchcd or tiled roofs. Their bouae 
goods include eartlien wooden and melAl vessels, and they keep 
cows, buffaloes, sboup, and dogs. Their staple food is millet btoii^ 






Halt, oil, tliillicjt, vitfrctnltles, fish, and tlio Deab ot gosA8,ah<fep, fowls, 
and cattli), but uot uf lli» pig, nnd thoy Hmok« bolfa tohtuxo uid 
lioinp. Ttioy are extremoly fond of drink. -They are b»d cooIch 
and havo aspocial liking f(ir puujfuiit i^nd sonr dishoB. Tfaoy girfl 
lioef and pulflO dinnore in )i»noiir of liirtliM, itmrriitKCH, diwtliH, auil 
rctimis to OMlo. Thu food is goDcmlly cooked by tJie woini'ii. 
The ^eata nae nlatea whirli tlicy briny with thv:iu nnd Uiko off none 
of ihvir clolhoaboforo dining. Liquor is aoinetiiiicH drunk and iJto 

([ueata ocauioimlly Hit Hin^^ing tho wholu niglit. Thn luuu drees in a 
oiDcloth, wsietcloth, waistcoat, ManlLtia turljati, nnd tiitinutiuioH » 
blttiikut, nnd tho women in a robe genemlly block, rod, or mmji lliat 
is orange oulourctl, Mo«t men havo s turban wortli about 
lOs. (Rs. 5) and n good ooat for festive occasions, and thi> women n 

silk-bordervd r«bo and bodice. Tho womon do not wcsir falaa hair, 
but tie their hair in a knot behind thu hfJid or {>tait it into a bniid. 

Sitb^rsaKft classaro hardworking, quiot, frugal, hosjtitablo, and honest, 
but UoUteraperod and dirty, tn rtllagoH tht-y sorro as mmitengorB, 
carrying letters from the villagn to tliu sub-divisiunal head-()uurton( 
And aid lbolteadmnRor/)((/)7andtboacoountant orA:iiM:iimt in calliag 
meetingu of villagers and performing othor ofBciul duties, Thoy Vro 
alao given prosente for servicos they render as village servants and 
nro geuerully hiiH)iiindin«n and laboarors. They romove dead c-ittio 
from tho village and eal their HeMh giving tlm .ikin to the hereditary 
or ralnndiir vilUgo Mhiir. Thoy uury tho bodies of villagers or 
atranj^crs who have uo rolatiunti or fncmhi, dig graves, imd earry 
firewood to the burning ground receiving the grave clothes in return, 
Toporf'irmthoirGovernmeiitdntieB they every year choosw a headiunH 
called tiiriilaad serve under his orders. This lardl is subordinate to 
the mehlfir, the general head of the Uhlirs. Thu Murli Mh&rti and 
the Jogti Mlidrs uro not included among villugo ttervants and liv» 
by begging. A Mh^r's shadow is not now tbonght to defilo and 
they do not carry a jar round their necks to spit in. Kkc«pt duriug 
the raiuy season tho Mh/ir« work nil tho year. Their bnsy season 
is about Divdli in October-Novemb<-raiid tbey rost on all holiday)!. 
Oani Mli/tnt womhip tho ustuil local and Itrrihtnanic gods and 

Siddesses, especially Khandoba and &(ahiiiakshini. The Mnrii 
hfire worship no god but Khaudoba, and the Jo^i Mh^r.-( worship 
the goddess Yallamtna. Many at slated times visit Paudharpur to 
pay homage to Vithoba and Alandi to do honour to Jnyiinwhvar. 
Ther have a religious teacher of their own class who weara a iuin 
bead necklace, and any one who wishes to ask hia advice has to 

Present him with a waistcloth, a turban, and 8». (Ks. 4) in cash. 
hey have a oriest of their own caste called pandit or learned whom 
they pay liJ. (I a.) ata birth, 2s. (Re. 1) at a ranrriago, and l{d. 
(I a.) at a death. They keep Saturday Sunday and Tuesday ami 
tho lunar elevenths in Athdilii or July -August and Shrdvan or 
August - September as fast days. They believe in spirits, and hold 
that persons dying of an accident or with aQfiilfillud wLthes tnm 
into spiritA and haunt the living, lliey enter men women children 
and cattle, and leave only when what Ihey ask tor is given them. 
They have no such distiactiou as outdoor and house .ipirita. Mh^rs 
have no midwife, any old woman in tho hotuc helps tho mother, 
s 12U-16 

Chapter I] 


[Sombsy Ou«tteor, 



ti&pter in. 



TlicDavcI cord anil artcr-hirtliRrnbunudinapitin tlia Ijing-ia 
and tho mother and child are bathed at ihe pit eveiy doy. Uutbet 
day after the birtli comostbu tikomli or third dny coromony vrhen fire 
roiuricd women am foa!it«d.Outboliftbday cornea the t)(!N«Ari or fifth 
day ceremony wben alar^ eartbenjar iseetnear tbe honse door and 
fill^ vritb water by n» many cldwrly woinea M Ibo child's [nthcr coa 
afTord to feast. A silver or copper imaffo of the goddess Satr^ it 
placc<] in a winnowing fan and before it aru laid turmuric and rod- 
powilurandiirocoanut. Thii imithor wiihhft child iu keranna makM 
a low bow before it and a feast is held when rice and bread are serred. 
On the tndftli day tlio Ixirn or twelfth day ocrcniony is pcrformod. 
In the nioruinr tlio liouie is cowdmiged and the mother and child 
um bathed. In the afternoon, whon the female guwts have come, 
the cliild iM laid in tlio cmdlu by its mother and named and tha 
mother's lap is filled with rice grains or pulse. Boiled pnlse and 
betel are handed round aud tho guests rctiro. At any time bvtwm'n 
when the child Itt livo yi>aT!« old and of ago both on boya and on 
girls the ear-blowing or karna»brdviti is porformod. Tfao ear- 
blowing generally take$ pki-o on thoelvvunlh of » Hinda month. 
After worshipping his gods the Mh4r priest, if the child is a boy 
takes him on his right thi^h and if a girl on his loft, and whispers a 
Tvrae or manfnt in the right ear. The pri&at now beoomes tiia 
child's godfather. Mhilrs lis no limit of ago for the nairia^ eitber 
of their boj-» or of their (prU. It depends on tho parents' eirciim* 
titance.i. If the parents are the children are married at an 
earlyage ; if the parents are poor the sons remain nnmarriod until thoy 
uro Ihirty nnil the dutighlors till they are sixtvon. At tlw betrothal the 
boy's parents present the girl with clothes and omameiit«, put sn^w 
in her month, and a vnpoo on Iht brow, Tho boy is prosoQlvd with 
a turban and they retire after consulting the village priest or jarM 
as to the lucky day for holding tho marriage. Theymahe marnage 
faalls and plant an umbar Fioua glomemtA poat, or mukwHmeah 
to which they lio an axe or wheat bread and mb it with turmerio- 
FHends and kiuiikfolk arc tronted to a dinner at thu houses of Iwth 
the boy and tho girl. Three or four days before the marria^coinea 
the lurnmric rubbing when tho boy is rubbod with turmeric, and the 
boy's kinswomen with music take the real to the girl's. The girl 
is rnbbvd with turmeric and presented with a bodice, robo, and 
omamenta. On the marriiigc! day, a couple of hour» before the 
appointed tiino, the boy is ilre^sed in new clothea and a marriage 
ornament nr hiinhing in tied toliJM brnw. Ho is seated on a horw and 
his sister if a child is seated behind him ; if nhe is a grown girl she 
wnlkis behind tlui honwT with » wnUjrpot iii her luind covered with a 
bunch of mango leaves and a cocoannt. With tliem go his male 
and female relations, frieiids. and music. lie goes to the temple 
of tho village Miiruti where ho )h reoiM\-od by tho girl's parents anil 
a few near relations, and is presented with a new turban and such 
otherclothcsaaCbegirrsfathcrcait afford whotnkeshimnnd his frivnds 
with him to his hoase. On the way near the honso a cocoanut and 
a piecu (if briTttd urn wavotl round the boy's face and thrown away. 
When he reaches tho girl's, tho buy and girl are mndr to HtanJ 
facing fuch other aud a clolJi is hi'ld between them while tlie prieati 





MwatB voiiiuu. At tho lucky momeDt tho cloth in pulled on ono 
«oe »Dd llie prieet and quests throw rico ^aius over the puir'n hoitd 
aud clap their haBiln. Th« hoy uod girl pub flowor garlaDcis round 
ono another's necka and the male eneata are preitented with hotel 
and tho wonion with turmeric and )i»(fron. Tlio remaining niirt» 
of thoir marriage ceremony, iuoludiug feostii on hoth sides, differ 
littlo from those of the Mar^th^a, They allow their widows to 
marry, tho ooroinony nlwiiys taking placo at night and in a 
louoiy place. It begins by the widow worshipping two jars filled 
with wutvr. Both the villagu priunt and a Pandit of their own 
caste officiate. Her now busbtind prasioata \ho widow with a new 
robe and after a short ceremony they are husband and wife. 
They bury their dead, holding no ceremony ever unmarriod persona 
and children under two. When a married man dies hi.i body.ia 
washed and the chief mourner poors a littlo water into his mouth. 
The body is then rotlud in a piece of cloth or blanket and carried 
to the burial ground either on a bamboo bier or in a sling. A 
grave is dug and the body is laid in it, and tho ohiof mourner 
throws a hiindful of earth orer the body and the rest follow, Thon 
the grave is filled, the chief mourner walks thrice round it with*an 
eortnon waterpot filled with water on hts shuuhUTs in which a hMe 
is pierced at each round and at the end of the three rouudu daabo* 
tht^> pot on the ground and orioa aloud. Tho monruers then retnrn to 
their luiii!te.-t. The chief mourner and bis family moani ten days. 
On the third day the grave is levelled, and on tho twelfth and 
thirtoonth days, cakes and riw balls are oflered to thts spirit of tho 
dead. IE a pure or a Gavai Mhdr dines or commits adultery with a 
Mdng or a Baangi, he is pot oat of onatft and is not allowed baek niilosa 
bo shows that ho was ignorant of the caste of tlie person with whom 
he associated. They are a poor people and though Some of them 
have the wish to send their boys to sohoul, ther cannot, as their 
boys i^ro nut altowod to sit side by aide with middle aud upper claaa 

Boggara include thirteen classes with a strength of 9185 or 0*92 
per ciint of the Hindu population. The details are: 

SiUdra Btygar; ISSI. 










CUtntkalUi .- 



















vtinan* ^ 

TbUI . 













Bha'tS, or Bards, are returned as numbering -WT and as found 
ovpr the whole district except in Jnvli and Pdtan. They have no 
divisions. Tho mon woitr tho topknot, moustache, and whiskers, and 
some lot their hoards grow. They apeak both HinduatAni and 
Mnr&tbi, and live in middle ohms houses, one or two storoys high with 
walls of briok and stene aud tiled roofs. Thoy kcop cuttle bat not 
servante, and their honae gooda incltide tnotal nod earUieu pots and 

Chapter III 








pans TTidir staple food is milk'l, nwj pulse, and buttermilk. They 
oat IikIi and Ucsh, but tbuy am not allowed to iiiw liiiuor. The men 
dreaalikoMarAthSaiuawaietcloth, coat, turban, and shoos; nndlho 
woinuo in a petticoat and a bodice witJi a back. They pww n rubo round 
the waist ovor the petticoat and draw ono end over the bead. Tko 
ioeii'8 ornaments aro an ourrinK or hhiklidti and fingur ring^ The 
women's oruamcntw »ro a gold noaerinp, the lucky necklace or 
maitgahuirn, ailvcr wristtets or goh, and bolbnotal toe-riufp or 
jiodriir logolhor worth €3 U> £-t (Ils.30-40). They arc ati iiit«IUgenl 
and pood-looking chtsa. They arc thrifty, Bober, and hospitable. 
They have a minute knowledge of their patrons' family trwjs aiid 
oouipoeo and ropttftt pm;nis with ninch spirit and gtwluro. The 
RAjiis of SilUlra and many of tho nobility Iiiid Bhiita in tbeir aorvicc, 
«In>, sine© tho fall of tho ohiofsihip have been forced to t«ko to otbur 
moans of livelihood. Thoy are beggars and day Inboorcra and 
barter old clothes for braes and coppor p>ljt which they buy fr^im 
Copppramith». Thoy worship all Hindu gods and goddesses and 
keep the n>gular fasts and feasts. Their family godit arv Hiilltji and 
Krishna, and their family priestrt an' tho village Bi-ihmana. Their 
rokgioiiM liMid in an itscottc or lairdyi of tho Vaishnav sect wlw 
whiKpors a sacrod vorso into tho candidato's oir at tho time of the 
initiation. Bxccpt tho worahip with rodpuwder nod Sowers 
of n twig of (he jujube or bor 
tho Jifth day after a birth, and 
before tho twig and allowing 
they have no fifth day worshipL 

married women in somu garden or grave noar their house on palsc^ 
ricp, and vegetables and return borne. In the evening thoy fill tho 
mother's lap with grain, cradle the child, and name it singing tiongs. 
I'ho fempilu gueatH retire with betel nud boiled gram. The chiof 
]7niiit.i in which their marriage customs differ fn>m those of MarAlbis 
are: They hnvo no inarriago altar in tho bride'et boolh, they 
bring no clay jars from tho pottiir's; tho boy does not visit any 
teiuplo on his way to tho girl's ; and thoy huld no cloth or 
at]fiirj»il between tho boy and girl at the time of manning them. 
Unlike Manith^s they drive a five or wis feel long tcakwood polo 
into the ground in tne centre of the booth, and after tho coiiplo 
have walked seven times round tlie pole tho marriage is over. 
They b«m their dead and mourn ton davs. On tho t«nth the chief 
mourner shaves his moustache, ^ving the priest iji. to -U. (R«. I -2). 
On the twelfth the caste is given a dinner in honour of the dead. 
They have a headniiin culled chandhari who settles all social disputes 
at caste mi-ctingw. Tim old men among them are held in groat 
roverenco and are anpoalod to in social oisputos. They send their 
boys to school, anil excepting a £bw who bold grant lands aro 
generally badly off. 

Bhutya'8,or8piritmon, are returnod as namberis^ fifty-eight and 
im found only in SAtAra. They have no sabdtvisions. and look 
and speak like Uar&thiU from whom they do not differ in house 
food or dress. Except by their long and filthy begging coat and 
necklaces of cowrie idiells they cannot ho known from Mardthfa. 
They ore a q<iiet thrifty and orderly people, and tiuir hcii'ditary 

tree in the mother's room oa 

tho sotting of a lighted lamp 

it to burn thu whole nighty 

On the twelfth day they feasi 



DiQ); is bef^ing from door to door in the Dame of tlio gotldoM 

Ethavilni They worship all Ennbi gods and goddesses, and keep 

(lio nr^lur fii.sUi nnii fc^Uriils. Ilieir pricats Kre villagu BnUmuna 

I mJ iLcir spiritual lieada are Gos&ris. Tbeir customs from birth 

^Bo death are the same w those of Kunbis. Thoy sottlu social 

^BSispateB at caste nicotiuKS, send their boys to sdiool, aud though 

pcxir are thrifty and &gb from debt 

ChitrakathiB, or Pictunt Showmon, too returned as numbaring 

uincty-«ight aod as foaod only in S&iim, Kar&d, and T^gaon. 

They say they are from T&sgson and camo to the district about 

MTcnty-liiro jemn ago as boggars. They claim to bo MtinitliiU 

and are divided \nU> lUgdis, (jondhlis, JoBhis, and Vasudera who 

i^ eat together and intermarry. They resemble MarfthA* in Appoaranee, 

^Lp(ir<ch, hon«t>, food, iwd drcm, and are quiet hardworking and 

^■hiiftpi table. ITioy show pictures of heroes and gods and repeat 

stories from the Par&nB while showing them, and aJso sing and t>t^. 

They worithip all the Kuulii gods and goddesses, and keep their fants 

and festivals, and their family go^ are Amb&bfaaTini of 'I'uljiipur, 

Jotiba of Ratndgiri, Kbandobu of P6\\, and Laksbmi of Knltinpur. 

Their prieiits are ordinary Tillage Jir&hmans whom they grei^y 

respect, and their customs from birth to dotith are the Bamo as tfao«0 

^_ of knabis. They have no hetulinan and ttetlle their social dispate* 

^■at caste meetings. A few of them send their boys to school. They 

^^are a poor pcwplo. 

Qondtalis, orGoRdbal Dancera, are returned as numbering 1035 
and as foutid over the whole district. Thoy have no diviaioos and 
in appearance, speech, houEo, food, aw) an-tfis iiro the same aa 
Kunbis. They arc worKliippers of the goddess Ambib&i in whose 

tlionoar they sing and dance. Martltha Hindus, after some joyfol 
uruut in the family such oe a birth or a marriage, usually perform the 
ifondii'il dance. When a tjumihai ia to be perfoiined, the dancers 
are fuastod during the day, and dance at night. A higb woodea 
fitix>l IN vet in the middle of a room and a Iiaudful or two of wheat 
is laid on it On the wheat is set a copper cup with betel leaves in 
it, and, over the leaves, a half cocoa-lccmcl holding some rice, a 

Ibctiilnnt, and a copper coin. Near the stool is set an image of tho 
goddess Ambabdj and a lighted lamp. In front of the stool s^nd 
tbo three or four dancers with a drum, a one>atringcd fiddle called 
tuntitne, two metal cnpti, and a lightttd torch. The bend dauoor 
droMos in a long robe and garlands of cowrie shells and stan^ in 
front of the othcrK, lays sandal flowers and food before the lighted 
torch and takes tho torch up, dances with the torch iu his hauds for 
a time, siugs, and at intervals makes a fool of tho torch-bearer. 
The dance l»itl«ulxiut an hour, and, aft«r waving a lighted lamp or 
^_ lirfi in front of the goddess and throwing copper and silver coins in 
^P the pinto holding tho lamp the dance is over. The daucors ore 
^ paid \s. to 2J». (Rs.^-li) and arc sometimes given a turban. In 
rabgion and customs Qondhlis do not differ from Kanl»e, hold caste 
councils, BODd their boya to school, and are welUto-do. 

Gopals,' or Cktwhords, are roturno<l as numbering soveutecn, and 

1 UotaiU ol Mftrtthk Gvptk cuitgnu an gtvcoi in the Abuwdiugiu' SUtiiliotl 

Chapter II 







Chapter IIX. 




a of I 

as found only in Jdvli and S&tdra. They eiag, dance, and vrreatle. 
Tbvy uru wandering heggant and havo no settled liuinc. Thoy 
wander in email bands visiting eacred places. Tbey keep mOTiDg 
during tho fair seHsoa and halt in tbu nuns. Thcj arc poor. 

Oosa'vis, or Pasdion Lonlti, are returned ai nQniboris^ 
2Ci7 and as found ovor the whole district. They claim deiioen 
from tbe sjige Kapil but are rccniiUsd from all middlo and nppei 
class Hindus. They are divided into Bairi^s, Davris, KflnphityiU, 
and McDJogis, and, except that tho men let tbe hair and 
lienrd grvw long or olcnn ahare tho head and hco and wear 
red ochre clothes, they look cither like Konbis or Mhirs. 
Thuir home tougiiu is Hinduatilni, and thuy vat from all Uindoa 
ezcflpt tho dopreitsed or impure tribes. Tbey claim to bo 
TegetariauB, eating no fleah aud drinking no liquor. But they eat 
opium and smoku hemp^ They rub theni^elvos with oehes and 
dress in ochre clothes. Thoy beg from door to door and some »ing 
and play on a lyre whilu bogging. Formerly Goa&vis took serrioe 
ax M'Miliers and had a good uajiio for bravery and loyally. In 1789 
MaiiSiiji Sindia enlisted large numbers of these people, formed 
them into a distinct body, niia plucvd thorn undor tue command of 
Mimal Baluidur who was both their captain and religions ti.'^Aclior.' 
GoE^vis seem inclinod to givo up beggiog and take to hosban ~ 
and to service as oonatahW and mcnaungors. Though thoy onghl 
to remain siuglc, some of them marry. They bury their do»d. 
Thoy worship all the Hindu goda and goddesses, bat their chief god 
is MahltdcT. Thoy travel from place to place, visiting sacrod spot*, 
and seldom stay many days in ono place. When a man wishes to 
become aGositvi, he fo.-its thedny buforo tho initiation. Nextmormng 
n bni iier tjhaves his whole head, bathes him, and lunoars his whole 
body with ashes. His religious ti^cher or guru whisperd a sacred 
verse into liis cars and gives hiui mola^nos to 8wc«t4)Q his moutb 
ttnd salt tli^t lie may prove true to hia faith He is clothed in a rod 
ochre dress and molagses arc hsndod among guests, neighbours, 
and acquaintances as o, sign of Joy. A fetuit is hold and tho new 
disciple Dooks and serves some dishes. After dinner tlio Bfu;riftcial< 
fire or bijhom is lit and the novice is a complete Qoe&vi. They 
bound t^igelhur by a etrong fellow-feeUng and are poor. 

Jangams, or Ling&yat Priests, aru rotumcd as numbering 'i70G 
and as found over the whole district. They aro tho priests of 
IiingAyata and worshippers of Shiv. Round their necks they 
wear a copper or silver casket with an emblem of Shir. Besidea 
acting n« priests thi>y go bogging from village to village and house 
to houae dressed in ochre clothes and carrying a couch slioll or a 
drum. When thoir head Janguin, who is culled svdmi or lord, dice 
ho is sncooeded by some of hui numerous disciples. He Iivv4 in n 
monastery in Karild. Ho visits his followers once every four or five 
years, finrngaud levying contributions. His disciples or agoots also 
gu nlxiut gutberiug his dues or haks. Jangams eiit no flesh. When 
they dine tbey set the plate on a throe-loggod stool and eat tho 
whole food served without leaving a particle, nud afterwards wash the 
plate with water and drink the watc-r, Jangams do not marry bat vo 

lew ■ 



'Hdd to b9 allowed to visit certain prostittitM who are chosen by 
the tnooaflteiT-. Thoy bury their doau nud mis© a tomb over the 
grave with an inscnptton and an emblem of Sbiv. 

JoslliS, or Astrologers, nro rvturnod lis DiiiqbfiriDg 918 and 
as found over tlio whole district, Thev do not differ frgni 
Munltha Eunbis ia appearance, speech, house, food, or dress, 
llioir bcffging dross ia a mUior long white coat, wnistcloth, 
fibonldercloth, shoes or sandals, and generally a loose while turban. 
llic-yiLTD quiut, patient, nnd orderly. Wbilo t«lliiig fortune*, they 
look on the lines of the. palm, nod speak iu tones so serious, Boiemn, 
and respoctfiil thai the listoiieris greatly itnpreesed. They are astrolo- 
gers, fortune luUurs, uiid beggars, and eo sin^nff and bomting u small 
dmm or huduk. They worship all MarAtha-Kunbi gods and god- 
desi^es and keep the same faata and fuists. They behove in witch- 
criift and spirits. Their priests are village Br^mans, and tlieir 
customs from birth to death are the same as those of Mar&tha-Koabis. 
They hold caste oouucilit and are a poor people. 

Kolha'tls, or Tumblers, are returned as unmbering 131 and iwt 
foiin<l ijvi-r tliu whole district except in Kanid, Khat&v, Koregaon, 
and M&n. They are a slight, active, and intelligent people with filir 
skin-i, dark eyois, and short black hair. They speak a mixture of 
Gujar&ti Marjithi and UindustAui and have no home, moving from 
placo to place generally in gangs of twenty to twenty-five, carrying 
amall mat huts and cots on the back of donkeys or ponies or on.lheir 
own heads. They pass the ra?ns in some dry part of the country. 
They oiit the flush of idmost ovi-ry animal and arc oxcussivoly fond 
of drink. The men wear n waiatcloth, waistooat, and ttirbnn, nod 
draw a sheet or ehddar over their body. They wear rings in theii' 
oarn and brass armlet«. The women wear n robe and bodice and 
the same ornaments as ordinary Mar^tha-Kunbis. Bolli men and 
women aru tumblurs and bi-ggnn, and some of the women in addi- 
tion are prostitutes. They steal and kidnap high oti.'<to girls to 
bring them up as prostitutes and are under the eye of the police. 
They also mnko and sell .Hninll bufTalo hum pulleys, mattresses, combs, 
and dolls. Any one working for hire is put out of oaste, but in let 
back iwain oa paying n fine varying from a handful of betel leaves 
to £1 ^s. 10). 'i'hey warship the usual local and BrAhmnuic god« 
andgoadeeses, buttheir chief deities aro Vir and the cholera goddess 
Man. Thoy hold the cow sacred. Their priests aro villago Br&b- 
mans, and thev use charms and believe in witchcraft. They also 
worship Musalnuin saints. They foast ibo caste when a child is 
born iind at marriages walk in proceuion like other Hindus and 
follow Hindu customs. They feast their castcfellows on the 
thtrteonth diiy afu-r a dcfttli. On coming of ago, a Eolhitti girl is 
called to choose between marriage and prostitution. If she chooses 
marriage, she is closely looked after; if she prefers to bo a prostitute 
ber parents call a caste meeting, feast them, and declare that 
their daughter is a prustitnto. 1'ho children of nnmarriod girls 
arc considered outcaste, but they cat and live with their mothers and 
are supported by them. They have a headman called niiijt or leader 
whose duty is to rcnuiin in camp nod look after the wvlfuru of the 




tBoinlMr Osut 



Chapter III- 

commnnity. All Kolhdti women, wbcllior married or ainjrle, 
watched by the polico. Though poor they are a conUmtod cl 
They do not »ond Uioir boys to school and take to no new pnreuits. 
Ma'nbhaVa,' or Iteepoctablos, lire retanied aa nuiiii>erin(; ciKlity- 
(wo (ind as found over the whole diatrict excep* in Jiivli, KliAnApar,^ 
Khal^v, MAn, and PAtan. They say that some five hutidrtid yeant agol 
tho MAnbhArs and the class oullvd (iorjis formed one brotherhood^ 
At thai time a certain dKarmpariiyan or ascotiu had two disciploa 
named DivAkar and Mnmndra. Munindra took to eating flesh and 
llfaattAchAryn a diuciplu of DirAkar quarrolled and separated : a 
nart of tho brotherhood followed Bhalt4ioh&ryu. He orden^d hU 
totlowers to chaof^ their ochre or hhagca robea to bbKk. and called 
tli»ni mahtiii'uhluleg or men of high mind which am has worn to 
MAabhiivs. The sect of MjinbhArs includoK a IlairAgi or religions 
and celibate, and a married bouseholding or Qharvasi divimon.* 
Celibate M^bhiva are both monks and doob. Married &(iUibhAra 
are divided into those who do cot keep oaate diBtinctiona, and 
Bbolo or nominal MtiiibliAvs who accept the principlus of the order 
BO far aa tliey do not interfere with tho rules of their CAgt«. They 
we rocruitod fmrn all Hiii<Iu.t uxcept the depressed classea. AmooK 
reIigk>UR or celibate MAubhuvs the monks shave the whole head and 
face not even allowln}^ the moustnoho to grow, and Uie nuns aim 
liuTC their hoada uliaved by a male harbor. Their home tongne 
IB MarAthi and they live eitt^r in momtHtories or wander in banils 
from place to place. Thuy cat no fleah and drink no water in 
maeoce of an idol. Both men and women wear black clotJiot. 
The mottk'B dreaa la a short waistcloth ii headscarf and a shoulder- 
cloth, and tho nuu's a robe the end of which they do net pass back 
between the feet and uo bodice. Tho monks also do not pass the 
end of their wnisteloth back botwceu the feet and both monks 
and nuns wear earrings and necklaces of liilgi beads becauau tlu> 
plant is sacred to their god Krishna. The monks sometimes wear 
ailror »r:nlets and finger rings. They are a quiet thrifty and orderly 
people. To take no lite is one of their chief rules. They are care- 
nil to avoid a pliico where a rourdor has been committed and will nob 
eat food for three days in any place where an accidental or a violent 
death has happened. Thoy generally wander in bands visiting saci<ed 

S laces, receiving into their order gi-own mon and wouiou ami ohiiilnin 
evoted to the M&nbhAv life by their parents, making conrort^, and 
begging. Of late many have given np Iwgging and have settled as 
traders and hnabandmen. Their gods are Uattittreya and Erisltna 
whoso shrines aro at Mihur in the Nizilra's country. Though they 
reject all Brfihmanic and non-Hrdhmanic gods they keep imagos of 
Dattfitreya and Ki-ishna in thoir moiiasterios and celebrate Eeasta 
on the anniversaries of DuttAtreya and Krishna. They hnve no 
images of saints and their hatred for all other BrAhmanical goils 
has made them unpopular among Hrfihmans^ though thoy are 
respected by lower class Hindus. They profeaa not to believe in 

Dmcu I 


gboata or spirits. Ther say that the fti)menU wbicb othpra sapposo 
to be cbusvkI \iy apints they liold to bo bo<lily sickriPESc.'* or 

fOn^iCH MMit by God to puuisk wcrot «ms in tlii* or in n fonnor 
ife. Botb men and women atndy the revered BUagvat Gita or 
KriEhna scriptnrp, and tho learned amooi^ ihom trhpthcr mna or 
womun lUtt tvrincd I'nudits. TIii'Sd I'nnditit pR'itch and vxjtouud 
Ruaratdy to tbo meiubera who are of thoir ovn sex. They liave 
only one Mahant or pootiff whose seat U at Bidhpur in QerAr, 
and who in called the Kitmujkar MahauL Tfao reward whJcb 
■tira tbo Itc-Ht uf thum to strict lioly living is the bo{»e of a a^eX 
neartbe throueof God. The sect iii recruited from young children 
who have been devoted by their parents, or have do onu to euro for 
tfactn, or bavQ thomsolves rvnounced tfao world and entered Uto 
moDOAt^ry. Tbo nun» either begin tm children ur late in life : 
yonne women eoldom join. The monks and tfao nana novor live 
tof^'thcT, and tbo nana never serve the monks however high their 
pcMiition may be. T\io nuns and the monks Imvel aeparalely. If 
a band of nana meets a band of monka and travels with Ihem they 
pot up at a groat distance, jfcneraliy in a sepantlo villugo. Tho 
womvn hold a sopnnto KCrvtco for tht-msolvirs, vi.titing the teiaple 
at Doon, or ntker fixe<l hour?, when no men are uUowed to altdnd. 
^Women and men never bold a joint itcrvice. On her admission as a 
^festvr awomaOf whether she is a Bnihman or a low canto woman by 
^nnb, is a disciple and pupil of the nnn who wltivpera tlio sacred verso 
or guru nantra into lier ear, and coiit-inues her follower so long 
aa the teacher Uvea Not only the Mahant or head of tbo momuteiy 
can imparl (Jiutcaohor's verse or jTMrumoJifni, anyone who has leave 
can teach it. Thu nnri^i mil their rcligioaH teacher di guru or Mother 
Teacher and the oihor niiti-i Hintera. Thoir chief religioua hoitiio is at 
idhpnr in Berdr. Tho members bothof a monastery nmlnf a nunnery 
divided into fivo grades. The five grades of Mdubhiiv monks are 
e bead or mahant, thtt (eaoher or ^iii/i/, the manager or hirbtfiri 
ko provides the inmates with food, tlia food-server or piilt-ktir, and 
lO daciplcs or efields. The five grades of &I4iil>h&v nuns are, the 
or bidkar di the t<^acher called either pandit ov vamtUskar 
i, tho manager or hothi lU, tbo young women's guardian or Insurkar 
6i, and the food divider or bhojan ai. AUnbluiv nuns attend 
tbo fuuerals both uf monks and of nnns. At a inonk'a funeral they 
walk br twhiod. At a nun's funeral men dig the groveaod withdraw. 
The body is carried to the grave by nana seatod in a pulnnquin 
the monks walking at a distance behind. When they r«nch tho grave 
the nans take the bo<!y out of tho paluxiqnin, strip it of its clothes 
except a waiaicloth, lay it in the grave, cover it with earth and walk 
away. Whon the nuns retiro the monks who followed nt a distaoco 
oome and till the grave. When a Mubant or head of a religious 
bottse dies his body is washed, it in touted on a raited sent, 
and is worshipped by tho monks. It is then tied to a palanqnin 
in a silting position. Tho palanqain is carried by the disciples 
on their aboulders to a placo choseu for the occasion. As ihoy 
walk they ceaaelcAsly repeat Iho names of Krishna and Datlatreja 
from tho moment <:f tlur death till the body is buried. Slinbbsivs 
do nut iiso ordinary burial grounds. They choose a clean spot, 

Oupter I 



[Bombay i 

Tliapter in. 




I S3 



ttnd a fi^TO is ditg Icn^hwiH(>, north uul xnnlt), tind RpTM^ 
with salt. Tlio hotly is Inki^u nul of tba imlaii<]ujii, stripped of itj 
clothes, and n loiucloth of baft silk ia tied roaoA the loitu, and H 
tB laid in the ifravo with ita head to tho north nnd its fc«t totbl 
Bonth. It is Inid on it» left ttido so m tofnce the out Mid n roco«Dii 
tit broken on tlio hr>»d. A sash or »hela, or other Tnlrablo rlotb 
Bpri>ad over tho body, and «ilt is eproiid on the &&th and earth. 
After the oarth haa been nprwui on tho «iU cuch o( tho mouniors l»j» 
u ooromniit «nd n bt-tol pnokct over it and tho graro in fillod and the 
gfround levellod »o a.* to leave no trace of the burial. No tomb ia 
erer raised over a Miinbhitr. Pot ten days after tho dmth the 
mombc-rs of tho religions hougo aro (od. After tltc donth uf ihtt 
head of a monaatory ouch of hio disciples aa have a came for holy 
conduct or learning offer thentaplves as candidates for tho post. 
They go to Pnithan in tho north-cast of Ahmndnngikr wh«re they 
hare to piifisim examination liefore hmmod Pandits, and whoever 
tho learned prunonnce beat tpialiBed is taken to the MinbhfiT 
monastery in I'aithan nnd i» there seated on a raii^pd scat, wonhip- 
pcd, and dvclarod Miibant. Cocoauuta, bcl^l, and nweetuicata 
ar^liaiidcd round and, on the following day, a feast is held and dry 
food is offered to snch as do not eat from their bands. The newly 
installed Mahant, before a^uming bix powers, Tisits the t«mp)o of 
Piinchileithvnr in the Nisfim's eonntry, and, nft«r wonUipping 
Batttftrey^ givee a feast to the MAnbhAvs, dry food to such'as do 
not cat from ois hands, aDdnlmsto iK'^^gnrtL The Mahant inquin« 
into and pnniBhcsciffcnccscomniillvdbythoiniinks.andthcGnni mother 
inquires into iind piiniidiKt ufTouces committed by the nuna. When a 
dispute arises which she cannot settle the Guru mother takes tho 
parties before the Mahant. Tho hL-adnon or Garn mother kcepsaittriotj 
watch over the KiitterH and any monk or nun who coinmits udulterj 
is put out of the house. Any one who dislikes these strict rule 
may marry and become a houEoholdcr or Gharvitsi M&nbhav. 

Tirmalis, or Bullock Showmen, aro returned as numbering forty- 
eight and as found in Kh^nApur, KurJd, Koregaon, and Sititra.^ 
They have no aubdivisiona and their home tongue is Telugu, They 
■re strong and well made and live in middle class houses. They eat 
Cnhandtloiih and drink n little liquor. They drc^A like M;inttha 
Kunbis, and aro clean, neat, and orderly. Their hei-editary calling 
is bogging, but some are petty traders, dealing in sacred thready 
rudrdWi and tutui hcni necklaces, metal boxes, and gla«s beada. 
They worship all Mar^tha Kunbi goda and goddc^tses and keep the 
regular fasts and feativala. Their priests are either Telang or Mar4tha 
Br&hmans, and they believe in witchcraft and spirits. They allow 
child and widow marringe and jtolygamy but not polyandry. They 
bum their dead and mourn ten days. They hold caste conncib 
and settle social disputes at caste meotings. They send their boyv 
to school until they leam to read and write, una aro thrifty anM 
steady. ^ 

Uohla's, or Pickpocketa literally Lifters, are returned as namber- 
ing 1 i4 and as found in Karad, Koi-egaon, SAtAra, and Valva. 
Theyhaveuo diviftiuusaod their home speoch is Telugo. Theylivc 






eitlier in ordinary tniddle class houHOfi or Id stmw htiU with tliatched 
roofs. Except a Eow muttil sod oiu-then veeaeln Llivir houses contain 
little furoiUire. MoaI of tliutn kvop viUtlo. Tbey eat tlsli nud flogh 
and drink liquor. They are pettv thievtM and pickpockets and an) 
not helped in thoir calling by their wive«, Tliey visit local faire 
to carry ou their trade. Of lato a fuw havti tnken to tiUa^ 
nnii day-labour. They wipe out tho »in of theft by oocuioDal 
gr.^nt!i iif broad to the poor. Their family deities ara A.iDb<b41 
ofToliiipur in tho Niziin's country, Bahiroba of KnnlJ in SAtira, 
Khandoba of Jejuri, and Ynllununn in the Kanuttsk. They havo 
a prioiit of their own casto whom thoy ask to conduct their 
marriago and other ceremoniea. They have a hendinjia called niiik 
who aettleH thoir aoeial diaputeu. A few of them send their boye to 
school till they are tweiro, and thoy aru gt-nDrally a steady olau.' 

ValduF, or Drug Uavrkem, ar« returned as nnmbering nine 
and M found only in Kar&d. Tbey appear to have come into the 
district fVom the KarnJiUk, but wh«n they came ia not known. 
They are dark, hardy, muscular, and robust, and are boapitnblo 
orderly and hardvrorkiug, but extrumely dirty and unsettled. Tho 
niOB woar long moustaonea and beards and share tho head. Thtir 
home bongne is Tolngu, bat with others tbey speak a corrupt 
Marithl They generally camp outside of towns and villages lo 
cloth or mat tents which thoy carry on donkeys. When they go 
drug-hnwkitig, thoy itling uctohi their iihoulder a bamboo pole hung 
with ono or two httgtt containing healing roots, herba, hidva, ana 
poisons. They are ready to heal any disease from a cold to a fuver, 
giriug some certain cure from thu bug. They also beg and aro 
given both grain and cookod foot). They CAt aJmost any Beeh that 
oom«s to them including frogs, rate, and serpents. When notbinf 
special conies iu their way their ordinary food is a pittanoo of brcaa 
sod vegetables. The men wear a tattered turban, a loinototb, 
and ucc-asionolty a wuiHtcloth. The women wear a robo and souietimes 
n bodice. After childbirth the mother is held impure for nitiedaya 
During tills time she does not keep her room, but on the vory lUy 
the child is bom goes about u* though nothing had happeneo. 
Rxoopt for chooHing a lucky day for the marriage of their chddrea 
thoy norer ask the help of a Briihmsn. They i»y him Bvo betel 
packets and five coppers. When thu boy and girl aro married tlwy 
f4>ast their caxtti with Sctih and liquor. Thoy bury thoir dead and 
hold the moumors impure for three days. Tbov allow child and 
widow marriage and polygamy bnt not polyandry. Their chief 
deities aro Khandoba, Vyankoba, and Ynllamraa, but thoy worship 
all other local and Brahnianio godii. They fa^t on Tuesdays in 
Iiouour of YalUmma and on Saturdays in honour of VyankoI>u, 
They settle social disputes at caste meeting* lutd rufxr diffioult ques- 
tions to their priest or ^mru, » Jaugam whoae head-quartors are 
in the Karuitatc. The teacher gathers a three-yearly oontribation 

Chapter III. 

B Ban A Ml 


> UnhUli o( UchU cutomi «k girea in tba Pomm 8Uti*lio»l AcMttnt, 

tBombar 0&t«tte«r. 

Chapt«r III. 





of 2a 61:?. (B«. li) from each fnmily. Tbej do not send tlieir boj»^ 
to school, and their calling and (rendition areflteadj, 

Ya'sudovs aro nnurned as numbering fifty-ono and a» found >a' 
El»tdr, ydtAni, Tisgaon, Tai, iviid Viilva. Thoy liare oo diriuooa 
and Iwik, ntiedt, eat, and dress like Maritha Kunhi!«. Thoy are 
wiuiduriug beggars going in small bauds from place to plaoo. Their 
bew(iiig drc»» is a long hat or crown adorned with 
teatters, a long coat having niimerouH folds, and troaadrB.1 
Tlicy carry in their bunds two metal cnpa and jihijr upon aRute.j 
They are given gniin, money, and old glothoa. They worship all the 
MarAtbii-Ktmbi gods and goddesses, and their priestA are villago 
Br^dimanit. Their family goilsnro Baliiroba, Khanilola, MabAder, 
wid Vithoba. Ilicir religious teachers are Gosaria and tlioy heliero 
in witchcraft and spirits. I'beir customs are the same aa tbtisc uf 
MariithiuKunbia, they holdcasto coundls, do not send their boja 
to school or take to any now occupation, and area falling pcoplo. 

Mtisalma'ns arc returned as numbering 36,712 orS'tS percent 
of the populaticm. Thoy include thirty chissea of whom niiw 
it^*rm»rry and fonn the main body of iho reyiilnr Musalraiins, and 
twenty -one form distinct communities, 'n»oclas«c,s who intermarry 
and form ihu main body of Musahniins may be ammgcd into two ' 
groups, one including the four trading Mn^alnuinclassesof Mogbak, 
I'athkns, Shaikhs, and Syods, the olherinoludingfiveclassos Atin 
or perfumer*, KnIAigarH or tinsmiths, Mabflwats or elephant-drirers^ 
Manyiint or ItangU- sellers, and NAIbands or ^rriers. Of the twenty- 
one )(i<[)arate communities who marry among theniselvos four are of 
outside and serenteen aro of local origin. Tho four of outside origin 
are BoherlU nnd Mebmilus from Outch and Gujanil, Mukris and 
G&ncAS&ba from Maisnr, the first three bt-ing trailers and the fourth 
craftsmen. Of the saventee-n local elaswe.s two BilglkAns er frniterers 
and Tiimtwliet or botel-sellers are shopkeepers; ton Dhnnids or ■ 
iroifvuieltera, Dhoitdphodds or Takar&s stone-masons, Gavandia orfl 
bricklayers, Jbar&s or dust-sifters, BakarKnsAbs or matton-butchers, 
Uomins or weaTOrS, I'atvegar* or dilk-tassel twitttors, PinjAris or 
cotton •teasers, Kang^ria or dyers, and Sikalgars or armoun.'n(, aro 
craftsmen ; three classes, Dhobis or washermen, Ilajims or barbers, 
Pakhtttis or watermen arc sorvaiit« ; and two Nagarjis or kettle^ 
drum-beutern and GArudis or jugglers, are players. 

Of the four lending classes Mogbals, PathdnB. Shaikhs, and Syoda, 
tlie Mogbals are a very sniall body and the other three include 
large numbers nnd are found iu all sub-divisions of the district. 
Though in origin most of them are chietly local Hindus who on 
embracing laUim took the name Shaikh or PathAn from the rvligious 
or mUitary loader under whom thev were converted, almost all. 
claim and prubablv most of them have some strain of foreign 01 
Upper Indian blood. The chief foreign elements were the tnkdersj 
especially horse dealers, the religious leiulerK, and above all tlu 
mercenary and military adrenturer.i, who from tlio beginning ol 
Muealmtln power iu India found their way to the court* of the 
Decoan Hindu kingx. After the conquest of the Deccfto by 
Alil-ad-dia Khilji (1294) and under the Bahuiaui (1317-1490), and 




Bijtfnor (ll&0.)686) Icings, thoro wore steady additions of foreign 
nnnii^r&nt4. I1u!< ouiiliiiuftd probably on a greater rckIo uudor 
Aumoifguib (1658-1707). 

Kxcept tb&t tbe men wear th« board, tbe local oonrerta differ 
Kttl« hi look from looil Hinda» mid, oxccpt tbe Bohor^ and 
Ibhm&as who s[<r-ak Uajar&ti and Catclii at home, almoDt all StLtira 
MowlmAna Boeak Umdustdni with more or less mixturn of Mar^thi 
varda witb themaelves and Miinldii with otbura. Adiohr the classes 
of (orotgn orif^n, and to a Ihas exttint among llio tn»ia body of 
Muaalmi^nM, tin- men have sharper and more marked features, fairer 
skins, auil lighter eyoa th&D thi^ oorro^ponding Hindu classes. The 
women show (owor Iracns of uoti-locnl origin and in many caaos can 
hardly be dixlinguished from IXindu wotnen except that tbcy do not 
mark tUi>ir hrowa with vermilion or pnas the end of tbe robe back 
between the feet. 8ome widl-to-<io Mnsalmiins in the town of 
SAtim live in two-storeyed houses with stone and cement wnlts and 
tiled roofs, and snrroooded by a yard. The bulk of tim Musnimitii 
bmses, many of whieh bavo a front or baok enclosure surroimded 
by a alono wall foar or five feot high, ore liku tile-roofed cottages 
lilt with rough atone and mud and smeared witli cowdung. llio 
ch bousea have generally foar or five rooms, the front room being 
as tbe (tdian or men's room with a few mats, carpets, ana 
cnshiona ; the middle rooms are allotted as bedroomvt one of which 
to a women's aitting-room and store-rooms, and tlw last room forms 
lUe kitchen with a good store of mcltd vessels. The poor bouses or 
huts have two or three rooms witli a cot or two, a few mats, somo 
qoilts and coarse oountry blankets, and cooking and drinking 
vessels, a few of metal and the rest of clay. Village booses are boill 
in ranch the same stylo as poor town houses, the front room being 
tho biggL-at, is n.-ted as a stable for cattle. As a nilo tho SAtiira 
Mnsalmdn-H keep no servants. Tbe village houses have no wclU 
and the women fetch water from the village pond. Both town and 
village HiisalnUtmi own cattio and tibecp and floats. 

Town Muiolm^ns take two meals a day, bn^akfoxt abont nine on 
millet or wheat bread, piilae, mutton, and vegetnbW, and snppor nt 
aevon or eight in tbo evening of boiled rice mutton and pulse if 
well-to-do, and bread and pnlKC wilJi pounded chillies or ckatni if 
poor. Village MnsalmAna and some rich town Unaalmins have 
tiiree metis a day, the villagers taking a cold breakfast about 
■even before going to their lielus, a midday meal in tho field, and 
n snpper on reaching home in the evening. Tlio rich add to tho 
nsnal two meals s cup of tea or milk with bread in the moniiug 
immediately after rising. Tho staplo food of villagers is millet 
bread, pulse, and vcgotnolce ; a few rich villagers oat mutton daily 
and almost all manage to get mutton on the linknr Id festival. 
Except a few fresh settlers as itohorfiB and Mohmiins, who generally 
oat beef, the bnlk of tho local Musalmrtns prefer mntton to beof, 
and soma oommnuitiea will on no occasion touch beof. Buffalo 
beef is eschewed by all, and fowls, egcrs, and fish are eaten without 
any objection when they can aEEord ttiem. The trading classes as 
a rule uiw cioifi.-e and lea every day, and husbandmen drink milk 
.with bread every uioming. The iS^t^ra Muaalmiiun drink both 


^.with brew 

(Bombay Oust 

ChapUr in. 


Europoan and country n-inoA, smoke beiiip>Bower or ganfa, drin! 
bom)i-wHU)r orhluing, and oat opium, tobacco smolditg chewing 
BDuffitie; beiug common among till claswes. Thuir special di&bcs are 
the same aa thoso of Poona and Ahmadnagar MustalnuUia. 

Excvpt H)c fnvmhvn of tbu four loading classes and the Hohatia 
aud Moliuiituit wbo dress id Iqoso trousers, a waistcoat, a shirt and a 
Masai mdn-Bbaped tarban, almost all S&t£m Husalmitn men dreas t 
Hindu Btj-le. Tbu men wear indoors a headscarf, a w&iatooat, 
a waist or luiiicloth ; out of dtiurs on oil occaeiona the rich aod 
faitivo occasiDns the middle class aud poor noar a twisted burl 
or a looao Mar&tba turban, a coat, a pair of troUMta, and sh 
Must buabaudmcu wbito induors dre^; in a dirty napkin used 
luinclotb aud »u Koing out draw u course country blanket over their 
shoulders. The daily dress of town MusalindLus ik of ootlon, but ilx-y 
have a silk dress for spocial oocasioDS. Indoors almost all the 
womun woar t)iu long Mardtha rube and bodice. The chief 
exooptious are the llohora womeu who druas iu n pottiitoat, a backleea 
bodice aod a headscarf, and the Mehm&n women who wear a shirt 
reaching to tho kiicc-s and loose trousers. Except tlie Bohortb who 
w^ir a lurgo climk that cuvors thu wholv face and figure, thuy bavo 
no Hpt^cial outdoor dress. About thirty p<;r ouut of tbo middle 
class Musalni^ns of Sditdra keep the xendna or seclosion system, wbUa 
others appiMirin public with tho same dress they wear at home. 
Every married nonmn ha.s u Ktiit uf silk prosontod by bor husband 
at the time of her marriago, which gutiemlly la^ls during the whole 
of her life. Almost all MuBalmau women begin married life with a 
number of gold and silver oruami^nts in proportion to tho mcaos oC 
her husbaud aud parents, who, lU a rulo, have to prosent their 
daughters with a gold nosering, a set of gold earrings, and silver 
fingn* rings. The husband has to pay his wife £12 Hs. (Ra. 127) 
if not more at the timu of marriage^', which arv guniTatly i^pcnt on 
omamonta. In a poor family thvnit imiiuuent:! by degrees diasmieftr 
in meeting spocial ceremony charges aud in helping tJia £uuuy in 
timca of difficulty. 

As a olaaa town Musalmiins are clean and naat« while villagers are 
often dirty and untidy. Almost all local classes and the richer 
classes of Bohorils and Mehmans are steady and hardworking. Tho 
upper classes aro clean, polite, and goaurally sober and boneat^ 
B&gbdns or fruilerers, Oavandis or bricklayers, Kati^^bR or batcbera, 
Pinjtiris or cottou-cleaosei's, and Takdi^is or masons are strong and 

Most village Miisalm&nn aru land proprieton or jdgirdirs, aod 
busl)aiidmvn. Of town Muaalmiliia many ara soldiers, constable^ 
messengers, and servants; a few are crat^men and artisans; and 
•ome aro moneylcndors. Though hardworking and thrifty many 
are given to drink and are badly olT. Except Sifuhnt^ns and Uohonls, 
who take contracts, deal in European goods, and are welt-to-do and 
rising classes, most Mosalmdo craftsmen and artisans aro budly off 
on iMMx>iint of tho compotitiou of European and Bombay macnine 
made goo<ii*. 'Hioy art; often required to bomiw to meet special 
charges. Village Musalmaus, especially husbanduieu, aro thrifty, 
Ajoovg tbu tegular Uunalouios, especially among town iradera. 



floldicrs, eonrtablcfl, moMcn^rs, iu>d mmuibi, tho women ndd 



itliing to tlio fntnily income. On the other hand in mnny of tho 
iai comraunities and among hosbiiDdmon, vMvere, and other 
ion and potty shopki-cpere, the wonn'ii oftm nlmotit n» much 
It men. HunX'noss in fiiith, woTKhi]), manners, attd niKtomH 
bind Musalmitna intn one l>ody. Eiccepl some familieH of I)i>horits 
who lire Shias of tholam&ili bmnch and foUowCTBof thcMulla Silhob 
of Hurat, nil SitArn Mumlmitns bclonj; to the 8iinni met of the 
HanaS school. They roapect tho same Kf(zi, worship in the name 
mosqno, and bnry in the same graveyarcL Among tho apocial or 
local crtniinHiiiti(», the BAgbflns or fnn'lprern, Kiuntbs or mnttoo 
butchers, Dhondphodia op Rtnne-nmsono, Garandia or bricklayeni, 
Pinjilris or cot ton -clean era, and Pakhdiia or water-cairiora have snch 
Himln k-aninjja lint thoy do not asaodnte with othur Moifalmiina, 
nbnost novor atlond tho inriR^pie, oschow beef, keep Ilindii feeuta, 
and openly worship and ofTer vows to Uindn gods. 

Of tho regolar Mnsatmdna about twenty per cent teach {heir sons 
to road tho RnpAn. All of them arc careful to ciroomciao thoir boya 
and to have their marriage and doi^th ritea ciinduded by tlioir Kdzi. 
Tho initiation or fti'«nii(fa and the saci-ifice or akikn are often neglect^, 
owing p(*rtly to ignomnco and paHly to poverty. Thongh as a ml© 
they du nob attend tho mocuque for daily praj-era, almost all nro 
carpfiil to be present at the special aerrices on the Itattadn and Bahtr 
I<i feasts, and are careful to gifo alma and keep fnating during tho 
the whole month of Ramxnn. The well-to-do make special offeringn 
on the Dakar Id and pay tho Kiai his dues. Their rcligiooa officers 
nro tho K&ai or Jiidgp but now tho marriage rcgistTar, tho Khatib or 

eroacher, tho Mulla or priest, tho Muj/irar or beadle, and tho 
Aib or the K£zi'a deputy.- liesidi>H the religious officers certain 
I'irjadis or sons of sainta hold a high position among them, They 
aro spiritual guides and have religious followers chietiy among 
weavers and tlie clnaaea who live by serriee. The«te Pirjudda live 
on estates granted to their ancestors by the Musalm^n rulers of the 
Deocan, Careloasness and love of show have forced most of tbom to 
mrt with th\>ir laTidx and they are now 8opj>ortc(1 by their foUuwera. 
Except Bohor&s all Muitalm&ua believe in saints or pirt, to whom they 
pray for children or for health, and offer sacrifioes and gifts. Host 
craftsmen and almost nit hu$>nndmoa boliurc in Khandobu, Mhnaoba, 
MariiU, and Satviii, Hindu deities to whom they make gifts and offer 
vows, and whom they worship either prix'alely or pablicly. Sfhasoba is 
supposed to be the guardian deity of the field, and most husbandmen 
oBer him a fowl or gnat ovory year either at the hnrrost gathering 
or at the opening of the rains in Juno, when a new field year be^na. 
They worship Satvii or Mother Sixth, who is aoppoMMl to register 
tho destiny iif iho child on the sixth night after birth, and Marifii 
or Mother Dt-alh to aavc them from cholera. No SitSra MnaalmAna 
tnako pilgrimages to Mecca, but for amuBement and bo offer vows 
moat yonng women and men visit the fairs of local saints and somfr- 

■ Uctftil* (if thii iIoKm <•( Kiili anil oUmt rvH^OQB ofSc* baarcn arc gi\ea b tbo 
Fvcaa aad SlioUpac SUUtlioftl Aecoaats. 

Chapter in. 


tBomba7 Qu«tte 

Clupter til- 


timm f^ a fow days' jonmejr to the neighbouring districts of l*i 
ShoUpur and K»!b»r)fii. A» a rulo Sdt&ra MusalTiiAn.i bt-lirve 
witclicraft an<3 soothsaying, and allow and practise polygamy 
widow and child marriage. 

After the birth of a child, tho momboru of tbo hmily 
ccircmonially iinck-an for forty days, during which the house i 
of saints are not worshipped. When a woman is in tabonra mid' 
iseentfor. The midwife dolivors the wt^man, burii's thu navel 
and tho after* birth in an onrllien pot in n comor of the lyiiig<iri rooi 
and hathea the mother in the same comer. If the child is a boy 
midwife is p^iid la.^t/. (lOcis.) and if tho child is a girl 7 {d. (b at,^ 
On the fifth day thu goddess CTihati or Siitvivi is worKhipjicd. A ail 
human tooth and a small silv«r sickle are the objects of wonihip. The 
tooth and the sickle are laid in a winnowing basket with a platter 
containing tho heart and head of a goat and boded rice, and half a dry 
cocon-kcnicl, two botol leares and a hotelnut, and » marking-nnt with 
a needle through it. Refore these things tho mother barns incense 
and bows. The cereniocy is marked with a feast given to friends 
and rcUtious. In soirn' fjimilicJ* nmlloii is »cn,'cd at thiit fvasl while 
i/ other families rice and split pulse sauce nreeerv«l. On the twelfth 
day the young mother takes her child to a distance from tho bouse 
and worshipsfiruBtonesunderatrov with turmeric powder, ronnilion, 
Kooatcd puwdor, ii piece of red siring, and a betelnut and fire 
betol learoB. On the fortieth day the mother is bathed and dressed 
in a new robo and bodice. When the woman bathes on the fortieth 
day, nho is inadu to rub her teeth witJi Rtick» of fnrty diflcrout kiiids 
of trees and forty pinches of tooth-powder. The woman is also 
made to put on new glass batglea Fnends and relatione are treated 
to pul'iv that in a dish of rico and mutton cooked together, or to 
^airyu that is rice and mutton cookod tteparatoly. In the ereninif 
the child is dressed in a cap and a frock, and its hands and feet aro 
adorned with Hilvor omamentti. Tho women gathijr near the 
ciadlfl, put the child into it, and sing songs as they rock the cradle. 
Before naming the child a piece of sandalwood is wrapped in a 
handkerchief, waved about tho cradle, and is pEkSEod from one 
woman to another with tho wonU, 'J'ako this moon and give the 
sun. After the piece of wood has been several times passed 
backwards and forwards, they lay it in the cradle by tho sido of 
thu child and name tho child. The name of the child U choMu bv^ 
the K^i according to tho position of its birth stars. ^ 

Sunla or circumcision is performed at any time between a boj*a 
third and twelfth year, tho younger ago being always prefom^. Id 
rich familifs the circumcision is markud with M much pomp and 
show as a marriage. A booth is rauted in the front of the house 
with the miikurimcdk or Srst post driven into tho ground on a Incky 
moment ; and bcti'lnuts, rice, and tunncric roots are tied in a yellow 
cloth and fastened to tho first polo. A water jar encircled with a 
thread bracelet or kankan passed round turmeric roota is al 
tiod up and the boy to be circumcised is rubbod with turmeric fnsi 
for two days. On tho second day female friundit and relations arA 
iwkod to the biifiifari feast, in which five nnwidowed women who 
haro not hivkon their fast are wrvod with boiled rice, breadj 



I, Rplit pulse, coRT', mfor biscnitji, and picklos. As a 
IjdI itntriiluffod women are allt^weil to Attend Una 
On tlio third day the boy is bnthud in warm water, drcseod 
a new turbttii, u pair of drvwcn, a shonld ore loth, and a jama or 
white robe reaching to the heels, and from head to foot ho is 
Wr,-r,«i! with a riril made of n network of flowers and called the 
'h^ra or king'9 chaplnt. Hia arms and wriata also are covered 
■Uiwf^ garlands. Ue is mado to i>it on a homo nod taken in 
Kiion tu a mosqoo to say the prayera. In the ntosquo thu Knn 
hcs the boy the prayer, and, at the end of tfao prayer, the t>oy 
the Kdxi vnibmce each other and tlio musiciauH ntuimling the 
begin to play on their instruments. They ngain set the boy 
the borsc and roinm homo with thu siimo |x>iii{i luiil xit to h feast, 
the e-euing, after dinner, thu Imrber who ia to cii-camciiw tho 
ly and who is called naii that is I'rophct, or k/uilipn tJwit is Ituler, 
The boy is seated on a stool or ehiiurani^ ooTCred witli a red 
th and nsnally with a red baudkercbiel. This stool ia set on a- 
nare pk^co of yollow cloth, with asqnaroof lines of real rico or 
t drawn by unwidoired women. A platter ia laid before Iho 
ehild and in it a bnming lamp Two persona, one on each side, hol^l 
Uw bcT Dul, and on boUi sides of the boy stand two peraonH holding 
ngbted wicl» of cotton thread snaked in oil, Aa he cirenmcises tho 
child the barbor catla oat Din Din, that is roligioiv. Unwidowod 
tromcQ wave tho platter with tho light in it abont the boy and lay 
)t down, and frienda and relations wave copper or silver pieces each 
kbont the boy and throw them into tho platter. Tho boy ia carried 
fcnd laid down on a cot and ti fanned with wheaten unlcavoned 
^es by tho women of ttte family, Xcxt day the harbor 
(nshea the wound, tnms tip tlio skin by means of a wooden 
iaiitranKnit called oAodi,appliea oil to the wound, aod reoeires 2«. fid, 
(Bb. 1)) from tho mther or other reUtion. Beaides this he receive* 
t tueni of undressed prorisious and the money waved abont tho boy 
fry hia friends and relatiooa. The wound heals in ten to fifteun 
lays, and the expenses am on nt to £5 (Ka. 50). In poor families 
itaoerOEuony is finished in a day at a cost of £1 to £1 it. (Ua.10-12). 
instead of going to a mosqni- the boy's father brings the K&zi to his 
lODae,tb« Inrber circnmciiioa the bov in the K^i's presence, and the 
JBremooy ends with » fmvst to friomU and relations. 

Antong SitAra Mosalm^na oSers of marriage come from the bojr'a 
arentti. Tho Imy'ii father goes to see tho girt, and if be finds her 
1 bin taste, bo tella her Oilier so, who returns with him to see tho 
oy. If both the fatfavni are satisfied, they go to the Kisi and 
loUttn lo see whether the birth atara of the boy and girl agree and 
hcther the marriage i.t likely to prove lucky. If they aro satisfiod 
iiat it ha« a sood chance of being Incky they return heme and settle 
hatsnmthe Doy'a&theris to pay thogirt'» father as the prioe of tho 
^'-' This sum u spent by the girl'a father in tho marriage, and the 


oy'a father haa to spend nothing. The coat gonorally ranges from 
10 to £30 (Rs. 100-300). When both partiea are rich enough 
> beftr the oasts, no sum tx paid bv tho boy 'a father to the gin's 
Aher. Girls of middle class families arc goncrally married between 

a isas-u 

Chapter in. 


(Bombs7 Oftietten. 



ChapWr III. 

nine and thirteen to young men of twen^ to twe&t^.tvo. Girls 
rich familScH nns oHeo obliged to renutin unnituriotl till tbeir fif 
or Eixt»eiith yeur oa aocoDot of tlie want of a suitable lu&tcli. 
euch ooeeH grown-np girls are married to (ncn of above twonty-fif 
Of tlie four main clns»ca Shaikhs aud Syeda iut«rniiiny and I'athi 
ftnd MoglmJs keep separate. Id the betrothal the brideg 
aenda to the brido preeenttt of a silver sari or wire oeoklacc, chatit 
or hnugiiig hair ornaments with hollow silver knobs, toltic 
silver chain foot omamonts, and o green robo and bo<]ic'c. In 
retnrn the brido'H parents, whom the bridegroom feaata 
mkharbhdt, that is rice boiled and seasoned with (ingar, give him i 
torbati, a HiWor ring, and a haDilkercliiof. Hie bi>trolhi^ day ia &xt 
as lucky by the Kdzi who is paid tive copper coiDS, a betelnat, and' 
tnolaases worth \d. (j n.]- I'he marriage tukus plaoo six oreighl 
months aft(^r the betrothal. When the marriage oar drawa near a 
booth ia bnilt in the front of thu honso ; and arouna it boiled rice 
mixed witli curds ia tlirown and a oocoanut broken as an offering to 
evil iipirita, that they may not attack the bride and the bridegroom. 
In a corner of thu buoth » mango bmocb with a bcti.-!nut, some 
tprmorin roots, and a little rice tied to it in a piece o£ yellow cloth, 
is driven into the ground. It is called thu muhurlmcdk or Inoky post^ 
and is pliuit^Ml in the ground at a lucky moment. At night the 7'aj^ka, 
ill which songs in the praise of Alliih or Qodaro sung to the mnsio 
of dnims, is performed by women of the family, and in rich familial 
by Dombins or professional female singers aud drummers. While the 
singing and music go on galgulttt or small HtiilTud whoittOD cukvv and 
rahimt or btiiled rice flour ball.i made with milk sugar and rosewator, 
ara heaped in the name of AlUh or God in two miiiiaUiro pyramid)), 
ono for thu bridi) and tho other for the bridegroom. Before these little 
beuns a red cotton cord, flowers, aud burnt inconso are laid. After 
a snort time tho hunps n,ro broken and the cakes and balls are 
banded to women. Nest day, without his knowing it, a wonuin marks 
the bridc^frooni'g clothes with turmeric ywlo. This is called thfi 
aecret turmeric or ckorhalad. Like Uiudus, tho Musalm&ns oE 
SAtAra allow no widows to attend festal meetings, and urc particular 
about lucky days and persons. Thu^i the woman who pnta on the 
MCTot turmeric or cJiorftalad must have her huMbimd alive, and her 
name must be given out by the KAzi after cooaulting his almanac 
In the evening the briilo and bridogroom arc nibbed with luriiieric 
paste, one after tho other, as thay are not allowed to see each other's 
fucvM till they are married. In this ceremony both men and women 
take part, and it ia called tlie gdvhalad or public turmeric, as 
opposed to the chorhalnd or secret turmeric. liVben the bride and _ 
bndegroom are being rubbed with turmeric paste, they are seated-l 
on a fhatiraitg or stfiol covered with yellow clotli and set on a squaro 
of yellow cloth having a square of red rice or wheat, drawn by fiva 
unwidowed womcu. Tha turmeric paste is first rubbed on tfao 
bridegroom and then on the bride, care being taken that they 
do ni>t see each otlier's face- On the third day the feast of 
hiyapari is given, which includes boiled rice, whcaten cnkos, a sauco 
of split pulse and three or four kiudsof vegetables. The food is tirst 
eervod m Gvo acnall earthen dining plates to five nnwidowed women. 



beforo they sit to eat, they knot together the dresa of the brido 
bid the bridogroom nnd tn front of thvm bum iDconse in tho Dain« of 
UUh or Cod, and the liride and bridu^froom bow to All£h. Oii this 
■ad on the Doxt day while mnsicians play, friends and rolationa make 
■Asents of clnlhea Lo the perenta of tho bride and bridogimoni. On 
B« fourth day a foftst of puMv that ia rico oooked with mutton, 
Uled the vortU or hometatcing ftia«t, i» given to male guests. la 
Ibe orooing the td mendi or oil and henna Lawaonis inemiu 
■sremony takes place. In this the bridegroom is mndo to ait on a 
pool hariug a pile of pitchers called teGhadde or oil-jars on each 
Bde, one of BUvon pitchuni in the name of the bridegroom and the 
■bar of nine pitchers in the name of the bride. On the top of each 
H^pwe piles are hud two Muvdlui or rained whwtva cakes fried in 
ML The bridegroom's right wrist is encircled with a bet^lout 
Bracelet uritaaA:an, a copper coin, a tnrmeric root, and a piochof rice 
ked in a piece of red cloth and the tooth-powder of the Cfaebulio 
piyrobalnn, and iron filings is applied to his teeth. As he dta 
bn the atool five unwidowed women, one after another, wave round 
mm a raillet stalk with wheat cakes and betel leaves dipped in oil and 
ked to it by a red cotton cord. A canopy of a square piece of ololii 
Brith twenty -five wheat cakes ts hold over his head by four persons 
Mmd the whcAt cakes are c<iuallr dirided among tlie fonr bearers, 
ffho brideffTooiD is led into the nouse and his place ia taken by the 
■nde who undergoes the same ceremuny except that u nccklaee of 
^^b beads is tied round her nGck and that her hands and lingers 
PM»dom<!il with glass bangles »nd silver rings. lliiH ceremony is 
Important, for when her husband dtea a woman removes the neok- 
Bftoo and Uie glass bangles. After the ornaments are put en two half 
Bocoa-kemels tied together bv a red cotton cord are dropped into tjio 
MM of the bride and the bndogroom. Tbe pair are tnen bathed 
^^Brately. At the time of bathing, their motJiers hold the vklrts of 
B«T robes ever tlie heads of their children and unwidowed women 
pom the oil jan pear Water over them through theiskirt^ They »ro 
pressed in the clothes presented to them by their fathers- in -I aw, and 
liieircye«nr(t nnointcd with Kulphnrot of antimony. Tho bridegroom's 
Rlreas is much like that which be wore on tbe circumcision day, and as 
^^fas then ho is veiled from head to foot, with a network of flowers 
HHd tuJUinuherd» or king's ohaplets. His arms and neck ore adoruod 
IRn garlands of flowers and his tarb&n with a bouquet. He is then 
ft about four in tbe morning let! on huraelHick to a mosque to say his 
jprayers. His sisterwalks behind his horse with a platter containing a 
porning lauip mitdo <>f di^ugb and keeps throwing a fragrant ungitont 
or cAtA«i made of millet and turmeric and ottter scent-giving drugs. 
In tbe mosque tho Kizi tells tho bridegroom to recite his prayers 
five times, and at the end of ttio prayers tho Kizi embraces the bride- 
groom. The bridegroom is broDght in procession into the marriage 
pooth and seated on tho square in tho booth. Wlien the bridegroom 
k«aches the door of the booth a cocoannt and four lemons are waved 
round him and thrown away as on offering to evil spirits. Meanwhile 
IkAride is bathed in tbe hanie wny aa the bridegroom, and her hair 
P^bited into a braid by unwidowed women. She puts on shoes, 
BFGara Sower garlands, and is covered with a flowervoil called ahenia 


[Bonblijr Gu«tU 


hiqrtflt HI- or giirlikiiils. Her lap is 611cd ivitb the »utA<iputlti, lliat is a packet nf 
FWople- e«>Dted powders, ant] sliu is wi-nppud in a tvhita sheet or cAddtir. 

Wliilo Uiv hrida sita in the houM>, tbo bi-icle^^ruom is taugtii the 
|8|l|^''' niixkluini or daties of a hufibAnd. I'lio cbief of these are, that be 
^^H sbi>uUl nut puiiiHli Wilt wifu vritboRt a [luilt, nail he sbutild eeoO 

^^H hiB wife to her piireuts whooovor tboy send for ber. Two ageoU or 

^^^1 tyi^t/o aud two witnosaivt, oiiu fur thu bridu uud the otbor for the 
^^^1 bridegriioin, nlaiid before tbo Kftzi and declare that Utev hare atfteod 

^^^1 lo this marria^u and ivro roiuly to bi;iir ovidoDco. The K^ feeds the 

^^^P bridogrooin wilb tivo morsels of macarOQi. JJy this tiiae the brido 

^^^1 eomcs aud sits, facing wv«t, on a cot not in tho booth in front of the 

^^^1 Hqiiaru on whicli the bridegroom la seated. A curtain is beld between 

^^H them aud a litte chikaa or millet otnttneot is thrown on their heads 

^^^1 IM a »ifp> that tbo nuplinlM iLro ovor. Tho Krlzt rttinovot thu curtain 

^^H and wnsiclaus play. Tbo bride and brideg^i'oom are made to sit 

^^H iiu tho crut sidu by nidu and allowod tu WV cucb <illior's fiKO for the 

^^H first lime. As they sit the Kiizi takes a little su^ar into his hand, puta 

^^H it on tho hi-idi;')! right shotildur aud iuk» tho brido^jruom whother 

^^H ho thinks sugar sweet or hia wife sweet, who auBwera the Kunln is 
^^^B tlu swvotost. Thu oouplo look nt ntch other's taocs in n looking glass 

^^^1 uod each placing a baud on the other's back they bow five times to 

^^^1 tbo Almighty. Tho brido gooti into tbo houso and the bridogrooia 

^^^1 stays in tlio booth till noon when the eanit or bomotuking procuwion 

^^H starta In this procossion tbo brido sita in a carriage while the 

^^H bridegroom ri<luit a homo and ciioorts his brido to his honso 

^^^1 carrying her on his side to the front gato of tho hotise. Hers 

^^H hu is met by his iiistent iinil coiimIiw who, before letting him tai, 

^^H make hiui promise to give his daughters in marriage to their ttooM. 

^^^1 Uo consulte his wifuiuid she tells bim to giro thorn tho promiao. 

^^^1 He then sets his wife on tJie ground and they walk together into 

^^^B Iko house. In thu uvonlng Ihu bride and bridegroom, with aomo 

^^^1 men and women, go to the bride's father's bouse where tliey play with 

^^^B tho wedding bnioclets or hnnkattg. In this play tho latnktau of the 

^^^H couple, with tivc bote)nut.i, five turmeric routM, Gre pomeg;ntnate 

^^^H buds, ntid n i^ilvcr ring are thrown into what is called sarvar water 

^^^1 which Li made of a mlxturoyof turmeric powdor and lime. Tho brido 

^^H and bridegroom try to pick the ring and other things out of the 

^^^1 water, and forco them irum each other's hands. When the play i^^ 

^^H over thoy are made to Eitaud side by side, bathed and droancd, thj^J 

^^^1 bridegroom being drcsNo<l In a luvffi or coarso waistcloth. Frieni^^ 

^^^1 and relatione are feasted on ctikos or jioOn aud diHmt!e«od, this feast 

^^^1 bt^iiigthelastof the marriage fi'stivitios. A SAUira Musalm&n may 

^^^H have, at tho same time, niore than one wife; but a we mau cannot 

^^F have more than one husbanil. Divorce is allowed and practiced, 

^^ft It is not very uncommon to soti a woman who has been divorced b^ 

^^^^ two or throe husbands. 

^^H Among Siitiim Musalmdns, as a rule, a widow marries a widowi 

^^^1 or a porsoD who has divorced bLi wife. A man wlio wishes to ribi 

^^H a widow gives £1 to i.1 lOs. (Ra. 10-15) to the widow's paren 

^^H a turban to her falbcr, ond a rube and u bodice to herself. Jlosidos 

^^^B this he puts glass baugles on lier writiUi and lies the LteJta or 
^^^^^ bead uecklacv tuuud bur ucck. In the uvunin^ the Kf^ 





Lbc ilutiLw ul a liasbaod uid marriea tbem, nnd receiTes 2s. Gd. 
(its. 1^) as his fuo. Uuvridowod women nro ciirufal not to bo 
pnwonL nl ur eves tu ovurhear a widow marriage servioo; and 
alter tho uiarria^, tlio faces of tho ooupio sbould not bo seen till 
Ihojr liava iMLbvd avxt moniiiig. If the tn&u is welUto-do ho giTcs 
A feaat to his frieudii and rolations, or olae seiida b<Ud»d8 or sugar 
pitikots to bis trioiidn. 

W'hbD a girl comes of age ebe is held unclean for fivs or seron 
days. During this time aho ia niadu to ait bjr hersolf and is not 
KlIoTrod tu touch an^hing in the bouse. Krer; day fibe is rul)b6d 
with tanncric paste and oil and buthul in warm water; and her 
nOiittoDd bring hor prcienttt of Hweetmeats, macaroni, {wffii, 
aoil cakes. On tho E«vonth day eho and her hnsband are bathed 
togctbiT in wnrtn w»t«r aiid she is dressed in a green boduxi and rube. 
Qer btber preeenta her hashand with a torbaa worth I60. to 
JCl (Rs.8-10), a shouldvrcloth worth G«. to I3«. (Rs.3-t>). and 
a sea) ring or ehhap worth I0. (8 <u.) and a haodlcerchief worth 
Ix. to 2«. (lie. i-l). Some flowor garlands arc tied roood the 
girl's neck and iKxno are allowed to huig from her teinplos. Her 
fiuaband's torbaii is decked with a bonqn^ and hor arms and wrists 
are ndomcd with flower garliinda. They iire seated together, too 
girl to the right of her huaband, and thoir htps are filled by a lacW 
woman cboscn by tho Kazi after consulting lii.< bouk. Each of thoor 
la|M is lillud with one cocuanut, five lialf oocoa-kemela, five betelants, 
five dry dates, five turmeric roots, five lemons, five pomegranate 
buds, five plautaims five poli» or eakos fricil in oil, and pnffs or Mn- 
olAt. All these are brought by the girl's parents. The husband 
and wifo go to bow to tlie lionBobotd saints or pin, generally 
lUjevali and Udwul Malik, and the giieMa are treatetl to a feast of 
poli» or cakes. Each of the women who is asked to the lap-filling 
brings a euooaiiut, u boilicccloth, and flowen as proMintw to the 
ffirL llie night is spent by the women in titngiug and beating 
drams, and in rich families by listening to hired Dombins who are 
paid 4«. to 6s. (Hs. 2>3) witli drci^Kcd food for the night. Itesidos 
tho Dombins, some engage kettledrum- beat«rs and other musicians 
to pasa the night. In this coromony a Musuliii^ si>euda from £2 
to .i6 (It&. 20 - <tO) according to his moans. 

In tbu «izth month of a woman's finst pregnancy, hor and her 
busbaud'ti l»pa an) tjiled in the same way as when she came of age- 
On tfai» occasion her mother brings five baskets filled with dkacM* 
hulix or cakes idimIc of five kinds of flour and KCaiwncd with spioce, 
Italian millet cakes hanng sesame seed stock in them, wheatea 
cakeH, millet cuken, and two kinds of gram flour cokes p4tvadi» 
aud tiitivaciidif, utal mug or Hplit pulite seiktonod with oil and Hpioc4, 
and boilod Hco mixed with curds. She also brings a tnrbaii for 
the iiQsbaiid and a robe auil bodice for her daughter. As a rule 
friends kioapeople and the members of the family oat the dreesed 
food brought by the girl's mother. 

Mttsolinllns bury all Utoir dead. When a Musalm&n dies 
some Dear relatJoD with tlio MolAnagoes to market and buys a 
ibroad sevooty>fivo feet loug for a roan aud ninety foot long for 




EBomb&7 OaiettMT. 



C3ia|it«r III. 

a woman &ad other things wanted for the (imeral. Tlicso aro roM* 
water, scents, aulphuret of antimony, aloe-ligfata, frankinoenee, 
yellow earth; iiud in addition, frankinceuse oil and* flower- 
when the (lead is a wotuac. The dead is wa.shed first with wa' 
boiled with f^or and pomegrnnnbo Imvcs and then with soapant 
witor, and laid on the nock on a cot The Uulina writes the creed. 
There ia no God but AllfUi and Muhummitd is the prophet of AlUh 
in alo&-powdar on the chest and forehead of the dead and pnta 
pieces of camphor at all tbe joints of the dead body. The body ia 
then wrapped in the shreud and carried to the graveyard. As the 
body U borne to the (fraveynrd the funeral party, nl! of whom mn 
men, accompany the dead body calling K(Uma-i-8hahadat. that is 
I raty that there in only One God, ond recite rerses from tba 
Knr^n. Every now and then on the way the I>earers are rolieredaod 
when they reach tbo spot where the bier is kept, which is generally 
at tbo id'ja or prayer place, they fall on their kncos and pray to the 
Almighty. From this the corpse ia carried to the grave and baried. 
An the grave ia being tilled all present goronnd the grave aad throw 
in handfels of earth. They close the grave and retiring for^ paces 
ta^ on their knees and offer prayers to the Almighty tor the dead. 
These prayers are called khatmds. All then retom to tbe bonse of 
the ducoascd person, and offer khidmda or dead prayers en the spot 
where the dead body was washed and return to their homes. On 
the first dny after the funeral the mourners are fed by their relations 
and friends on food dres»cil nt their own houses. Among tlie low 
classes of S^l^ra Musatinduit, if a woman dies in childbed rata 
grains are thrown behind the body as it is borne to the burial- 
groand. It is believed that a woman who die^ in childbed always 
becomes a ghosts, She tries to retom to her honse, bnl stops to 
pick up the grains and is so long delayed that she never reachea. 
On the thira day the monmers go to tJie burial ground, white- 
wash the tomb, and lay Bowers, tabja or basil Ocymum pilotium or 
ba&ilicum, and sweetmeats beside it. On the ninth, at a feast 
ctilled daitva, rice and matton are served. On the twentieth is a 
feast of wheat cakes and halva or almond sweetmeat. The cost of 
the difFerctit funeral ritea and feasts varies from £2 to £6 
(lis. 20-60). On the fortieth day thoy spend £1 to £t 
fRs. 10-40) on a grand fca.'it in which mutton ia one of the main 
dishes. On this day a garland of flowers is kept banging from 
the centre of the roof on a large platter tilled with dressed food, 
vegetables, khir that ia rice boiled in milk with sugar, and the 
heart of a goat ; and, at tbe four comers of the house, fear [Otters 
called kkulas containing polia or cakes stuffed with pounded gram> 
pnlsc boiled with molasses, gh&ria or cakes stuffed with grnm-pulso 
boiled with molassos, roi or cakes, kanavWta or puffs, gulgulat or 
whcskten stuffed cakes, itA uff ^ur a' s or balls of graju Sour seasoned with 
q»oe« and fried in oil, wnfer-biscaitu, cticumlicrs, pomegranates, 
gnavas, plantains, and cnsUrd apples. The monmers and gnosta 
burn incimso before the central dish and offer prayers for the soul of 
the dead. After the prayers all sit to cat and after dinner smoke 
tobacco and retnm to their homes. As it is a faoeral teast betel 
leaves and uuts arc not banded to the guests. In tbo evooiog is & 







Karin reading or fnanlud and the Hul^na ia paid 2s. 6d. (Rs. IJ) 
for all his st^rvtces dnring the funcml. About twenty per cent of 
the SiLt&ra MuaalmAn^, geooraUy traders and !tor\-nnta, xoiid thvir 
boys to school where they aro laiight both vernacnlar and Knglieb. 
The soua of Iiusbaudmon and cruftsmen bogin to livlp llioir parents 
sa eoon as they are eight or ten. A Eew town Uusalni^a hnvo 
learnt lOnglitdi and lomo arc omjtloycd as GoTomment Borrante and 
lutTB risen to high positions in the police (uid army. 

Tbo groat body of Musalmdlns who intennuTy and differ little ia 
looks castoma or dre«)i, besides tlio four main classes Moghals, 
Piitbiins, Shaikhs, and Syeds,' includes fire special coniinauitiea. 0( 
tbeae two Atiirs or pcrfuiiiunt and Manyirs or bnicGlet-selUTB aro 
traders; two KaUi^^ara or tinsniitha and NdlbandH or farriers are 
omftsmun, and one Mahiiwats or glophant-drivers are servants. 

Ata'rs, or Perfuinors, said <o bo tho roproBODtatiro of Hindus 
of tho Bttmo name converted by AnrangKeb (1658-1707), are found 
in small nuntburs only in towns. Thoir original name is Mshannlt^ 
and they get their prenent name from dealing in scentod oils 
or attarti. They are said to have come from Poena and l^egaon 
during the time of the Mariitha kings at B&tdra. In look sp^b 
food imA drees they r«aeinb1o the regular Musnlm^lns and na a 
cla§a are clean, neat and tidy, hardworking, and thrifty. Their 
wompn dress in the Mar&tha robe and bodice and appear in public 
but do not help tho m«n in their work. Tliey b»v« fixed shops 
■where thoy sell scented oils, abir powder, frankincense sticks, and 
maMiita or a mixturo of nioowood snndiUwood and dried rose 
leaves. During tho Mutiarrum they sell coloured thread wreaths or 
aiikclia which aro worn both by Iliodus and Musslmins as tbe signs 
of mourning for tho diutth of Ha»an snd Husaiu.* These tbroods 
aro worn doring the latt«r five of tbe ten days of the Mabanam 
and are thrown into wi»tcr on tho tenth. They coat 1 Jd. to 3d, 
(1-2 Oft.). Atdra generally marry among themselvee, but also give 
thl^ir daughters to Sliaiklut and Syeds. In social matt«rs thoy form 
a separate community under an elective headtuau and settle m>cial 
diMniitc!t according to tho votes of >ho mujuHty of membors and 
witn the consent of the headman. They do not differ from tho 
main claMnus of ^fusalm&ns iu manners or customs, and aro said to 
be careful to say tbeir nraye», Thoy teach their ohildreo to read 
tho KnrAa and send them to school. Thoy do not take to new 
parsnits but say tbeir calling has oMAod to be well paid since Uie 
introdnctioD of English perfumes and ttkat they aro badly off. 

Uanya'rs, or Bangle Sellers, said to repreaent local Hindus of 
mixed origin converted by Aurangzob (1058-1707) are found in 
■mail numbers only in towns. They speak Uindust^i at homo and 

Chaptor IIL 




> Dotaili of Moghkl, PathAD, Sluukh, mod Sjod ciutania m« ^v«tt in tho PoMUt 
SUtisticftt Acfonnt. 

' llnsui Mid Uuuiin tbo gr*adMna«lthe Prophet and Mtuof All the iiQ-in.Utr of 
Uubainnud, wen kiUtd un th* plaia «f KitbuJa is ijouthvni IVroia iiiU.6lA.u.CS3. 

[Bombftjr OnHttMnl 

_Cliai)t«r III- 



la HtredaJ 
inn gliMsV 


Mnr£t1ii abroad. Like other rorular Muaalm&as U167 are tntt .^ 
of mitldle height, dark or of olive colour, strong aiid well made^ 
the womini bi-icig fniror niiil lliimier ihiiti the men. The tatta vnar 
the beard full and dresa in a ivaistcloth, a tight-fitliag jacket, a coat, 
and a Mard.tha turban. The vrometi war a Mnriitha n>bo amtj 
bodic9, appear in pnblic, am] exoopt tite old, do not help the roea ii| 
thar work. Both men and womeD are clean and neat in their habits,^ 
orderly, honest, hardworkinjj;, nnd thrifty. Thoy arv iwoj^ie-sullprs 
and have fixed ahopa, and alao hawk their Roods about the 
and attend weekly niurkuts and fairs. Thoy sell both Chi 
and local glass banglefl, and ttomo of them are well-bo-do 
tnarrv among themaeives generally, form a distinct body, and eettle 
Bocial disputes acconltng to the votes of the majority. Kxopl 
tliey eschew beef and perform no initiation or bi*mUta and 
or akika, their social and religions customs aro the samu as thoao 
the reyulitr MuwdmiVns. Thoy belong to iho HanaG school of 
Kmiiii sect, and are careful to say their prayers. They do not send , 
their boys to school or take to now pursuits, but their calling is wdM 
paid and they are able to »uve. ■ 

&ala'igars, or Tinsmiths, calling theroselrea Shaikhs and fotmd 
scattered in Hmall numbers over the district, are said to represent 
Hindus o£ the same class converUnl by .\urangseb (16-18-1707)l 
They call thernBclves Shaikhs and neither men nor women differ 
from iShaikh.H \n Icvik, dre^s, fowl, or in soeini and ruligiou.-* cuiitoms. 
They tin copper and brass vessels. As a class they aro clean atul 
□oat in their habits, but, though hardworking and thrifty, aa their 
work is not cfinstaut, few of Lhi'iu aro well-to-do, and many have 
moved to Foona and Bombay in search of work. They form a 
Boparato community under an cloetivo headman called thaudhnri, 
who, with the consent o£ the majority of the members fines any 
one who breHikft their cnato rules. They kocp no Hindu enstonin and 
do not differ from regular Musalm^ns with whom tliey intermarry. 
In ritligiou they are Hannfi Sunnis, and many are religious and 
careful to say their prayora. 'ITiey tencli their l>oys to read tlia 
Kur&n and Manitbi. They take to no new pursuits, and are badly o3. 

Nalbands, or Farriers, naid to represent local converts of mixed 
Hindu origin, are found in smalt numbers in S<ttAra and 
Mahftbalesiivar. They call themselves Shaikhs and are tike to 
Kal&igara or tinsmiths in look draas and customs. Their women 
dress in a mbe auil bodice and do not appear in public or add to 
the family income. Aa a class Nilbands aro clean and neat in 
their habits, honest, and hardworking, but given to drink. They 
shoe horses and bullocks, and earn Cd. t^ 2a. Oi. (Ua. I - U) a day. 
They have a well managed union with an elective headnian or pdtil, 
marry with any regular Musalindus, and do not difl'er from them in 
social or religious customs. In faith, Sunnisof the Hunnfi ncheul, they 
respect and obey the Kftai and employ him to comluct their marriage 
aiia death ceremouics. But they are careless about saying their 
prayers, and give their boys no schooling. A few of them arc 
employed as messengera and servants, and as a class thoy are (airly 






Maha'wats, nr Klcpliant Driwrst nre found in emull oMmbera in 
Kal&rft and otlier large towns. They are suid to represent local 
cDDVttrta of the Qindu class of the eome name, and apoaV Uiniliistilfii 
hI' homo and Mkr&tLi nbroitd. They art) tall or of middlo height and 
dark, llie men shave the head, wear tho houni fitll, uiid diess in a 
turban, a tight-fitting jacket, and a pair of light trouaora or a wtiist- 
vlotli. Tho woiiion wear the MarAtha robo and bodice and appear 
iu public, but add nothing to the family iiicoino. Itotli mon and 
women are clean in tioir habita, hardworking, thrifty, and Hobor. 
Under British nile the demand for thoir serviooA has fallen. The; 
Iiave taken to new purauila ; a few are husbandmen, Homo Korvu as 
conatAbles, and others as mesaongera and aervanta. They live from 
hitnd to mouth, itnd hnro to borrow to moot special chai^gge. Thoy 
have no 8{]«cial organisation and no headman, and murry with an; 
of the regular Muealm&ns. Most of the men and almost all the 
wotnvu Mchow hoof and have a leaning to Hindu customs, keeping 
Hindu feaata and worahippiuff Hindu goda. In religion they aro 
Sunnis of the Hanafi school, nnt few are religiouB or carefnl to say 
their pmyvrs. They re«poctand obey the Kiiiu, and employ him to 
conduct their marriage and death ceremonios and to aotlle soahi 
dispute*. Thoy do not sond their boys to school or take to new 
pursuits, and are a falling class. 

The four ontside separate CMnmaniti«« who marry among 
tbemselvea are : 

Bollorfb'8,immigran(i<fromGuiarAtand by descent partly Qajanlt 
Hindu ooDvortit and partly Arab and Persian immigranta, aru Shiia 
of tJie lam^li sect and aro known from one of their former pontiffs 
as Daudi Bohorits. All aro followers of the Miilla Sithob of Surat, 
Two or tbrvo fiunilie» iu S&tllra town and a few at Mahitlmlenhvar 
are said to bare be?n in the district about forty years. 1'he? apeak 
Oajariti among thi-msolvc^ and Hindnsljlni with othurs. l^e men 
who aro tall or middln-siet'd, thin, and brown or wheat-coloured, sharo 
ihs head clean, wear the heard full, and dress in a silk headacarf or 
a white tnrbsn, a white ooat, a ahirt, a wniHtcoat, and n pair of 
loom tronsom Tho women who are shorter, fairer, and thinner than 
the men, are regular featured and dress in a chintn petticoat, 
a headscarf, and a tight-fitting backless bodieo with nhori steoves. 
Ont of doortt tlioy put on a large black oloak which slirouds the 
whole body from head to foot, except a small gauze opening for 
the eyes. They soldom appear in public, and adil nothing to tho 
&inity income. As a cla.ta Uuhor^a are clean and neat in their 
babits, hardworking, orderly and thrifty, and often well-to-do, and 
able to save. Thoy marry among thpinselvcH, but one Bohora in 
BiltAra has taken a wife from a poor Snnni family. Being a limited 
number thoy mix and associate with tho ordinary regular Musalmtina 
in dinner partica nod religious meetings and bury their dead in 
the ordinary Sunni Musalm&n graveyard. Though thoy do nob 
obey the regalar Kixi, thoy employ him to conduct the marriage 
and death ceremonies. IHiey perform tho iuitiatioa or bismilla 
ivnd the Bacrifice or ahUcti ceremonies, and do not keep Hindu 
feasts or offer vows to Hindu gods. Though Shi^ at heart they 
B 1282-18 

Chapter II] 




[Bomfaa; Oatettctf. 



Chapter III- 
I P«opU. 


(Jdt A-futUo. 

do not openly profosn thoir rcIigioD] for fear of displeaBing 
BitnnU. Tlicj teacb tbcir boyii Gujnr&U and Mu^^, nod on 
wlKtIe are s rising clasa. 

Moluna'DS, properly Momrns or Beliercn, ntunbor fhrco or 
familicHntS&tAi«widftfewatMiiIiAt>n)<nlivar. Origiiudly of Cni 
Bml K^tliiAwllr they seem to have come from Bombay 
Poona aboat thirty ycnnt ago, and aro convert* of tho Ijubfini 
Ca«tO. Ilicy i![>eftk Culclii nt borne aixl HindnslAni nbroad. f 
look, food, dress, asd customs tJtey closely resemble their bretltrea 
in Bombay and Poona. Tbcy arc cb-an and neat io their habit«^ 
orderly, hnnlworkiti^, and thrifly, and hnro a good name among 
traders. They deal io English fnmitore and piecegoods, and are a 
well-to-do and a saving class. They form a separate commnnity, 
but h»TO no special orgauiyaLion and no headman. Th4>y ruKp^ot 
and liboy tho Kiii, and thtir social and religious cnstoiiis do not 
differ from those of ordinary Musnlmiins. They are Sannis of tbo 
Hnnaft school, and are sirictly rt-ligious and carofwl to Kiy Ihoir 
pniyera. Tbey teach their boys to read the Kardn and Mar^thi, bat 
not Knglish. They do not take to cowpursnits, but their calling is 
vroll p»id and they are fairly off aod lay by. On tho wholo th^iy tav 
a pnshing claas. 

Mukria,' said to mean Doniors hou\.mtikema to deny, am believed 
to represent Hindus of the VunjAri or Lnm&n casto converted by 
Haidar All (1703-1782) at Maisur about the mid dlw of thooightM^tith 
century. Thoy are found in snudl numbera at S&tilra and Mald- 
baleabvsr. lliey are Niid to hnvu oome from Maisnr, first to Bolgaoni 
andthcnoeto S^ULm, about fifty years ago, aud wore fonnurly a larger 
class as of late years in consequence of disputes with local money* 
lendersnnd trailurH, Hevorul of them Itarc gonv back to Belgaam and 
Kothiipiir. Some have given np moneylendiiig niid taken to service 
and contracting. Their home tongue ia Hindust&ui and thoy spesk 
Martlthi nbroitil. lu look, food, dress, and manners they are like the 
Mukria of ShoUj>ur, and as a class are clean and noat, hardworking 
and orderly, but quarrelsome and not over-honest. They arc grooer« 
and are com and Kpico deuU-rK, luid iiro well-to-do and alile to Mive. 
lliey marry among tbemaclves only and form n separate commnnity 
under an elective headman called cliaiulkari, who, with tho consent 
of the castomon settles easto di^piitvit and punialkes the breakers of 
rulc.t with fines and caste feasts. Their social and religious costoma 
are the same as the regular Musalmin customs. Though in name 
Snnnis of the Hanufi school they seldom sny their prayen, but obev 
tlio Kiixi and employ him to conduct their marriage and deatl 
ceremonies. They u-nch their children to read Mardthi and Urd», 
but not Rngliith. None of them has risen to any high position. 

Ga'i Easa'bs, or Beef Butchers, probably immigranta fronf 
Maisur, are found in small nnmbors in the Sdt^ra aiutonincnt and 
at MtthAbaleshviir. Tliey are said to bo dcKccndants of AbysKiniaD 
HiavesandK&buliPath&ns whom Haidar AH employed to kill cows and 


> Th« »toiy of the niiposMl otltfui of the uune Makri ii £ivca in tba ShoUp 
SlAtiitical Aec<fU&t. 




iffaloes in Mniear, nnd who came to tbo Deccan wilii GonernJ 
WpUtwley in 1803 luid Sir Thomas Monro in 1818. Thoy are foiinJ 
only ID milittirT cantonments. They apeak HJinluitl^ni nrnooff them- 
utlvea uid Mjirdtbi with others. 1» look dreaa and tnauncrs they 
are like the lo«l rcguUr UTiumlinins. Aa n class they are dirty 
aad untidy in their babits, and tlioujfb hanlworking, hot-t«mpered 
aod quiirrcl»omp, and toocb given ta liquor. Sonus of Diem arc well- 
to-do and able to save, but mo»b are badly oS. They kill oowb and 
baffaloee and have fixed shops, and twrnetiincB taku iK-cf t<» villages 
near Sdttfrs and exchange it among the low caste Uindna for oom 
or money. They marry among themselves and form a separate 
community and have a well managed nnioii under an clcctiro head- 
num mllod ehaitdhan. They belong to ifae Uanali Sunni seol and 
are not carvfnl to say their prayers. They obey aod respect tho 
K&zj and employ him to oondiict thoir marriage and death cere. 
nonios. Except that they do not perform the ceremonies of initiation 
or bUmilla and sacrifice or akilai, their social and religions cnatoma 
are the same aa those of roj^lur Mnsalnt&ns. They give their 
children no schooling and take to no new punnita. 

Thu scventocm local commanitiee who tona diatinct bodies ^d 
marry amotig thrmaelrcs only aro : 

Ba'gba'ns, or Fruitcrera, are found in considerable numbers in 
towns and lar^ villages. They say they are descended from a 
llwtftlmin motlter and a Uanlthii father, but a<.'cordin^ to othera 
tbe^ renreflent Knnbis converted by Aurangzeb (lGud-1707). Tho 
men add Shaikh to their names and in look, food, dreas, and 
maanera do not differ from tho regular Musalmdns. The women 
dreas in the JUar^tlia robe and bodire and can be kuown from Knnbi 
women only by wearing silver langlce instead of glass bangles. They 
arv nt-at and clean in their babits, honest, hardwOTking, orderly 
and tbrifly, aud keep bnllooka and poniea to carry home votriitalilca 
and fruit from tbear gardens and villages to towns. They are 
market gardeners, and are fairly off. Of Inte they have been givinff 
up their Uinda cusUims and becoming stricter Uuaalmniis. Aboat 
twenty years ago they used to worship a metal pot or tj}uU in 
honour uf Tulja Blmr^ui on Dasara Day in Soptombor- October, 
and the goddess Snlviti on the sixth iiigbt after childbirth, and to 
hold the mother impure for twelve days. Now they perform the 
ehhalla ceremony on the fortieth day after childbirth only. Their 
social aud rt-ligions cuslom» aro thu itamo iM thoxe of regiilnr MiimiI- 
m&aa. They are Suouis of the Uanafi school and regularly attond 
tho mosqne, and fast during the Ramdn and keep the feast of tho 
lUUtar Id. Thoy ask the Kiuti to rvgitttor their marriage, and obey 
and respect him. They have a headman and a caste council who 
Mttle caste dispntes with the consent of ibetnatcmen. They do not 
■end tbeir boyit to school or tako to now puntnit^, but their calling 
H[WelI paid, and they ooru enough to live on and are able to lay by. 
"Bakar Kasa'bS, or MuUou Batchers, are found in ^mall nunibera 
over the M-hole district. They are said to represent Uindu Khatiks 
converted by Tipu Sultdn (1782-17P9), and hence they say they 
aild Suiliiui to their muiic>«. They speak Uindnst&nt among them' 
selves uud Marfltbi with others. The men who are diu-k, strongj 





ffahir KiuMt M 
S-Uanl KSatitt, 

tBombay G»2ett«er,' 


Cbiipter ni- 
^ft People- 

Baiar Kafil-' or 
6ni muitiTi,. 


iinil well made, wear the beard fall, sliava the hend, and dress in al 
piiir of drawers or a wawtclotli, a shoal derclolh, a shirt, a Matitli>' 
turban, and a pmir of rfioes. The women, who aro biircr than tlifl 
men and regnlar featured, dress in a rob« and l>odiL-o, appear in 
public, spin wool, and mind the honce. A« a class mutton batcher* 
aro clean and nwit, liunest, hsnl working, and thrifty, and many are 
woll-to-<ly and able to save. They have fixed shvptf and their work U 
constant, but they say they have Inl<;ly suffered from the competition 
of Hindu Kh&tikM. Tliey eat troui all, except Nhiris, Dhobis, Tam- 
buts. and Sontei and the impure castes of nindus, and never associate 
with ordinary Mnsalmilns. Thoy eschew bocf, keep all Uindu feasts, 
and offer vows to Hindu godK. They marry among themsclvos and I 
form n Ke)Hiral« community under an elective headman called palil, ' 
who, with the consent of tho majority of the castemen, settlefl their , 
social dispntvs. They are Huniiti Kiinuis and are seldom careful tofl 
say their |imyeia. Kxcept circumcision they keep no Mnsalmin^ 
rites, thon^h they obey and respect the K&ni and employ him to 
conduct their innrria^ and death coreuiouies. They keep images of 
their goda and of Muaalm/in saints or plrg in their honso, and thej 
ai% the disciples or muritls of the Pirjtldjls of Bijtlpur anil FiLtao in 
SAtAm. They <io not send their children to sehooi iiud take to no new , 
pursuits, but their calling i.t well paid and they are a saving class. M 

DhavadSjOrlron-smelters. said to represent local Kolis convertod" 
by AuritTi^pteb (Itio8-I707], are found in lar^ numboni in tho 
MahtiliiileHhvar hilk. Thoir homo speech in adialect of their own of 
Uinduatini and Marithi words, and out-of-doors they speak cormpt 
Mardthi. The men aro f;;onGrally middle, dark, and »1unly, 
witll high cheek bonea ami Mmnll eycN, and jdiavo the huad, wear 
the beard full, and dress in a dirty, carelessly wound white tarban, 
a tight'littiiig jacket, and npair of light trousers or a waistclotb. 
Tho women, who aro shorter and fairer than the moo, dre»s in a 
dirty and untidy Uindu robe like the Domb^i women, paasiDg 
the skirt back between the feet and tucking the end of the robe 
to the wai.Htbaiid leaving htilf the legs bare, and a tight-fitting 
short-sleeved bodice covering the buck and liod in a knot in 
front under tho bosom. They appear in public and do aa much work 
as the men, bringing head-loads of fuel and grass from tho forest. 
Though hardworking, Dlinvads, as a rule, are dishonest, wiid*a 
tempered, and given to drink country liquor. They iimelt the iron ' 
which ia found m lat«rite or iron clay hilla. But partly from the 
growing scarcity of fuel anil partly from the choapncKS of foreign 
iron and hardware goods their iron smelting lias nearly ceased. 
They livo by cutting and selling grass, gfttheriug honey, and making 
and selling iron nailK, tongs, and frying pans. They livw from 
hand to mouth. They marry among themselves and form a 
separate eommunity, and have a well managed body under their 
elective headman oi- pdtit who settles thoir social disputes with tho 
consent of the castemeu and pnniahes the ca^te rule-breakers witli 
fines which giMicnilly take tho form of caste feaats. Except tliat 
they call themselvcH Hanufi Snunis, circumcise their sons, and aelc 
the EAki to rejristor their marriagea, tlit-v hnvo few fttusnlmfin customa. 
They keep liiudu feasts, eschew beef, and worship Uindu gods. 





Titej sy no Mnaalmdn prayers, and give their children no 

Dfaobis, or Wasbennen, wtd to roprc*ent local oonTertu of the 
Hinda class of the Bame nacne, are looDd in small numbers in the 
town of SiUltm and at MahAbaleshvar. ~ They speak llindastiiiii with 
themnelves and Mar^thi with others. The ttioii who are dark, thin, 
middle sized, and well made, shave the head or cut the hair doso, 
vvnr tliP lirnrd full and drt'sx in n headHcarf. a shirt, a waistcoat, 
and a wiiintcbth. The women are fairer and thinner than tht> men 
and wear the Mar^tha robe and bodice, appear in public, and do as 
much work na the idl-d. Ah a class tliey are vk'an and neat in their 
habits, orderly, hone»t,aud hardworking, but spending on drink 
abnoet half of their earnings. They are employed both by Europeans 
and natives and earn I6s. to £1 10«. (Rs.8-Io) a month. They 
marry among Ihemsflvcs and form a separata oommooity with a 
good organization nuder s headman or cnaudhari, who, with the 
oontMmt of the costemen, settles castu dispntes and punishes tho 
kreakeni of social rulon willi fines winch generally take the funn of 
casco feasts. In religion they are Iiana6 Snunis and are very care- 
loss about saying their prayers. Except that thoy ask tho K^ to 
tegutter their marriage and to conduct their death ceremonies they 
keep no Musalm^n rites, observing Uindn feaata, eschewing beef, 
and offering vows to Hindu gods. They do not gite their children 
any wchooUng or take to now pursoita, but their calling is well paid 
and they are a steady class. 

Dhondphoda's, or Tak£r^. Qoarryroen and Stone Masons, aro 
Said to ropresi.-nt Hiodns of tho same oamo converted by Auruigxob 
(1658-1707)l Thoy arc found in amall numbers in towns and 
large villages, 'i'hetr borne tongue is llindastSni and the^ speak 
Mar&thi abroad. Except that t£ey are nut given to drink, in look 
food drena and mannen they am siadiar to Dhavad.-(. Some are 
qttarrymen and stone-masons and others are stone-dressers. Most 
have moved to Bombay and Poena in search of work. Many are fairly 
nllaud bare made fortunes by taking stone contracla in liombay. 
The poorer, who are called Tak&rds, roughen grindstones. They 
marry among themselvesatid have a well managed union under an 
eleclire headman styled jxilU, who Mettles ttooial diitpubcs at casta 
^^■petingSi Breaches of social rules are punished with Unos which 
f^PBerolly take the form of caste feasts. Except that they eschew 
Beef, wiirKhip Hindn gods, aod keep Hindu fonst* their customs aro 
said to be the same aa those of regular Uusalmitns. Except circam- 
cision they keep do special Mus^min rite and seldom attend the 
mosque. They give their children do eohoobug and are a rising 

Gavandis, or Bicklayers, said to represent local Hindus of 
(he s^ijn tiamo converted by Aniangzcb (1058-1707) are found in 
small numbora all over tho district. Among themselves thoy speak 
HinduslAni and witb others Mantthi. The men who are t^ul or 
middle siscd. thin and dark, shave the head, were the beard full, and 
dress in a dirty itnd untidy largo white or red Mar&tha turban, a 
tight-fitting jaoket, and a waietcloth ; the women who arc fairor and 
better featured than tho men, wear a Mardtha robo and bodice. 





[Bombay Ouet 


Chapter III. 




appear in pnblic, and mind tbo bouso. Aa a class Gavsndis i 
duty anil nntidy, hardworking, ordorly,andthrifty, llieyaienia 
nod bricklayers nnd in scttrcli of work cuftny havu moved to Pc 
uid Bombay, uiid niauy lutvo becom« dny Inbourers cnminfc Qd. 
Jlrf, {4-6 H».) a day. Their work ia not constaul, and they are ot 
badly off nttd in debt. They marry among themgolvcs only, I 
b«TO no special or(pi»iHatioii nnd uo licnd vxcopt Uio reguUr Ktuti who' 
setUes their social disputes and re^Utcra their marriages. Except 
that they cachow btxif and kc<op Uindu feasts their tvliffious aU 
Rocial cnstoinK do not difi'er from tboiw of the rogtiltir MtiealmAaa. 
They belong to the iianafi sect of Bunniit, bat ara seldom c.trt^fal to 
Bay their prayors. Thoy do not giro their children any schooling, 
and Bomu of tliem are omployod as miusengors and servant*. As k 
class tbo S&t&iu Oavaiidis are poor. mI 

Ga'rudis, or bladiiris, a wandering cUss of iagglem who mov^ 
all over the district in bands of four or firo families, represent local 
converts, probably of ihe Kolhitti csjrte. Tbcir bca^l-qwtrten are at 
Mimj aboat thirty<fire miles eaat of Kolhipur. Their ancestors are 
sai^ to haTO been converted by Mir Samsudin, commonly known as 
Mirto iSbamna, vf ho died iibout tho middle of the fourteenth century. 
and was bnried at Mii-aj, his tomb being tho soene ot a yearly fair. 
Among thcmnelves they speak a coarse Uindn^tdni and with others 
a niixturiji of Mari'itlii. As a cinss thoy are dark, sturdy, and ntiddlo 
siKod; the men either shave the lieud or cut tho liair close, and wear 
the beard full, and dross in a dirty carelessly folded and twisted 
tnrban, a waistcloth, and tigbt-fitting trousers leaving half tho \i>^ 
bfltfw. Tho women, who arc liko the men in lixjk, are dirty aod 
nntidy, and dress in a coarse Mardtba robe and bodice. They 
appear in public and except by begging do not add to the family 
income. They are a clasit of juggiurs, tnmblers. and snake-cbarmen, 
DoitJier sober nor honest, poorly clad, and ill-fed. If they fail to 
maintain themselvoH by their performances they beg from door to 
door and live from hand to mouth. They marry among themaoIvM 
only and form a separate community under an elective headman. 
They settle social disputes st meotingsof the castemenat the yeariy 
fiiir of their saint at iliraj. They keep no MusalniAn customs and 
do not obey or respect tbo regular KAsii except by employing him to 
register their marriages. They are Aluanlmdns in name only and 
never say thuir piayoars. They do not send their boys to school or 
take to new puranits, and are a falling class. 

Haja'ms, or Barbers, representatives of local converts of the 
Hindu chws of tho Kimo name, are found in small numbers in townn 
and large villages. In look, fi>od, dress, and miwinurs, they closely 
resomblo Dhobis and Bi)eak Hin<lu»tiiiii at home and a corropt" 
Muriithi abroail. As » class though laxy and nnthrifty, Haj&ms am 
orderly and honest and live from hand to mouth. Their work if 
constant and thoy earn 6ii (4 at) a day. They marry among them- 
■elves only and form a separate community without a spocdnl 
organiaation or an oloctivo headman. They refer their aiatc dis- 
putes to the regular Kkr.l, who registers their miirriagii» and condoct« 
their druith ccn^monios. Kicf^rt ciratmi'i.''iiig their children and 
cupk>ytug the KAxi ut Uioir marhagos and doaths, they keep no 





or rvlif^ioiia Unsalmiui cnatonis, utd arc eeldotn carefol to 
heir prayvnt. Thoy call themsolveB Sunnis of the Hsnali school. 
Qfy do not give their dtildrea anj scbooliof or take to dow pur- 
suits, aa<l are a steady class. 

Sha.'r&'Sf or Dast Sifters, nro found in entail numbers over the 
wlinlo ditttnct. They are doecendod from UiiiduK, probably of the 
B&iitbin cacte, who are aaid to hare been courertcd by Anmu^pujb 
(l<>58- 1707). They nrnk with AUint, Munyars, and Patvegara 
whom they roaombiD in look food and drew, and with whom they 
eat and marry. Thoy boy the sweepinffs and ashes of goldHmitha' 
shops and fumac«8 and sift out particlos of gold and silver. They 
aUo ifift the nshvs of dead Hindui^ for melted oruamonia diving ana 
brining up the mad when the ashes are thrown into water. Thoy 
sell these particles to moncy-chan^rs nod make 6<J. to 2a. (!!e, J-1) 
a day. When they >lo nnt gel suHIoient work at Siitiira, thoy trsrol 
to Belgaum, tiokAk, Kolh^pnr, Nflsik, and Sholdpur, and buy duut 
in the j^tdBmitbB'Ehops, sift it tn the rivirr, and return home. As a 
claas tbcy aro ck-an and noat in their babitd, and, though giren to 
drink, ure hardworking and thrifty, and some of them are fairly oft 
and able to save They form a separato body with a well managed 
nnion under their headman called mehntra, and settle social disputea 
in ac^cordanoe with the votea of the castemen. They are Sunnis oE 
the Uanafi school in name, but aro Ecldom religious or careful to 
ay tbeir prayers, Thoy rotpect and oboT the regular KAzi and 
tVmploy hitn to register their marriage and to conduct thvir death 
oeremoniea. Tbey never give their boys any schooling and besides as 
dust-aift«rs earn their living ux messengers and sen-ants. 

Ranga'ris, or Dyers, aro found in towns and large village*. Thoy 
are sovid lo nipresent converts from MArwiir who ntnw and sctthil in 
the district about fiftoon yoara ago. They hnvo a subdivision callod 
Chipha. Thoy speak^i both at home aiid abroad, aro 
dark, strong, and well built, and can easily be known by their blito 
bands. The men shave tfao head, wear tlio beard full, and dreits 
like other ^InsalmAns. The women are fairer than tbo men and 
dress in the Upper Indian petticoat and bodice, and wear liir^e 
ivofy bangles and wristlet?, and a neckUco of black glass beads. 
They appear in public and hiOp thi^ir hosbands in preparing colours. 
Asacla^H Kamptris aro clean and neat, honpat, hardworking, 'mlcrly, 
and thrifty, "fijey axe hereditary dyers, and their wi>rk is brink in 
ibe &ir season. Like mnttou-bntchers, they do not cat from tho 
bands of Hindu Dhobis, Sonflrs, Tdmbats, und the depressed elastics 
and do not associate iwith regular Mu.ialmtinfl, and eschew hoof 
Land liquor. 'J'hoy aro Sunnis of the Uauali school, fast during 
Ujiomzdn, and worship Mnhammadan saints. Thoir customs, oxcopt 
" thoir marriage customs, aro the same ati tho^o of regular M u.-<ivlnilln9, 
but ihey have no special organixation and the regular K^zi settles 
tbeir caste disputes. They marry among tlimisulvci, the buy as a 
rule taking as wife his maternal uncle's daughter. At the betrothal 
the boy presents the girl with a petticoat luid a bockleea short- 
sleeved bodice. The parents of both tbo boy and the girl oonault 
the regular Kazi and liu nam«« a lucky day for the marriage. The 



[BOmbty Oa2ett«r. 



Cb&pUr in. 



father of tlio girl receiree no money from the boy's fftther, but 
Bometimus if ho i* poor the boy's father p&ya a aam of money to tin 
girl'A fitlhor, Boothit are rumU before the houses of both with s 
marriage post called muhurtmedh fixed in one o( tlin oorneri ofoacb. 
Married women secretly mb some turmeric on the brideffroom^ 
clothoH. Then come* the iilvhal/id or public tarmuric rubbing at 
which the married womeo meet at the girl'ci houKii in the oreniaif 
Tvhere the boy is also asked, seat the boy on a low stool placed on a 
•quaru of whoiit, .sing M&rwiir songs, rnb him with turmeric, and 
deck his head with flower garlanda. The girl is carried in by somo 
mftrried woman on her hip and rubbed with turmeric, musicians 
play, and tlie womon arc ftiiuitvd nt the girl's. This thoy call the 
feast of Viydpari, when the food is served in dishes and fraokinccnse 
is burnt in the namo of God, tho marriage clothes of the couple aro 
marked with windal and pliiwd liefdrtf tho dishes. Five women are 
made to fast during the day aod are told to cat finttofull. Tboy 
are followed by tho women of tho house and the ceremony is orer. 
The women of tho bride's house take Tormicelli and sugared rice or 
adkharhhdt with music to the bridegroom's for his broakfa^t, and in 
rotftm receive from him 2«. (Re. 1) and a bodicecloth. On the next 
the god-humouring is performed and goats are killed, aod friends 
and relalious treated to a dinner. Early next morning the brido- 
groom is taken to the mosque and prays and the rest of the marriago 
ceremony is tho same as among other MiisatmiiDs. The regular 
Eixi settlcfl their caato disputes. 'J'hey send their boys to achool 
and aro well-to-do. 

Momins, probably represent convorU of the Koghti caate, aro 
found in towns and large villuges. Thoy form a sepikrato claas and 
do not man? with otbor Musalmina thoiigh in a few oases tScjr 
have married with Patvegur or tasael-mukcr familiea They have no 
objoction to cat with any Musalmiln. A. Momin woman differs from 
other Musalmdu women of the district in not wearing any bo«o 
ornament. They are weavers. The appliances of a Uomin's loom are 
a brush orkunflui worth 4». to 10«. (Ks. 2-&)andbought of a Eanjitri, 
hdmhydf or rods laid flat between the alternate threads of the wani 
to keepthcm from becoming entangled, (urAntA or a cloth beam worib 
1». S'l. (10 afXhalyaura shuttle beam unod as a batten or lay worth 
3«. fRa. li),pfta«( or tho reed trame worth 3<f, to le. 6ii. (2-12 an.), 
charka or tno wheel worth it. (Re. 1), dkota or a shuttle worth {M. 
(6 RK.) bought of a Kolhflti, and tatmii or nprights with rings worth 
if. dd. (12 as.). Their women help by twisting yam. They weare a 
turban of nn bleach «d yarn ISO feet long in U>n days, sell it for 9«, 
(Rs. 4i) and make lia. (Ra.l J) as profit. They have sufTcrud by tho 
competition of machiue.unde yam and they have been reduced to 
poverty. Somu have left thi^ir craft an<l become servants and day 
labourers. They keep all tho Musalm&n cuatomeL , 

Naga'rjis, or Eottlo Drummers, ropresontatirea of local eosTorta 
of the Hindu class of the same name, are found in i;msl1 nnmbers 
ID towns only. Their home-tongue is IlinduatSui and they speak 
MariVthi abroad. They arc dark, tall, or middle sized, regular 
featured, and well bnilt. The men shave the bend and wear tho beard 



and dre«R is n larpro twwt«(I tnrban, n coat, a waistcoat, and a 
ilcUith- The women, who iire fuircr uinl thinnor than Iho men, 
wear a UarAtlui nibe luid bodice, appear in public, antl mid nothinf; 
to the familj eariuDga. Both men and women are clean and neat in 
thoir huitiU. Tim men aro k<7tlludrutn-boatvrs bnt sinco the fall of 
the Satira ohiiird tfao di>]nand for ibei'r w<jrk iias Iwcn less and tbmf 
at present are asked to play dnrin(f inarriagea at the Imas^Mi of biitn 
thu Hindus and MtiKiliDiiiia) and on fL>ative occasions at local tompltis 
and tko Khrinv!* of MiualnUu aaints. Though tianlworking many 
aro ^iVen In drink and are badly off, and aamo of llieni liavd takun 
to tiling. They marry amuni:; thcnia«-ivc« only and form a separate 
ootninunity nndcr iin oloctive hoiuliium or rliitu-Uari, who eettlofl 
caste diaputi>s wiih tho conitent of the majority of Ihu catttemon, nnd 
paniabes the breakers of social mlos with fines and caste feaata. 
Tbongh in oaae iSnnnix of thc^ nanafi Kchool tboy bavo strong Dindu 
leanings, koopii^ Hindu fca^bt, encbewing beef, and worshippiDg 
Uiudu gods. They aro seldiT'm careful to ?ay their prayers or to 
pcrfurm the coramotiicw uf I'lgmitla or initiation and akika or 
sacrifict\ Tboy respect and obey tho Kibii Hn<l employ him to 
register Iheir marriages. They seldom send their boys Co schttol. 

' Resides as kottle-dmmmera tltoy work as messengers and servants 

j and aro a »tondy chMS. 

Paktialis, or Watcr-oarriers, representing local Ilindii converts of 
the santa CMte, ate found in small quidImts in .Silt.'lra, Mah/ibali^livar, 
and other large towns. Thoir homi^tongnc is lliodusiiLni and they 
«)c»k a corrupt Mar^hi abroad. Ah a class tliey are middlu sizoo, 
(urk, and thin ; tho men idiave the head or cut the hair close, wear 
the beard full, and dress in a headscarf or a Mar^tha turban, a 
brifeht-fitling jacket, and a pnir of tight and short tronsOTS, or a 
^fiiirt<-lotb. Tho womi-n aru shorl/ir nnd fairer than the men and 
' wear the Mardtlia robe and bodice, appear iu public, and, except the 
old who help in ivator-carrying, a^ld nuthiDi^ to tho family income. 
Ah a mlv PakluUis arc dirty and untiily in tlu'ir fanbit«, hardworking 
, and thrifty. 'Ilioy car^ water iu leatheru bags on bullock-bactc 
and supply water to Mosalmiias, Christians, Pirsis, and a few low 
casto Llindos. Their monthly onmings vary from £1 to £1 \0a. 
(R«. 10- !.'>) but tboy are given to drink and^pend half their income 
on liquor. They marry among themselves and form a separate 
commniiity ander an elective headman vailed chaudkari who settles 
aocia) disputes with the content of tho majority of thu caste and 
pouishea breacKos of social rules by fines which generally take the 
form of caste feasts. They call themselves Sunnis of tho Tlnnafi 
school but aro seldom carvful U> siiy thoir prayers or perform the 
ceremonie^t of initiation or bUmitla and itacrifice or akika. Tho^ 
respect and obey the regular Kiizi and employ him to conduct their 
marriage and death ceromouios. But tlicy have strong Hindu 
leanings, eschew beef, keup Hindu foativaJs eapecially the 
Dasara in September- Oclitbor, and offer vows to Hindu gods. On 
Dasara Day they deck their bullocks with floworii, piiint them yellow 
Mid gnten, and pnradu them through tho strecL-t along with tho 
bnlldcka of the Hindus, preceded by mu.sic, and followed by a 


(Bomba; OaietUer- 

ptM ni. 







crowd. Tlioy do not send tlicir Iwyn to school or Uko to now 
pursuits. They are a poor class and general!; in debt 

PatveROrs, or Silk Tassol Tffiateis, arc found in olraost all 
towun. Thuy probably ropr«scnt locnl converts of mixed Hindu 
classes and rank with Atdra, Moniins, and Manyirs with whom tbey 
intvniitirry ondnbomtfaoy resomblo in look, food, dren, and caatoma. 
Tbcy ascribe their couveraton to Aurangzob (I658>I707) and twiat 
silk tassels and msjce silk waist threada or katdordif and soft pnda 
or gndis for women's necklaces. They do not send their children 
to school or take to new pursuits, but tlicir work is constant and 
they are a steady class. 

Pinja'ris, or Cotton Teasers, representatrres of loonl convcrL-t uf 
tho IIiikIu c-jwitti of the same nanio, are found only in towns. Tbny 
ai« M uiulnKlns and oat with other MusalinliDR, but nuirry amonff 
UicmBelvos only. The men take the titles of Shaikh, Syod, and. 
Pathin i^ter their names. The K^zi and Malla oBSciate at their ' 
niarriagee and thoy |^tu I0«. to £1 (!<«. 5-10) totfaocastoaapreBeDb 
money. They hitve a hcadrnan called mehlar to whom in a mnrTtagO' 
cor#uiony the 1)07*8 father gives a turban. The mehtar inquires 
into sunl settles thoir cast* disputos. Moat of thorn arc carders of 
oottou and wool, and n few are tterrants and day-labonrvrs. They 
stuff beds with cleiuied cotton and make pack*^tddlea, quilted felt _ 
to put under saddles, and diffort^nt kinds of felt. Thoy are aided .■ 
in their work by their women and childreu. Tho tools thoy nsoare 
a hitiuin or bow worth C». (Ils- .1), a dasta or pestle worth la. (8 o*.), 
and catgut sold at U. (Ks. 2) for 150 ffot. Tho tamdn or bow ia a 
iMuiowliat flqiiure nioco of plnnk having 
fiuttened to it. I'lie catgut |)assea oi 

fastonod to tlio piece of pisuik. Thus the whole machine ia something 
like a bow. The daifa i» a cylindrical pivco of wood havinjf both 
tta endfl formed like knobs and a groorc in the middle to handle it. 
As tho carder sits to clean cotton or wool he holds the kamdn, which 
hangs down from tho string of a bow atta^od to a peg in a wall 
and pulls tho ratgat by an end of the tlnrtn. Their goods do not 
eommniid sale, nnd their trade is on the decline. 

Sikalgars, or Armourers, are found only in tho town of S<t4i«. 
Thoy tail with all MuaalmAns, but marry with Manytirs, Atjirs, and 
I'atvegars only. They furbish and politth wea^xins and tools and 
make raznrM, knives, pack noodles, carpenters' tools, and all aorta of! 
cutlorj-. A few of them are engaged as servants. Tbo Urge 
imporlaiion of Euro{>enn hardware lins greatly interfered with their 
calling. Theycnil ibeKilzi and Jtlulla to officiate at their uutrriago, 
and pay Sh. (Its. Sj) to tlje Kazi. They present a turban to iboir 
headman or mehtar, difforing in ntiuo according to their means. 
'I'hey aak other Musaluiiins to marriage feasts and are aiiked by 
them to similar fcufils. klxcept this, their customs differ littJe from 
tho»u of other Musalmilns. 

Ta'mbats, or Coppei-smiths, probably representatives of conrcrta 
pf tho Hindu caste of the same name, are found in towns only. Thoy 
bay that they are desccudcd from one Muhammad Din. They cab 

a {hjIo with s hooked end 
catgut [Mtsses over the hooked cad nnd 







Tbey call ilio K^i and Mullu 

>vifli nil MiiMilinidifl, but miirry only wiUt Adlrs, Mnnyirs, 
I'Li'vigars, Sikalyars, and Hatirflt&a. 

to conduct tlicir uiarriap> and oilier c<:rwtnunk-«. Tlicy tnako brass 
V(»«c-Is. NoifK of thcni has n ali<it> nf lii« own for brass wares; all 
of thoni oro ntiii Gji. (Km. 3 a man] tlio quarter of bmsitahcet worked 
into pots. Their capitaliat^i arc KAaitrx, for whom they make lals 
or diuin? dislios with th<i nin nli^htlj' iui'limnl outwards, pat^ids 
•ir rjlindricftl cjipcr or bnisft |iijI» with slightly ronndoil bottoms, 
Mfntyn'jiurdritikiu^pnt.'t of all Fn^hions, partitgoT large ptnttera witit 
hij^b nnis slightly inclined (witwiirdf, and cfKi.* <ir cyliuiirical brass 
cupB with roonilcd h<AUnn!^. llieir religion forbids their workingia 
crt|ip(>r. One Tttuilmt 'i» said to he able tn tnako twenty -eight puutidfl 
of brass into pots in twelve dsya. They somotimos smelt brass, the 
alloy cont&ininf; two {Kirt.s of copper and one and n Itiilf parts of 
wt«r. To tht^iu) mt^tAlii hnlf u pound of soda is added and tho 
iko\<i mixture in put in an iron cniciblo. Tho crucible is put into 
a pit covered with charcoal, and firo is 80t and blown into a whito 
boat. Xeariy two hoitn* uru rciptirod tor the alloy to form. Some 
forty years ago they wore well-to-do. Since then they aro slowly 
decJjQinff, on account of tho largo nnmbcr of hands engaged iu*the 
trade. They aro poor and barely iclf-stapporting. 

Christi&DS are returned as numberiug 886 and as found chiefly 
|l in Jcivli, Koregoon, Siitiira, and ^V&l Of tho S80 Christiana, •126 
[ Wfi-L- Earopoans including Aniericaiui of the Aniericnn mission and 
I Kuni^ians, and 4G0 Xativcs. Uesides the civil oSicerH a largo 
! onmber of Koropoans belong to tho military service. Tho Amai-ican 
1 niission began work in tho <)iMtrict in 183-1 and hait nb present 
f (188-t) 121 native ronverts connected with it. In 183't- Mra. tintves 
I of the American mission opened a girls school at Mabdhaleshvar. 
I, Ti ll 184!) when the Rov. Wiltiuin >yood of the Amorican Mission 
■feUM peniiancntly at H'it.-ini, the school was removed to Sdtara 
pikiT year during the rainy season. Since 1849 Sdt&ra has resident 

miaaioitarica. In food, drink, drcHS, ctdling, faith, and customs, tho 
, S&tAra Xativc Chrixtiaus do not differ from the Ahinodungar Nativo 


Pa'rsiS are rctnniFtd as numbering niucty-nino and as fonnd in 
S^tj&ra and JAvb. They ai-e emigrants from Bombay. 'ITioir 
boiDO speech is Gujardti. As shopkeepers, merchauta, and contractors 
are welt to do and prosporotu. 

Chapter ni. 




(Bonbajr OutUMrJ 




AcconinNu' to the 188 1 census. af;"cii! titre supporti^i nboiit 7 W,l 
people or 70 por cent of tliy [MjpiiliiliiMi. Tlie (ktaiU are : 
tSOMni AgHfuUuntl PiijmUUiM, 1881. 





tin>i«r nn«ni ... 







The hulk of tho Sflt£ra laDdhoIdoni are MarMha Kunhtx. But'' 
thu b<?st c\iuis of husliariiliiu-ii arc the Juins of the soutit And itoath* 
wc«t of the diMtrict. In 1851 Mr. Ogiivy dtwcrilwd the SiiUn 
KunhiiH U.-4 liurd working; Hkilful ho-s hand men, undcnftandiDf; tbe 
rotation of ciiips, the value of manure, ami the necessity of tx-fnwhii^ 
the soil by fallows. Tho general opinion i« K'jw favourable to 
the Silttira Kuubi who in said to bo wanting in enteq>nsc and 
avcri<ti fi-oiii iniproveniciit. lu the cast of tlio district tlio land- 
holders are said to l>e only iiiodiTrnti-Iy hardworking, and ihe richei 
soils in till) west are said to suffer from bt^in^J cropped bcvctoI years 
in nuccowiiou without p1uit<;hiu^- At the same time ditTercnt parts 
of the district show iiotalilc- in!4unci.'.s of skill and (iittrprixe. In 
parts of Khaiiihtia an<l WfU lia<l conditiona have been improved 
with fjroatsucei^ss. Byterracinj'slopcsanddajnniiiif'ravine-t thevery 
i-oeka have lieen forcird to yivdd » pood return, llic hill cultivator 
is most acute in availing himaolf of every spring, and is an adept at 
turracinu the hill aidcH, and generally wherever means of irrigittioa 
are available the cnltivntur shows industry and skill. Instead of 
limiting his undertakings to i-kiii^ ont a Iwire jtuVwiatLince he aims at 
iin increasoof comfort and fortuiif. That there are no nionj figiLtof 
enU-ipiisi- is iluc to tJie wiuit of capital and the di'spair of f,-*aping J 
from tho moneylcndi-r. Thcliahitnf illsposing of their own priMlueo* 
has lately iucreasod among landholders, owing to tho rcstrJc'ted crwlit 
occasioned by llie Agricuiturihis' lUlief Act, which is hi-liovcd to have 
had the (ifi'ect of ijuickening i-jiti^rpriso ^nd tho desire to improve. 
Tho condition of the landhohlers varies consiiierahly in dilleroiit 
parts of the. di.strict. It may be roughly Htat<;d that few cant of 

1 Except the detail* of cront and wfttsr-work*, and tbo account of {aminw, Uilaj 
clinplvi U couti'ibutcrt l>y Mi, J. W. 1' Miii/ MiKkonxIc.C.S. 



1)h- Yvrlii rivitr are in comforUt>l<: circaiUbUnccn, aiid iiiauy are 
frfi|uvntJy obliged to Icavo their bonie#( in aearch oC otDployiuent. 
>'«w- oiiywlicni wo clear of debt, but the western londbuldor h»ft 
|vrubably iK'ttcrcrctlit and Imm oftvu tiorrowiK from nvcliiictui tlian the 
nvtluni. TUi: KunU landholder generally ^lU his iiroduoo to the 
%'i)lage dealer, to wandi-rin;; buyers wtiu frequent villages ai harvcnt 
time, or in tbciiL-ar>.?it niArket-. A fow export on tbuir own account 
chtrlly ■<> riN»ia and Chiplim. Most of the local Hi.-I<l proilucu i^t sent 
ttway by meTchoQta who have seaired it eitbei- by purcbaae from tJio 
groweis in satisFuetioii of debt-s, or from inonoylvnders nt wholesale 
prices. During Uie idio scutoii nuiny liUHbnndincn make unn of 
thrir own and their cattle's Uboar in cartKlri%iiig, while wme 
nii-niber^ of many faniilituf arc ciii^n^eil in carting tho whole year 
round. Ciisi.'n nf bivl wind men giving up their calliuf^ und tukiugto 
crafto or other induxtrieH are onknown in S&t£ra. 

The mils of tJie district l>eloDg to thre« main cla^tseH, red in the 
hilU and black and [igbt>colourui) iu the plains. The black or kdli 
soil is generally found in l>elt» lying along the tnnks of the leading 
«4niatius the breadUi of the belt var^-iiig with the sise of the istreuii. 
Intlie Krishna vul Icy i^found the bruflde-stlx-l t of thi^ rich soil, which 
yields the hcxtgantiMi nml ilrycropH in tb<' di.-itrjct. Underthename 
of black is included the slightly lighter and le»t productive itUvoi 
which bt mixe<l with a sinoll quantity of munim or crumbly trap. 
I'he luAiling li^^it coloured »oiU arv the mdl ran or murvm mat a 
hard rocky i«oil commonest 6t the bases of the more catttem hilU. 
The Mtme mil. mixed with rod at tho foot of the SahyddrU, forms 
one variety of the Miil called tambad or reil. Anotlier soil known 
an tamltbi is block aoil mixed with red. Near the heiuU of the 
ntrvam.t which issue from the SahyMris, the soil of the vallej's is 
rvd or iiimhdi and yields mo:<t of the ric; grown in the district. On 
the hill tops where th« water cannot be i^ufTiciently confined for 
rioe tillage thin aoil is uaed for kutnri or wood-ash tillf^^e. There 
in abto the soil callol ehunkhmH which is a broken trap or mxtram 
soil strongly cliargcl wiUi limc- Lime ).'< ali^ found m black soila 
nwar river Win. The swl of the country at the foot of the 
Sabyi&'lrLs weat of the Yerla w gcnerolly good, and the soil of the 
Krishna \*alley w e^prtiidly rich. of the Ycrlo, and in the 
Klinnil.-iltv petty division in the north-eaat. the lan<l )>vconKu< poorer, 
and tlio proportion of block soil becomes much smaller. 

or an area of 4792 »iua«f milw or 8,067.943 acres. 2,442,503 acres 
or 7962 per cent an- in 9G0 (iovecnment villogei, and 625,440 aci'cs 
or 20'38 per c<ait arc in 35MJ alionatt-d tillages. All the Oovernmcnt 
taiid.t tiAvi; lieen suri'eyi-'l, an<l of the lantU in ahenatcd villages 
3G;t.l»'J acres have Ixi-n surveyed. Acconling to the ivvenuc survey, 
of the 2,442,50.t acres of Government land. 1.802,150 aci-es or 
78*70pcr cent aiv arable ; 141,201 acres or 5*79 per cent unarablo; 
40ftC acres or 0-20 per c<^nt gi-ass or inron ; S67,7IJ> acres or 1.V87 
|K'r c»'nt forest; and 106,^85 acres or 4'35 per cent village sites, 
roaiLs, and river be<bt Of the 1,802,156 aci-es of arable land in 
Oovcniuieut Tillages 382,ftr,7 or 31-24 por ecut ore aliouatcA Of 

Chapter IT.' 


AaiBi.B Axu. 

Chapter IV. 




tho whole arablo Area oF 1,802.1.^6 acres 1,378,659 ncrex or 7G*50 per 
c^'iit wvru in 1BS2-83 held for UUag«. Of thi^ 43,4G'2 acr'eaor SIS 

()er cent were ganleu land, 14,8y5 acres or I"08 per cent were rice 
and. and 1,320,302 acres or 95'77 per cent were dry crop. 

In 1SS2-83 Uiu number of lioMiu^, incltnlin^ nltonntvvl laiiiU; ia 
Gtivvniiiiciit villagtti, was I20.Io8 with an av«ra^'e area of HfJ 
acres. Of the whole number of holdings 4C,35;j were of not more 
than five acres ; 2.i,62Swcreof fivo to ton acres; 22.620 of ten ti> 
twenty acrwf; 11,001 of twenty to thirty acres; 558-1 of thirty to 
forty ftci'ea ; SS+fl of forty to fiftv acres ; 3782 of fifty to a bundrwl 
acres; 1285 of 100 to 201Hk;tos;'221 of 200 to 300 acres ; 60 of 3W 
to 400 acres ; and 72 of over 400 acres. As ivjjariLs thi- dintrii'iilioti 
of holdings the rule is the more fertile the auWi™ioD and the 
larger its area of watered laud thcNmatler arc the holdings. Tfni'^iii 
1879-80 in Kariid, wjiiehis probably the nio^t fertile siih-iliviwiuiof 
the district, 81-y+ per cent of the holdings were under twenty acres 
and 3] -27 per cent were under five acres ; while in MAn, the poorest 
8uh-division, only six per cent were; under five acn^s and 27-25 per 
oejt under twenty acres. Again in Man 327 per cent of the holdings 
were between fifty and 200 acres against 4"8 per cent in Karjid. 
Ill the hilly Niili-diviMon.'* of WAi, Ji^vU, S&tAra, PiUaii, and Vnlva 
the nuMil>er of small holtlings is larger. A.s, though entered in 
one name, many of the largo holdings are jointly occupied by lai^^ 
families, it may l>e stated a» npnroxlmately corrt-ct that ten or 
Rfteen acres of a fair dry ci'op holding in the rich weKt«m valleys 
will support a holder with a family of tliree or four persona m 
di-cent comfort, while in tlie barren vaut twenty to thirty acre:t are 
required even for eitiy and certain »uhsistence. 

In the plaina the black soil is generally ao heavy as to mako 
ploughing impossible with less than four huUocks and in many 
places as many a.s .tix pairs are required. Tonuse the full numbeV 
of bullocks poor landholders witli small holdings borrow from each 
other or hire. In jirdi^at or dry wop soil a pair of oxen can plough 
too to twelve acres, in mat or broken trap soil in the eastern 
anbdivisions a pair can plough twenty-tivc to thirty acres, and in the 
hilly soil five to thirty acres accoixling to the steepness of the 
field and the depth of tho soiL ■ 

According to the Collector's yearly returns the 1882-83 field 
stock included 55,724 ploughs of which 31,855 were for two 
bullocks and 23,869 for four bullocks; 18,275 carta of which 1241 
were riding cartn and 17,034 were load carts, 240,921 bnli^xik^l52.640 
cows. 115,311 butfaloes of which 82,711 were females and 32.600 
males, 13,390 horwes marcs and colts, 4394 donkeys, 425,374 shoep- 
and goats, 31 caniel.'>, and 5 elephants. ■ 

Of field tools the chief are the plough or nangar, the seed drill 
called pdhar or kuri, the harrow or kulav. the weedor or holjm, and 
the mud harrow or chikhlikho mif. The plough is of two kimU, 
the large or thorla ndngar and the ndni/ri or small hand plough. 
A plou'di drawn by a pair of oson costs about 2». (Re. I). The 
seed drill has its teeth or phanit communicating with tubes or nofw 




hich cii'l in a Ihix callM rhA-te. Thin tx)x the sowor keeps filling 
tlh Nooi] which patwcH through tho tttbcs into tlio furrows miulu hy 
lo teeth. According to thu Moil Uto Aucd drill Is driiwn hy two to 
eight l>ulloeks nrwi cwta iilwiit iw. (Ka2). Afii^r the »twil drill, to 
cover the soeii, tho harrow or XKi(i« is dtawu. ItUan iron hladcorj^iin 
fastened to two upilght toi^th lixvd in n harrow f raiiio aud cofltiuff 
ftbout 2it.{Ui^i. 1), when iho omp is about a foothijjh, tliu weeder ot 
tci/tj>a 18 Used to clean tho liold of grass and wocda. ITio wocdcr 
iss a small harrow frame with two iron hladea bent near 
lo iniddlo nt riglit angles, the upper part of each blade being 
xvd into oppoHite 8idc<i of the frame at an acute an^le to tlm 
ramo an<l at an obtuso anglo to the ground, and the lower pai-fc 
pointing inward.s and horizontally towanU tlm corn.'-spoiiding part 
of tlm otlmr bla-ie. Thejte two horinoutal pieces pa.** throufjh the 
jfround alwut a couple of inches duep and turn up the surfaco 
on both sidi-s of tho crop. The niu<I harrow, costing U. to is, liJ. 
{S-li I)".), irt u-'«ed in rice HeldH in taming up Uie ground to 
receive tJie seedlings when rwidy for planting. Of small field tools 
tho chief aretlio large and small hooK ituiiat and kudali, the 
Mcailo or piivfln, the axe or kurltdd, the pnining knives and 
mckles or ;>iii//(i and Aoy/i, tho inanuro rabo or diitdh, this trowel 
or khurpn, anil the r«aping ftickle or vihi. All cultivators have not 
thu plough and the aeea-dnll, but very few are without the smaller 
field toou. 

At presonl (1863) S&t&rA lubt nix works for watering knd. Tlicso 
are trie Bcviin canal on the Visirn, the Yerta conalit on the Yorlo, 
the tJondoli canal on the Man, the MAj-ni reservoir on tho Vdng. the 
Chikhli canal on the Niiivliii, and the Kmhnacooal on the Krishna. 
Of Uiew six works the ItovAri canal isan old work i-estorcd, and tho 
other five are new works. Of the six workn the Kriidma canal 
which has its source in the Suln-Ailris. has an unfailing supply of 
water, while the Rcvitri, Yerla, Oondoli, M4yni, and Chikhli water 
works chiefly depend on tho local raiufall. 

TlieRevAri Canal lica on tho ViiMna & feeder of thi; Krislina in 
Koregoou. llie VAsna risos in the Mahd<Icv range which runs soutli- 
uaht to the borders of tlio S&tdm district, forming the watcr-tihed 
Iwtwocii the Krishna an<l the Bhinm valleys. The \ Asiui Falls into tho 
KrLihna ten uiiKvs Houth-eostof Sdtitra,a])dthehead works of the canal 
lio about eleven miles ^bovcthc meeting of thu rivers. About 1781 

- waa 
iplcted and tho canid way unfinishwi. In 151!), within a yea« 
ir the difitriut cunio undor tbi- Briti.-sh Government, the work 
was completed and the canal brought into vai*. A want of sJopo in 
^^10 dmnncl, and the cxcossivu laitallnuss of two tunnels which 
"" ivonted their being clearod, stopped Iho How of water. Aft«r 
le experience of one season tlio canal was abandoned. la \^\\ 
tho irrigation dcpartnunt undertook to restore tlio work. The 
de--sci-ndunt.'4 of Naro Appiiji gavn nji their claims on the work oil 
ooiHlition ttutl tlioy wvre allowed tliv fa-u u-t<e of water for niuo 

Chapter IT. 


Rrriri Oniiat 

tBomlia; Otnn 


Chapter IV. 

Bciiiri Vanal, 

Tfrla CaitaU. 

ncrcs of laiw!. The massive raaaiMirj- of tho ori^n»l river work 
in porfi'ct n:-pair, all that was wantcl was to renew the ctiaiincl. 
The canal b toar tnil<»t loiif; anil has a head discharge of fift«eii culiic 
f«et a second. It coitnnands 6000 acres of vrbich &340 an 
arable. A complete ttyatemof dbtrilmtaries, some of whidivxtend 
to the Krishna valley, was coiMtruct«d by tho villagers. Tha 
work camo iiito aso in I865-GC. In 1882.88, of 302'fr arable 
uuder command, 51!) acres or 14*32 per cent in tlii; iand-^s of ■*!Wi 
Kor^acm viUaaca were watered. Of the 519 watered acr<« 1< 
were for khan/ or cnrly crops and 369 for rabi or late crof 
Tbft acru water rate» were £1 16». (Rr.18> for the whole j-«ir, 8«. 
(Ha. 4) for eight months, 4*. (Its. 2) for four months, an<I 2h. (Ro. 1) 
for early dry crops. The chiof crops wat«rcd were jra'rt 122 acres, 
wheat 108 ncr«9, groundnut 21') acrvs, and ,s»ij,'ftro«nc tliirty acn;«. 
In 1882-83 along tho line of tlie canal wore 1574 tn-es. chiefly 
Inihhul, mango, and janiUui. In 1882-83 the rainfall at UevAri was 
40'50 inches, and during tbc tvn yuurs vnding 18d'2-83 it avoragod j 
29-13 inchi-s. M 

The Yerta Canals lie on the river Terla which rlsea in the Mahide^ 
range immcdiatclv east of the V^sna. and joins the Krishna sixty 
miles NOUth-cfiAt oi 8AiAe&. The head works of the canals, one on 
eadi luank of the lirer, are on a rocky barrier sixty raUe«i above the 
meeting of the Krishna and thoYcrla. Tho work was begun in 18S7 
and lini.fhi."l in 1868, It iiicli)dei« a ma-sonry weir ncros.-* tlie ri\-er, 
538 feet long and sixteen feet high, with regulatorH at each end 
Forming the headworka of the two canals which are completely 
bridged and regulated. Tliu riglit Imnk canal is nine milcx long 
and the left Yuuik canal 8i milea. Both canals have a head 
discharge of forty-two ciibic feet the second- The moniMwn supply 
in the river is trustworthy but irrcinilar, and the dry wcfttncr 
discharge generally falLs vuiy low. Unring 1876 the rulrt or oold 
weather supply totally failed. In November the river's discharge 
was only 2} cuuio feet a second, and water was stored at night and 
ran down tho canal;* during the day only. To .inppleinent the 
supply to the Terla right and left bank canals, the stor^c retwrvoir 
atlsherwas begun in 1876. chiefly as a famine roliofwork, Bnd 
completed in 1880-81 W ordinary labour. The reservoir Hos at the 
village of Nher on the Yerla river, twenty -two miles ca^t of Satiira and 
^x miles above the head works of the canals. The dam is 4-^20 ft-ut 
long and seventy -four ftct in grttatost height. Tlic lake, when full, 
coutains r>2S inillions of cubic feet, llio available capacity being 490 
millions. The drainage area above the dam site is sixty sqaar« 
miles and the reservoir is calculated to till with a run-otf of 3'51 
inches. AftiT filling the reser\'oir on the right bank a waste weir 
700 feet long and with a crest fourteen feet below the top of the 
dam proridcs f or the escape of flood waters. In 18S2-83, of tne 7159 
netarableocre;! under eommaml 749 acres or al>out tvu per cent were 
watered in the lantls of nine villages of Khat^v. Of the 7+9 
watered acres 40a were for kharif or early crops and 346 were for 
mfri or late cropft. The acre water rates were jEI 16*. (R«. 18) for 
the whole year, 80. (Rs. 4} for eight montlts, 4*. (Rs. 2) for foor 
months, and 2s. (Re. 1 ) for monsoon dry crops. The chief crops 


re«l wfrejV4i-e fifty-five acres, wheat thiiij'-ninft ticrcA, khapla 
risked wheat fifty-three acriis, groumlQUt 303 aci-t«, pejw ihirty- 
fiiiir Acrt.ti, •^mm I2t>(u-r««. <ui(I su)^rcanc nincty-thrw aaes. In 
l&82-t^ the rainfall at Khail|;uii w&m »;>h7 iDcl>i.*«. and ilurinc the 
ten yean couling 1882-^1 it aveTa«:od 27*58 inches. In 1882-83 
7.^3-7 tn-t-s were jTrowiiis along the cauol chiefly bahhul, taaiigo, 
jdtnl'hul, nimb, iu><l mvduil. 

The Oondoti Canal tien on tho river TAAn which nwA in the 
Hah&ilcv range, a mile and a half north of the village of flomloli 
anil ihrt-o niil<« ikjuUi of tlii'^ town uf Dahivadi in MAn. The canal 
wa.* Ix'^fiiii iw n n; lief work in 1867 ami ciniiplftvil in 1^72. The 
hi-jwiworks of the canal are on the site of an old ruined btindhikra 
01 iiiasoiin' weir built across a massive rocky barrier. The new 
weir is of nihWc iiia.-«oiiry 325 fiHjt lonij and twenty-four feet 
high. Tho caiial leading off on the right Ixuik is alto eiitindy 
new. The canal is cijjht milea in lengtli ajid has one main branch, 
two miled loii<;, Ii-a<ling frrtra tl><; seventh mile. The canal haa 
a hcai.i dt.schMr^'f of tvn cnbic feet of water a s«-conil. The canal 
near its heaii cro(we« two deep ravines on light wrou^hl-irvn 
&<)nt.-duct6. With Diis exception the masonry works are simple, 
consiI^titt;; of ordinary escapes. 'Hie head uf the coiiul lies near 
ibe souruu of the river, the drainage ai-ea being only i«ixty-vii;ht 
aqnuro nitlea. The supply of water is meagre, and even dunrif; 
the inooMmu is fitful and uncertain. To iiicna^^- the wat«r supply 
tho Pinjjli lake wiisdiow.-ii an<l surveyed in 1874-7''> as n storage 
Uiku. Thi! Pin^li iakt^ liutt three inilcn aliove the headworks of 
th'! <iondoli canal on a Kniall feeder of thu MAd. The work was 
begun in OctoW-r lti7C a.s a fniniue reli<.'f work and eoiiiploteii in 
April ]^7S. The lake iit funtiiN] hy an earthen data 5200 fiH't lonf{ 
with a greatest height of fifty •four feet. The full supply level is 
nin« fuet below the top of the dam, giving a greatest depth of 
storflfre of forty-fivo feet. Tin; outlet level m itixtwn foet nbovu 
the bottom of the reni-rvoir, and the available <lepth of storage \s 
twenty-nine fetrt. The escape of tJood water, after tho filling of 
th« lake, is provided fot hy a waste w<.ir 7''i0 fw^t lorig, partly dug 
ont and partly built, witli a nia.'wnry wall on the right Hank ot 
the dam. A great4%it IIikmI is calculated to rise three feet on this 
weir tluit is to nix feet below tlio top of the dam. The outlet ts 
an oval masonry* culvert witli masonry head wall connected with 
the dain by a light wniught-iron bridge. Two sluices, each two feet 
snuons «ri! j'rovid'd. closetl by iion gates. The area of the catch- 
tnent lui-sin of tlie lake is twenty -muarc miles. The average rainfall 
is e!<tutu)to<] at l.S'4y itichir.t, luid the average yearly :<iipply of 
water, taking the run-otf aa one-fourth Uie rainfall, i^ entiiualed 
at 21 + millions of cubic feet. The available capacity of (lie lako 
above the outlet level is 195 luillioDs of cnbic feet. The Pingli 
lake was opened in 1878-79, and i» to be joined to the Gondoli canal 
by a canal three miles long and couiniaoding an area of 1 100 acres 
between the Pingli lake and the Gondoli enintl. At pri'sent 
(IB83>84) tlie (Jondoli caTial is supplied by getting water liown 
Uic main stream and picking it up near tho <Jon<Joli canal by a 
small masonry weir (uid a connecting channel. In 1882-iJ3, of the 

Chapter IT- 


Watkk WesKs. 

0«i»ioll CanaL 

[Bombay OaMttea. 

Chtpter IV- 

HJOfi Coital. 

Jfdyni iMtf. 





3010 arable acres nndcr oomniand, 300 ncrcn nr li>n per cent wen 
watered in oiglit villages of M&a. Of the 300 watered acres IIS 
were for kharif or wirly crops and 1S2 for rabi or late cTop& ITio 
■cru water rates were £1 Ifln. (H», 18) for the wliolu y«.«r, 8«. 
(Us. 4) for ei^'lit monthti. 'U. (Ki. 2) for four mnntlut, aud£ir.(ReLt) 
for moiiHOoii dry crops. The cliiof watered crops wer« h'ij'ri twentj- 
Bix acn.-S, jivirt tw«iity-foiir iicrus. khfijifa or miskcd H-hcat elslity- 
Kix acrea, Kroondnut tliirty-eight acrw, j;""" tiriy-s<rven acrta, 
and sagarcanc twonty-five acres. Inl8ti2-S:) the I'ainfall at Cioodoli 
was 21-99 itio)iej<, and during tbu ten years ending IS82-S3 it 
avoraged 21'3:{ iuchea. In 1882-83 aloug tW cmnal 2234 tree* wen 
gromng chieily bdbhil and nimb. 

Tlie Sliiyiii l«kc \» on tlic Ving river a feeder of theTerla, Tlw 
iK-adwork of ilie canal ]ii.-» about isix miles abovo the moctin;; of 
tlio \'.-tiig with the Yeria and forty-Gw mileft AoutliM-jLit of 
Sat&ia. The work was begun in 18G8 and opened in 1875>7€. 
When fnll tlie lake ha-s au urea of 380 acres and nolda 190 millions 
of cubic feet of walnr. It is formed by an earthen dani 2NJ0 
foet long and fifty-seven feet in greati«l bvi^ht, and lias a ten- 
mile lon^ eiLtiiil on the left bank. The catchment area of the 
rivnr atnive the (lam U tifty-four i^junrc miles and the lake is 
ciitjmated to till with a mn'Olf of 1} inches from Uiin ari-a. The 
escape of H»jod waters is provided for by • watttc weir fiOO feet long 
ou Uku left Itaiik. Tim crest of the weir is thirteen fvct below _ 
tlie top of the dain. 'Hie lovot at which the canal tukvH ofl" wV 
thirty-one feet below the eri-st of the wa^tu weir, llie head 
dischar"u of tho canal is thirty.three cubic feet a second. In 
1882-83, of 'lt>2o arablo aci-ea under comiuaud 742 acres or alxiut 
Hixteen per cent were watered. Of the 742 watered acres 46" were 
for khari/oT early and 27.^ for rahi or late cropa. The acre watcrl 
rat«.« were £! (lis. 10) for the whole year, 8«. (Ra. 4) for eight" 
ntonthf), 4(1. (Us. 2) for four months, and 2«. (Re. I) for rain crops- 
The chief crops watered were jvari fift}'-8ix acres, lihapla Of 
lnutkod wheat lifty -eight aci-es, groimihiut 315 acres, gram eighty 
nine acres, and .'su|,;iueane seventy-five acrca. In 1882-83 the rain 
fall at Miiyiii wim 2737 inches, anddoriug the ten years cwliii 
18S2-S3 it averaged 25*1 9 inches. In 18»2*83 along the lineof tbi 
canal were itS^i biitthula and caAuarinoa. 

The Chikhli Canal lies on the riyht laink of the Nttndni, a feeder 
of the Yerla. The Nilndni rises eight miles south of the lieafl of 
the Yerla canals, anil joins tin- Vi.rla river tweiity-eij;ht mile* above 
the meeting of the Yeria and the Kri.dma. At the Mte of the canal 
head works, six niilei* above the meeting of UieNandniand the Yeria, 
the Niindni has a catdiiiicnt area of 100 square mile<t. The cftnal 
was partly raado as 8 famine relief work iu 1860-67 and was opened 
in 1870. The weir which forms tlie hcail works of the canal is of 
rubblo masonry. It .stands on the site of a lUsused toniponiry dam. 
The cjinat, which is about .-tix miles long, is conipk U-Iv bridged and 
baa a head discharge of fiftem cnbic IVrt a s<*on.l. in 18s5-S3, of 
1478, Arable aere« under command 217 acres or llliS per c^-nl_ 
were watenid in the lands .of fonr KhinApur villages. Of i 




217 wntvrcil acn-.'s, 173 wore for kfutri/ or early ci-ops and tJiii-ty. 
eij^ht fur ra'it ur li*U' crop«. Thw acre water rates were 11 llwi. 
{Hit. IS) for tlio whole y<!*r, ««. (Rs. i) for cinht luonttui, 4*. 
(Ue. 2) for four months, an<i 2*. (Rv. )) for tiioiiHuoii tiry crops, 
Th« cliicf crops watca-d wert- khapla and nila eocli Hixtvun 
acrt'-s groundnut 132 acn-n, sa^rctitK; <-t<{tit seres, and chillies 
twtiiity-twoftcre* In lti«2-83 tli.; niinfal! at Cliikhli was titiSS 
iiiit\p_s, and duriuj; tht ceii yi-am uudiii^ lSS2-'-3 il avi;rtt{;«d 
■Jo o:; inches. In iSSii-SS along the line of the canal wei-e 2t>2-i 
tri»--i chiefly UihkuU aud niangocji. 

Thit Canal lies nn the left iNink of th<^ Krislina, ond 

I bta*id<'.-< in certain village?* of the Pant I'ratinidhi an<l Siiiigii .states, 

^fcst«:rs land in the aiiVdix-isions of Kar^l, VAIva, an<i T^agaon. 

^Un]UHt the whole watvn.-'l area lies Wtwccn the canal and tlie river. 

TTic livwlworka iiu on th« Krixhnu oppiwitw ihc villiij^c of Khotlsi, 

kbout two uiilei above the town of Korid at the meeting of th« 

ri^na with the Eoyns. The total drainage area of the Kriahna 

tho situ of tliu headworkfi Ls 1 247 stjnarc miles. The supply 

throu^hont th« year. Although it ia ahnndont dnriii" tjio 

_init it ttiWs to a coniparativeiv scanty strean] during the hoi 

Feather, and the (li.schar^c has neeu registered as low as tweuty- 

foar cnliiti feet the »coi>tid. To rvineily thi« scanty supply a ndiemo 

in unil«r con.'iiduratiiHi pTopofiing to make a i<torage lake on a feeder 

of the Krishna. The Krijinna canal workfi were sanctioned in 1863 

and opened in ISC8. Tliey consist of a weir across the river at 

Khodsi with a canal taken ofl' on the left liank thirty-live niil«!t 

long, ooinpletelv hriilged and regulated. 'I1ic weir in of rnhhle 

maaonry 1200 feet long and twenty-one feet in greatest height, 

narrowing fi-oni nineteen feet nt the base t^) eight fi-et at the crest. 

: Weir htLs ft lualter of one in six on the down ntrxuim Hide. A. 

Jl Hubsidior}' weir below forms a pond to break the force of the 

klling water. To store the water brought by slight f ri-shes provi- 

is made for rat^iug a teioi>orury eartlien dam on the cre^t of 

i>u weir. Uii the ri^ht tmnk 'ia a win^ wall with an embankment 

l>ove. and escapes are formed at botli flanks to aid the closing of 

be earthen datn. The weir is continuiHt by a curvwl wall tip 

the regidator which is thi-owii well l»ack from the river hank. 

In thi« wall are four .scmii-iiig sluices, one of which lies dose to tlio 

regulator. The regulator is a simple block of masonry with 

nine iindor-sluicea having thirty-four feet of waterway, llieaa 

sr« cIomhI by plunks, working in grooves, and i-oi'UMl andlowere-l by 

ACrcwa worked from the platform above. 'ITjoir sills are fixed no that, 

necessary, the head of tlie cunni may Ije ileepened. The canal 

_ thirty-hve miles long with a Wttorn widtli at head of eleven 

fei-t rtiidside .ilopi^ in noi! of 1 J to one, ami a bod fidl of one foot 

in the mile. Further down the hizs and slope of the canal slightly 

changes. 'Ilie Iwi! fall remains one foot a mile for the first tnirty 

liles and for (lie reuiainiiig three is increased to one foot and a 

DUrtitr. The Imttoni bri-a<hb remains at eleven feet for the first 

Iteen miles, narrows to ten feet between llio (ifteeiilh and (he 

Keutit^th mile, to nine feet Itelween the twentieth and twenty -fifth 

Je, to eight feet bvtwccu the twcuty.lifih and thirtJetJi miW. 


C3iapt«r ivi 


IV4TU Waui 

CUtUi Canab 


Chapter IT. 

Watkb WoKK», 
Kritltna CtiuU. 

Mhattad Lakt. 

ttioA to six feet between the thirtieth aikI thirty'tMrd mile. Crms 

draina^ is sucure'l by eleven anuedueta, forty-two culverts, and 

twi-iity-tiiToe escapes, and communicatioa is provideil liy fonrieea 

bridgen &nd twelve paved crossinss. The pavements of the ctobs- 

ings, which at were above th« b«d level nud caused the caaal 

to silt, were lowered in 1877. Except at Uio lie-ad thurv nru no 

luaMinry regnlators, Bofore 1871 uiHtributing channeU vera 

made by tho laitdholdertt, the supply being through carthcnvp-anj 

drun pipe» laid under the erabanKiDont aad clo.<)od by plu^ laiA 

niud. In 1872 a complete syatc-m of fifty -four liUiribuling channels 

wa« najictioned at an <.-»tiuiuU.'d cost of £,Vl'6\ (Ba, 12,ai0), With a 

depU) of four fct-t of water tlw canal was estimated to disclmrge 

140 cubic feet a secomi with a velocity of 2-1 , but o-sing Bazin's 

foriiiula, the mean velocity at head would be only \WA foot and 

the discharge H>4 cubic feet tho second. Beaidea watering laiid 

this canal supplies Uio town of KarAil with water by a 8ix*iiich 

ca-st-iruii pipu laid across tho Krishna in the form of an invertc-d 

sypJion, anil ending in a re--SLT\'oir on the opposite bank. From this 

rtsonoir the wak-r is disLiilnited throu;;ti the town by ejurthcn- 

ware pipiis with dipping well« at interval:*. The cost of this work 

wftH Iwriie by the Kanld municipality, who also pay for wat*r at 

the rate for perennial croiw, the yuarly payment bemg about £22 

(Rs.di20) on an vnlimateii ilaily consiittiption of Gti.UOO gallons. 

In 1882-33, of the 25,5l!3 aralJle acres under command ."^23 or 

about eleven per cent were watered in the landit of thirty-one \-il- 

l^es of KarAd, VAlva, and TiLtgaon. Of Uie 3033 watered acres, 

liOS were for khniif or early crops and 152.*> for rafci or lalv crop». 

The acre water rates were £1 16». (Rs. 18} for Um whole year, 8«. 

(Ra. 4) for eight month.-«, 4^. (lU 2) for four months, and Z«. (Itc. 1) 

for monsoon <hv crops. The chief ci-op» watered were ricw 109 

acrca, ivari eignty-six acres, khapla or butOctnl wlteat 174 acres, 

groundnut 1337 acres, sugarcane 1050 aeres, chillies eightv-two 

and tobacco forty-one acre^. In 1862-83 the rainfall at Gon< 
■ - - - - |g^2_. 

hinijan, and 78G0 saplings, chietly bdbhul, mango, jdmbhul, Ijttuil 
ntvib, and karanj. 

Besides these six works, all of which are in use, the Mhd 
Lake in being built as a semrate water work on the lower Man. 
Mhasvad lake scheme had been under investigittioii forsevcral year 
but the work was not begun till the I87S famine. It ineludeit i| 
large lake on the river JlAii in the Miiii sub-division, with a high 
level cuiial lemling thirteen miles and con nuan ding the area VK-twecn 
tho M&i and the Bhima, including tiftv-six %-illages of Paiidliarpor 
and SAngola in SholApur with a totaf area of ^52,402 acres or 394 
square miles. The lake, which has a catcliment area of 480 square 
nniej* and a full supply depth of sixty-sevim fi.?et i.« fonne^J by on 
cartlion dam 9000 feet long and with a greatest height of eight] 
feet, Tlie injwonry wasU- wi-ir lor the e-scapo of floo£ is SOOO fe 
long. The lake covers an area of 4014 ocn'-s or six »|uaro mik 
aDtTcaii bold 258o uiilUvUi of cubic feet of water. Thv canal whic 




diitrilititcs the wntcr is scvciiUvn miles long nn<I with numorous 
bmiKJi wmal-H, niiis down tho wat«r'<ihi.-d from the point ut which 
lh<- hi^h level canal nasseH Uirousli the water-abed. In an av«r^^ 
V'ar the water-supply would »timc« for on area of 30,l)0l> acres. The 
work may hv said to' pn>tect an area of 90.000 acrtut onv-tlurd of 
wliicli may W watered every year.' The oonntry under coinmand 
of thU canal stands in ^at nt-ed of wat«r as its rainfall is very 
nnc^rtain. The tstiimitcl cwt is £147,li23 10«.<Ki<. 14.76jlt35) and 
the total exp<;nis.y< to the end of 1882-8:* are £73,0 i8 [Ka. 7.36.480). 

BcMidviN at Kariid where wst«r is gupplied from the Krishna canal, 
two r^f«r%'oirH, at 8atitra and Isliimpiir, supply the towns with drink- 
ing water. The work.-* imw in hand for improving the w a dir -supply 
of SiitAra town are a storage lake at Ka.<^, and a canal to bring the 
wau-i- of U»e lake into the old conduit at Yasieshvar about two 
miles west of the town. The lake ix on the Urmodi river about a 
mile and a half from iti ttnurce close to the villaire of Kus in Jilvli 
tttvl thirt^'jun uiilcrt in a straight line west by north of S^lAra. 'Hie 
catchment ar«a of the lake is oulv 2] »<)uaro miles but as the 
averajfo yearly rainfall is ITi? iiidu-.s tlio supply is anmlo 
and ecrtMn. Tho dam, which is of eai-th with n puddle 
tnnch below, is 714 feet long ami 6t>'4! feet at the highest point. 
The widtli of the top is t«n feet and it has u slope of three to one 
OD the n-atvr side and of two to one on the other side. The lako's 
fnll .■<iip{>ly level Li S671'04 feet above mean »ea level, and the 
lop of the dam is 15-9 feet higher. Tlio water face of tho dam is 
pitched with stone, tltc thicknc-M incrvu.'<ing gntdmilty from lux 
inelu^ at the )<oltom to nine inches at the top. When full tho 
lake covers! 137 aeres and holiis 7;i,737,00O cubic feet of water. A« 
the contents of the lake uIjovc the level of the outlet sluice are 
60,740,000 cubic feetaml the los* by evaporation is o^imated at 
15,:ilO,000 cubic fex>t, the av^lable storage is 45,430,000 cubic feet. 
ITif water is drawn from the lake by a regidating sluice, consisting 
of a culvert through the dam, having a tower at one cud and a dis- 
charging Tui-sin at the oth.-r. The tower can-ies on it« fact! o two 
fvvt stjuai'e .sluioe gate, which ts raised and lowered by a cajKstan 
worked at the top of tlio tower. Tho grcatojst discharge from 
tho sluice is eighty cubic feet tho scconiL Tho wa.ttc weir, widch 
l-« >ixty feot long, is cut out of the solid rock on the left bonk of 
tlie river. The highe&t flood level is SO feet above the crest of 
the weir. This is estimated to give a discharge of S400 cubic 
fwl a second. e<jURl to a ron-olf of three inches an hour 
from the calcliment aif^ of the take. The canal which in taken 
otT from the left bank of the river, is carried uudcr the waste 
weir chotinel which crosses it by an over-pii--«ftge. The hcii fall 
of the canal Lt four feet n mile, and tho ruling »<ection is 1} feet 
bottom width, side slopes 1} to one, top of bunks three foet wide 
anil three feet alwve canal bed, and depth of water IJ. In ib 
k'Hgth of about li>t miles tho canal ha^ over 200 crowi <Irainage 
works, inclu<ling furty aqueducts, seven ty-»c veil culverts, fifty over-passages, thi-ee inverted nyphonft, oonitixttng of irou 

V public VVoifca Dujjartmcat Aduiiiuttratiuo Rvpurt bf 1870-77. 

Chapter 17. 



Cb»pt«r IV- 







pipus twelve to fiFt«eQ ioches in diameter for crossing targe atrcata'i, 
ami ilii-e(> aqueducts or wator-le&ds fonned of an iron trougli support- 
ed on beams and masonry piers. At tJiG end of the fuumi uiiIl- the 
cunal is tukeu to a luwiir tcrracv, lint ninniiig down » .otrvftin till 
it i.t pioktrd up liy a masonrj' weir ami diHcbarged doirii a zi^^ag 
moaonry channel into an inlet chamber below. The total fall at 
tliis place ia ^H feet In the sixth and ninth milett the canal 
pa:t»es tlirough tlinrw ciosetl niastitiiy channels 3J feet wide am) 
2i ft-ot high of a length of SOU feet GOO feet and 325 feet In 
the ninth and tenth miles, where the hill ade is exceedingly st«ep 
and difHciiU, the canal for 3400 fckt will be carried paiUy in euilmnk- 
niunto supporteil by dry .itone retaining walls and partly by an inm 
trough aupported by bt'ams renting on niaAoiirv piers. The ertim, 
ed cost of the whole works is £a6.yia 8«. iRa. 3,(J9,I64). Up 
1883.84 £10,354 6«. (R«!. 1.03,M3) were spent ou the lake uid head 
works an<l thi.t part of the work in practically complete. The cati- 
mated co«it of the canal is £2C,098 4*. (Ra. tfiOfiSi). Except about 
tlirco miles, the channel is nearly finisliod. Most of the masonry 
drainage works arc r<^y, but the special iron syphon pipes and iron 
tnfbgki anil Homc of thi; clnseil ebaniicl rtiniain to be done, llio 
work will be nearly finished bufore July 1884. 

Tlic Isliimpur Lake, which b a mile south of the town of 
IsUiiipur, IK fur the watcr-supplv of Isl&mpur in the Valva sub- 
divbioii. The work!<, wliich iiicliide a storage lake and a clianm-l, 
wore begun as a famine relief work in 1S7C and tiniahed in 1879.4 
Tlie lake, which is able to hold twcnty-6ve millions of cubic fcei 
of wiiti.!r, is foniK'd l>y an earthen dam 2892 feet lonj; uml thirty- 
one feel in greateiit height Tlie ari^n of the catchment l<a.'<in Ia 2( 
square miles. The escape of floocta is provided by a waste weir 200 
feet long. The water is carried to the town along an open chaunet. 
No distribution is proviile^l, the main intention Iwing to keep t^e 
exifiting leservoir and wells in the town well supplied. The 
eattmated cost was X i3S8 10s. (Ha. 4;J,885) and the expenditure wm 
£6686 (Ra. 66,860). 

Boddea these large water works, suIvdiviiiicHia] returns show 5990 
welts with steps, 15,!)79 wellit withoutstep«t, seventy-two jmH-u or 
permanent and 2427 kachfha or temporary dams, lOlta dhekuris or 
water-lifts, 157 ponds and reservoirs, scventci'n canals. And S3H 
atreoms and springs. The cost of building wolLt varies greatly in 
different parts of the <1i.-<triet. They art? of everv descri^on from 
lioli's sunk in the rock or soil to carefully buift wells faced with 
stone : comparatively few arc lined with brick. In mi/rumor bi-oken 
trap soils wells ixniuire little building for tho suljrtoil is very Iiard 
though it is easily pierced. The broken ti-ap soil of the eastern sub* 
divisions supplies a number of cheap wells which would lie very 
etlective but for the capricious rainfall. One seasoti of good 
rainfall gives these wells a two yoai>' supply. Along tho higher 
valleys ni the SahyAdris the villages often suffer severely from wont 
of water. Tile people lack capital to sink wells iit the hard rock 
and the water near the .■«nrf»ce or in wells sunk in the softer twib 
runs ofl'dtiriiig the dry weather. 



Th« best ganlMi land prrxlucin;; 0U$;arcJim>, tiinn«ric, Ixitcl Icavos, 
T^[etablefl. ant) fruits is com^tantly iiiannied. Tho full acre allow- 

iLum of manure in tlic-w gardens is estimated at 4000 pooudB a year ; 

' tormdinary ^rden land ICiiO pouwU arc ciiongh. Xiry croplundi) 
arBgettendiyi'iirifiii-devor)- fourth yi-Arvritli 1000 )>oun<i.-< of uianurc. 
Wben both i?a[)y and late crops arc. grown, they are grown in rcit«tioo; 
when only early crops are grown there is no rule. In kvmri or 
woo)l-a.s1i tillH<^ llie f^uund is allowed to lie fallow for sis seven 
and even lw<dv« yeard.' 

In t]ie Saliyidri villaee»UierelHuiDc.h varioty of wiil. On the crest 
of the Sahyaliris the soil is nitserahly poor and scanty and i»wa.><lK-d 
away hy tin; vcurly dcluye uf over two hundred inches. Neari-r iho 
plains the land is richi-r ami hoth rioo lands and i^ardenx arc frequent. 
Ortliuaiy dr\' crop tillage m rare a^ the prevailing ityictttni is wood- 
ash or khtnri. In wood-ash or ftumrt tillage, on the tops and 
steepest f(lopu« of tbc Sah^fUliis between MarcJi and May the bruah- 
wood with the branchi^s twigit and .soinctiini-K tliu \'or)' trunks uf the 
)arg«r trees are cut down and strewn over the ground. niesK and 
ttu) graae ore set on fire and allowed to hum themselves ODt. Ueforv 
Uw raiiia bi,-gin in early June the surface ia turnei^l hy a hoe, as the 
plough ean seldom ix' navH, and the ^ivil is itown bruodcaxt in tho 
a«hc9 which to a great extent serve Iwth a-t soil and manure. AFt«r 
one cuttittg and burning tho land will bear cropping a second and in 
some casifis a tliii-d year. After two or threu j'ear*' croppinfj the land 
must lie fallow eight to twelvu yoars. A similar nvsU-ui known 
as tlie rdi sjstem is practised on the lower slopes and in the valkys. 
It Ls mni:h the same aa the practice in growing rice. A plot of land 
called larva or nursery is spread with leafy twigs, wliicli &tv cot 
and stacked lietwM-u Marcli and ^Iny. (.>vi'r the twigs, when it is 
avaiUiMc, is spread a layer of dung, tlien a layer of grass and straw, 
and la.itly some dry earth to prevent tho materials below burning 
too quickly. Thi.t whole is set tirv; to and left to I>uni generally in 
Iat4.- April and early May. In thi^ l)<;d the si^d is sown od tho flrxt 
fall uf rain in early June. After the tirst heavy fall the reat of the 
field is tiluugh«d and in July when they are four to six inches hi^h, 
the aeealing!« are planU-d from the sceil-lx-d into the fii.-Id. Unlilce 
riee seedlings, llio iwedling.s of niyi, vari, and other poor hill 
^raitu have not to be planted. They ai-e dropped at iiTegular 
interi'ala over the geld and left to take root In this way land 
may bo eropjHxl three or four years ; it thou wants a four or five 
}'ean' rest I'liw best kumri landt* can ha cropped every second 
year or in some places even every yeai-. Between the fields which 
can Us every year and tho oare liill tops are laiulti of every 
variety of soil. Only the coarsest crops itrc grown in woodash 
or htmri lands, narhui or niiffli Eleuinine corocana. «iiua Panicum 
nitliaceum, MUi a variety of ndchm, vari Panieuin luiltare, ami 
tj/ii Pauicuin italicom. 

In liS8I-82 of IS.iS.CSit acres held for tiltuge. 278,004 or 20-2 
'Cent were fallow or uudcr grass. Of tho re ma i nin g !, 100,055 

1 BridcnM eoU«ct«d hy Ut« Fainiiia ContmiMiim, 3<\ 

Chapter IT., 




IBombay Oaietteet,] 

Chapter IV. 



ftcrpa 86,955 were twice cropped. Ot the 1,137,010 acres tinder til 
gi-ain cropH occupied SO 1 ,622 ncrvs or 78" 42 per cent, of which 
weri! uiiiftr fpikcit milli-t hiijri FeuicUlHriji ^^picitUt, 32l,:30i> iirnlci 
In-Huii iiiillvt jT'iri Sorghum viilgare, i&.Oi" irndt-r nhji or riI'tJIn 
Eit;uAiiie corocana, 3i,72o under whent gahu Triticum aisti 
23,7;t!) under chciiiin vitm Panicuin tniliacoum, 18,984 under 
hMt Oryxa Kfttivn, 11,458 under Italian millet rdla or UA 
Ponicum italicum, !)i]50 ntuler maize vnikla Ze& luajH, 131 
under barlcyjau Ilordeura hexasticlion, 67 under kwlni or hari 
Pn.'ipaluui scrohicuhitiini, and 35,373 iindcr otlur ^uins of which 
detail.-* ar<: iiol given. Piilses occupitKl 15ii,j2d acn.-* or 13 77 per 
cent, of which 44,2!)6 were under gram harUtara t'icer anc'tinum, 
Sl,322 under fur Cujanus iudicus, £7.o[4 under kulilkor kiiUhi 
Doliehui* hitloruH, 9703 under uilid Phtueulus radiutus, S-IDl 
under nvag Pha.<ieo1u» mui^o, 539 under p^-jts r^dtixnti PiMim 
sativum, 178 under masur En-nm lens, and 39,576 under other 
pulses. Oilsecda occupied -13,865 ocrui or 386 per cent, of which 
ISSl weitt under gingelly seed til Si-Hauinm indicum, 860 uudvr 
linseed al'ihi Linum U!utatis.simum, and 41,151 under oU;er 
oitleetls. Fibres occupied 14,161 acres or |-24 per cent, of which 
10,591 were under cotton h'tjui* Gotstj^tium herhaoeuui, 2152 under _ 
Uontliay heinn ^an or Uifi Crotalaria juncea, 985 under l>n>wn lieninB 
avibAdi Hibiscus cannabinus, and 433 un<ler other fibres. MiJiceU " 
laneous crops occupied 30.833 acres or 271 per cent, of which 9151 
wore uiidur chiilien inWi-fd C-iipsicuin fmtescenjs 8336 untler siiitar- 
cane us Sacchiirutii olHcinarum, l)G.'>8 under (oliaceo liimfiiUiiu, 
Nicotiana tabacnm,367 under hemp ^diy'o Cannabis »atjva, 20 under 
uafllower ^usii7?t{i(t or ^'roi^df' Cartnamustinctorius, five under oolfeo. 
Coth-e orabica, and the remaining 6296 under vurioun vcgu tablc« 

ps: 1 

The following arc the chief details of the more important crops: 

Spiked Millvt,t'c</n',Pcnicillaria spicata, with in] 881 •82atiUi^ar«a 
of 389,636 acnw, is a finer gniin than jirfjY and requires more careful j 
treatment and the help of watt-r or itianun.-. It is cuninioniy CTOwn'fl 
in shallow black or light gravelly soila Itis sown iu.luue orJuTy ajvl 
harvoNtcd in October orearlyNovi-mber. Other gi'ains are often sown 
with biiji-i the usual praportionx in a uiixe<l ct<)p being thirty -two 
parts ot" b'ijri to one of I'dla. four of mitUt, two 01 avtbiiiti, one of lit, 
and four of Iiit. Them crops ripon in the order named from mid. 
October to mid-February, liajri is chiefly used as a bread grain, ■ 
thnngh it is sometimes made into hihi or parched millet. The sialk^ ■ 
called saitniid. are given to cattle, but are con-sidcn-d infL-rior to 
almost all other fodder unlets trodden to pieces and mUed with chaff. 
Tile grren ears ai-o parched and eaten under the name oilivAur. 
Two to 2i pounds of b'ljn including the puW« which ai-e geniTwIly 
mixed with it arc uBually sown to the acre, 'llti? better the soil the i 
IvKK the seed. Thu averago awe yield of unwaterod Id^ri is about j 
SUO pouoda. 

Indian Millet, ^'viW, Soi^hum vnlgarr;, with in 1881-82 a Uiln 
urea of 321,305 acres, is the staple grain of the t/«*A or open count] _ 
Jvdri is thti ooly cereal whonv straw is used us fodder in its uatui^l 



«tftti'. Tn tho moist WMt the »torc« of jviiri tttalk^ iiro tttackoil nn<l 

thfttoho(!, in the dry i-ii_st tliL-y FLntHtowetl in long aiave-Iike rKlyi-,i 

and c'ovci-cd with clods of Mock Roil. Th« straw ot allothvr cen-ala 

anil of nil pul>40H is trodden into piectf8 mixed wiUi cIihIT, nnd Ntowi-d in 

large baakebt undur the naiiiu ui bkuskut Five chief kinds ofjivir-i 

grown in SdULra, (Jtu/AnwMTi-a, kdlhoittli, fkiilH, Uiinhail, and 

mioMt oxavfftfii. OCtbeae kdthontti and utavli arot^ftrly nr khurif, 

dmUivwffra, n/idiu, atul tdmhinl arc lato ov rtibi cropii. >'A^/h tho. 

most GstocnitH] variety \» grown in hli»ck m>\U Kt-ldoin with water 

or manure. It is aawn between inid-Aiu^ttt and mid-Oclolmr mid 

harN-eatod botwiL-n niid-Juiitiary and nnd-Fobraary, The grain Ih 

white, the Mtulk Ls thin, Uirui! to five feet hij^h, and ban 

nmrh Nweet juica It is tho chief Mtaplo ol' the riche.'it Kri.shiia 

valley black aoil. Its grain is conaidi'n^i tho sweeteiit anil best iif 

all the varictieii Thv ittalk ^ve-s itonrt-shtiig though rather coarso 

foilder. UtinH or argmii is u>inullv grown without water and 

fjrciioralty without manure in tdinllow black and light Aoila. It in 

fiown in June or July ami in harvetHei) in Novcuibcr. The stalk 

grows soniotiinoa ton feet high, and tho hetul in KmoJI. Utarii is 

also sown in wattjroil larnl in April. If hot weather utmU ia gi-o^^i 

■tor grain, it la calh'il hniuU and niieii-s in Juno or July ; if it 

is grown for fodder it is calleil hulixtf, Is Mown hi-ondca-nt utid very 

thick, and !» cut l»cfoii! th« hejui l>egins to show. KAHimdi 

-that is black-huHkod, is grown without wati-r nr ninimre. It !» sown 

ill Jiiiifl or July and harvested in Noveiuher. The .nteni in nix to 

«ight feet high antl thv hMul large, DmlhvuMjra ur milky, is Hown 

ntixed or in alturnattt furrowa with sfidlu. from miil-Augu.'^t to niiil- 

^October and har^'eated wiUi it between mid-Januaj-y and niiil- 

Tehi-uary. Tho grain is very full and milky mid is muvlu-steemoil 

-when mailo into liUii. The stalk is a poor foilder being straight 

aiiil hard. Its thin feathery heati gives binls no foothold and .-iaveH 

it from their nttnek!^. Tlie stem of the dark-husked tliulfivwrjru ia 

«ometiines n.^ a weaver's hand-roil. Tiimhifl or red jviiri, ia 

f[onerally gi-own in light soils without water or manure. It is sown 
letwuen uirly-Augiwt and (.■arly -October ami ia reaped in Jamiary. 
The grain is hanl and the stalk which ia thrive or fnur feet hi^^h is 
(>oor foildur. Besides those five kinds oi jedri, the staple emp of 
miiddle elaHS soils in the southern Krishmi ami Yerlft valloya is calli-d 
tiukfiri. It is very largo grained and coarse. In the black soil 
of Villva and TAsgaon it often grows as high a? Hixtwn feet. It id 
reaped in Dcceudier or early January* and w sometimes sown in 
rotation with sAii/u, Dukhri an<l ithMii. give coarse foddor. 'llio 
IocaI names given to ji-4ri in ita dtflurent stofiea are: the aev*! 
jtnulkiUa jvAri, the plant Iwforc tho head fornii!i kadtyid, the perfect 
plant f)»(uA', and the ripe stalk jtnrfbo. Jvcfri plants t^win^witli 
hiiji'l and fur are also eaiXoA kadvcd. Ji'drv is chiefly in use asa 
bread grain ; but Lt ab<o eaten parched \n Uihi. The unripe heads, 
parched and called kur<l», are a favourite food with the lalH>uring 
classes. (/(f(Wi and kdHmuU the eai-Iy or XA-uv/ varieties require 
eight to ten noumis of aenl to tho aero, ilio l<ctter the soil tho lesa 
the seed ; dtufkniogru, shiUit, and Idmhtut tho late or rabi varieties 
do not reijuiro more titan four to tivc pounds of sv«d tlio acre. . 
e 1363-31 



[Bombo; Quutt 

Chftpter IV- 





lUigi or Kaeltm, Elvuunc coroeuoa, vrith in 1SS1-8S a tillaffc 
ot 4o,'>o7 avreH, ia grown iiometiHii» in wci lanil^ liy [ilmititi;; Uki 
rice aiiii HomeUmes both in marahy and high-lying laiids ia Aom 
by the drill. It is sown in June and ripens in October or fiovcmher. 
It wants inoiKture but does not require eilli«r a deep or a ricli soil. 
The straw, broken and mixed with chaft^ is used for fodder. Tli* 
green heads arc purchuLl and eaten, and likoyi^n' heads are called 
hunlit. T\k- dry grain is uatxl for bniod. 'lliouyh it is j^enerallv 
believed that michni taf&r leas nutritive than l^'ijri or jmri, thetdll 
people assert that ODO ndchni cake is worth thn;e ofjvdri. 

Wh«Bt, gahu, Triticum lexttvum, with in 1881-82 a tilla^ area 
31,7S5 acre«, is gi-own all over the district as a cfild-weathcp ero] 
being sown in October and November and reaped in February an _ 
March. It requires a moUtcr climate than jvari. It is gt?nerallr 
f^wn as a dry crop, but much watered wheat is also raisr-d in all 
naiis of the district Two kinds of wheat are grown, fco/wAi and 
khapta. Bahstii which is usually watered and manured, is sows in 
rich black sail in October or November and reaped in February or 
&(arcb. It is the finest variety of wheat, but from its want of 
hardiness is not much grown. The aUitn is longer, sometimes five 
(cot high, and the gi-ain is lai'jjer than in other vaiictit-K, and thi 
beanl when ripe is tipped with black. The straw when brok 
and mixed wttli elmtl" i>< used fts fiKlder. Kkapta aiao called ji 
or husked wlieat, always watered and manured, is sown in gw 
black soil in November ami is reaped in March. Its hardineaa 
makes this the favourite (garden wtivui It is culled tcfuipla because 
tlie ^ain cannot txi si^parated from tJie busk without pounding. 
The liroken straw is givou to cattle as fodder. Wheat is chiefly a 
rich man's graiti, as except on feast-days it is seldom eaten by the 
poor twcausf! clarified butter is always taken with it^ Tlie Hi>nr t 
much used in pastry and sweetmeats. From 2i to SJ poumLs 
wheat are sown to the acre, the better the soil the lass tlio seed. 

iSaivt, Panicuni miltaccum.with in 1S81-82 a tillage an-a of 23,7< 
acTc» is gi-own without water or manure in light red (toils and on 
hill sides. The grain needs pourxling tu sci>arnto it from the huak. 
It is mostly eatun ^>oiled like rice and is tteldoni made into Wcad. "nie 
straw us not used as fodder. 

Rice, bh(it, Oryza .sativa, with in 1881 -82 a tillage area of 18,9: 
acres, Li one of the chief products of J&vli and Fdttui and parta i 
S&t&ra and WAi. Many vjirictics of rice are jjrown. An inferior 
variety is sown to a Uinituil extent under irrigation. The Ix-Uvr 
kinds are .sown in a bed manured with hunit cowdung or wood* 
ashe^. The seed is sown after the first rainfall in June, the field la 
ploughed as soon as the earth 18 soaked, and in July the seedtingJ 
are plantt.'d, and the crop is ready for cutting in Octolfcr or Novam^ 
ber. Tlie poorer sort* o.r« generally sown broadcast, or by drill in 
poor rice-Gelds or on high jrround in June aud ripen in Septerohei: 
A poor rice known as dinika is grown undtr irrigation chieUy 

the Wii, JAvli, S^tdra, Pdtuii, KarAd, and \'ilva sub-ili visional 
being sown in June and reaped in Septuuibur. Itice requir 
pouudiog to separate the gram from Ibe husk. The grain of 





sorts is cliiefly nsed by the richer classes anil on m&rrisgc 

otiMH' (cstivv occasioas br (be poor. It i» chiutly etitcn Ixiiled ; 

rfery liUK' U mailo into bread. The straw when broken and mixed 

wiui dtatf U used as fodder. 

It«UaD Jlillct, r/Ua, I^nicoro italienm, in 1881-83 covered 14.458 

Ss. It is crown witbont wateror manare tn sballow black or Vight 
1, nsoalfy in the same field as bdjri. It i^ sown in June and 
as in October. Tb<t grain is iwpnrated from tlic bask by pounding 
an<t i.t Imited and eat«u wbole. The stalk is vuvai tm folder and as 

Maize. ■nKiifia, Zea raays, in 1881-82 co%-ercd fl959 acres. It ia 

>wii ill black soil withont water. It i» sown in June and rip<-na 

Aagast} OB a watered crop it may be grown at any seamn. Tbc 

ere nsoally fatc-ii <fruvn and arc kuonm as Umtta. The ripe 

b* also made into l6Ki and ground to Hour for variouit purponco. 

atalk i^ a rer)' coarse fodder. 

Barley. «Uu or jav. Hordoom bcxasticbon, with in 1881<S2 ft 

tillage area of 1319 aeri--s, is grown in black soil. It is sown in 

NovomVt-r ami reaped in February. Barley is used chiefly in ninkisg 

adtuehe-'pith or barley-flour. For this the grain is parcbwl, ground, 

{mixcl with p-ani and wheat flour and flavoured with seeds. When 

(tfttvn it ia u.sually moifit«ned and rolled into little dough balls. The 

igraiu also ia use^ in certain religious ceremonies, 

I Oram, karhhara, Cicor arietinum, of several kinds and colours 

'with in 1881-62 a Ull««o ana of -14,296 acn^^^ i-t much grown. It 

is grown in good blacK aoU usually without manure as a dr^' crop 

and sometimes with manure and water. It is sown in NovemWr and 

cut in February. Tin- grain is eaUm green as a vegvtabU^ and eiUier 

boiled or parc)ied when it ia called havla; when ripe it is split 

into ddl and eaten boiled or parched in a variety of viayn ; tho 

ripe firrain is given to hot«cs, and tho dry stalkH arc good fodder. 

j Rgeon Pea, tur, Oajanna indieus, with in 1881-82 a tillage orea 

\ of 31,322 acres, is grown generally in shallow and sometimes in 

idflep black soil. It is M>;^'n without nater or manure in 

■ alternate linwi in the .same field with early crops in June but i» not 

harvi-atod till January or Febroarj-. During the eight months it 

ia on the ground, tur is said to flower and seed eight times, all the 

{kkU remaining on the plant till harvest. It is a pert-nnial plant but 

ts never allowSi to stand in the field after the first year. Tttria one 

of Uio most largely grown pulses in tho district. The green pods are 

' eaten att a vtgi-table ; tint i-ipi- pulse iri nplit and eaU-n in a variety of 

, wayK. both parched ami boiled ; the leaver and putl-shelbi are excellent 

fodder. Tno stem ia used for wattling iuiu.'H'. wall.-* and roofs, and 

for making l)a.sket44 and brooms. Tar charcoal known as doll that is 

ddl bosh charcoal, has long been valued for making gunpowder. 

I KvXthi or Hulga, Dolichoe biflorus, with in 1881-82 a tillago 

!area of £7,514 ucrvK, is grown in .sluillow light soils without water or 

• manure. It is gi>nerally Bown in June with bdjri in separate rows, 

and ripens in November. The pul-te is either .split and eaten as <UU 

or boiled whole, and is used in Houps an<l porridge. It is given to 

boiled. Tlie loaves and stalk arc goml fodder. 

Oupter 11 







[Bombay I 

Chftpt«r IV- 




ainjfUy Srfil. 




Uili'ly Pliadcoltis radiatus, in 1S81-82 covered 0703 acres. It 
(^rou'ii liku muij in ricti tioils when a Kvcood crop i.t to folk 
without water or mannre. It U fnxiuentlv sown with Imri or 
arga/U in June and ripens in September. Tnu ripo (^in is black. 
Tim •Itil or .fplit \nilni- oF uili-l is the most e«tecitmil of all pul.-u.-*. It 
m parchod and gi-oun<i Ut nmko xpioe bolln, and is the chief (>Ieni(mt 
in tho wafer biscuits calkvl julpad. The green pods ari^ occasionally 
vmtl Hit a vi>^i!tublu, oud the ntolks and lt«vca are good fodder. 

Mttg, Pbaseolus mango, in 1881-82 covered 3401 acres. It 
crown by itself without water or inantire, in slialtow black 
li^rht ((tony soil.s, and often us a Hrst crop on rich land in whicli 
kiratt or double-crop »j-»iti^tii i« to l»e fofbwod. It is sown in Juni 
and Imrvustivl in S('pteml>or. Tho ^-een poiU arovatca aKa rc^italile. 
Tho npu pulniii in vntvi\ Ituiled whulv and Hplit and uacd as ddl. It 
ut parcneu, groun<l to Hnur, and tnmlo into spice balls. It is also 
niailc into porridr;e, and in tiuios of scarcity into breail. The Icflvc* 
and tttalkn ari» ^^ood fiMldor. Mngi, a vai-iitty of muy, ia mwn in 
June >vith biijrl or arfjitdi. and rijijifd in November. iftMi dilTers 
fr^oin mug by its tendency to creep, by talking loiif^r to rijien, and 
by having a flniall blackish pea instead of a <lark-gn:^en pea. M 

I'cas, tNidiHo, Pisum sativum, with in 1881-83 a tiling area of 539'" 
acre*, are (^rown in iaoi«t ground wiUioul manure or water. Thej 
are sown in OctoU'r or Novemlnir and take fonr months and a ha 
to ripen. Tlie flcwi is caton green as a vcEfi'taUc, and when ripe i^ 
.^plit into lUH and eaten iu various ways. The leaver and Ktalk.i 
good foJdvr. 

M'ttki or Math, PhaseoliiR aconitifolius, vt grown in shallow 
black or Iitj;ht stony soils without wat<r or manuro. it is almost 
always sown mixed with hijri in .June and harvested in November. 
Till- pulwe It srilit and eaten as d'U in diffei-c-nt ways. It is ground to 
dour and used with the lluur of other grtuTis in making cakes; it a 
aWeaten pai-ched or lioih'd whole willi condiments, fhe grain id 
given to hnnnf* mi>t cattle and the stalks are good fodder. 1 

tiiiigelly tieinl, til. Swtiiuuui iudicum, in 1881-82 covered 185-t 
bcrivt. It is of two varietien, porr* or white til also called havri, and 
ittilaot blitck /t7. The two varieties are apparently the same i-xw-ptin 
colour; but from its pleasaiiter nppearuiice in .swiKstmeats, tho whil« 
roiiiiniiiidis a higher price. It i.t .sown in Juno and cut in Noveml*er. 
It is usually grown without water or uianuif with hijri eitlmr iiitT(e( 
or in separate fui-inws, and is often sinvn by \\»i:M on land that " 
long lain fallow. The Hee<l is eaten in various ways, in swoetmcab 
or as a reliKb. Tho seeds yield an oil which in cookery i.'* prefer 
to all others, and the jientj or .seed cake from which oil naa 
pre«H.'d is eatea by Knntis with salt. The plant is not oaten 

Linseed, _/nf"(r or alrhi, Linum usitatissimnm, in 1881-82 covered 
860 acres. It is grown in rich black soil without water or mannre. 
It is sown in November and hai-vcsti'd in Febniai-y. It is often 
sown in grain or wheat fields in separate furrows or by it-sclf a/t a 
separate crop, Tho seeil is eaten bk n rolisli or i-Aa^nt.aud the oil U 
used in cookvry. The tibrc of the plajit is not used. 



Castor S»ii, erandi, Ricinus communis, is grown in black soil 
wilhodt water or manure. It i» sovn vitht-r in Jun« or Nuvcinbor 
wid is ImrvCiitwi in Novt-nilier or Kebmary. It is sonicUmra grown 
ronnd other cro[M, and more oft^n in patcnee by itself. It Ui not, 
much grown, and is more use) &:< * lamn-oil than as a mcdiciuc. 
"nM* fxwpli- f:ttnict th<^ oil tor homo use by boiling tlu* bmiwil ln-an 
and gtuEUDting Uie oil as it rises to tbo sui'face. By this pioce-tafoor 
pooods of t^o seed jHi-M ono pound of cnl. Tliu leaf U qsmI as 
lui application for cuiuAaworm, ami the dried root aa a Fclirifiigc. 
A large variety of the castor pluit, probably Ricinus viridia, is grown 
in f^ardvn;} round otht-r cro{xs. Exevpt thut the »tent and flowt^ 
r>f tlie large varit'ty atv grei-n and those of the 8inall variety are 
n?d, the two plants do not differ from each other. Both varieties 
ar>' pu ret) I mil and would grow to a coiiwilcrabk' siaj If they were 
allowetl to remain on the ground for a second year. 

Brown Eomp, ambdiU, Uiki&cns caanabinns, in 1881 -SS coverod Ainbdd!. 

itS^ ncrvn. It is OKUnlly grown without wutvr or manure mixed with 
luijrt in ahallnw blaek soils, ll Is mown in Jnne and harveytt^d in 
December or Januarj-. Th* voung k'aves are eat*n as a vegetable 
and hav>' uu avid tfa%'Our. Trie swjil is KOiiiftimir.s given to ctitlle, 
anil in tiiueti of scjtrvity is mixttd in bread It i.t chietly n.iixl tut 
an oilseed, and is always mixed nitb linseed amilMrtaor niger seed 
Vicfuru lliu oil is vxtraotvd. Tho bark jiuid.-! a valuable fibro 
which is wparated fi-oin the Ktalk by soaking, and is made into ropcti 
and i]scd for various field purpoeea 

Etrtlinut, Ihuinnty, Amchi« hyp(^;iea, is iLsually wat<>n!d and Bank 

manured, though in laYourable situations. If Mwn early in the 
rains it will grow without water. It ripens in five montiis, but is 
often dug iu the fourth mouth and oaten raw or pArche<l. The ripe 
not is sometimes eaten boiled with condiments, but is more 
{rie(|nently used as an oil-seed. 

Kafflowor, kanixi, CarthamiHtinctorioMs, is Inrgfly grown in black Sci^oww. 

soil ivithout water or man uni. ft i.i sown in DotoWr or Xovenilwr 
and har\'cMtc<l iu Fcbruarj' or March. It is often grown with late 
jviri or wheat, either mixed or in ni;pArate furronit and is sometimea 
grown as a separate crop. The young leaves ai-e cat<-n Uiiled as a 
vegetable, and the oil is much esteemed for cookerv. In the ea^teni 
MiWlivb'ion.t large flucka of the ])ei)ioi«ello crane feed on ^afflower. 

Niger Seeil, k4rla or kJiuniimi, Verbenjna satin's, is generally 
grown in sliallow black and light soik without water ormonun^. It 
)m sown in Juutt and harvested in Novenibcr. The Keed iitenten as a 
relish or r/iatai, but it is chiefly known for its oil, whicli is univer- 
sally used by the poorer classes in cooking. The oil-cake is much 
prii'.eil for milch catUe. 

Cotton, fcj^«, Gossypium herbaceum. in 1881-82 covered 10.591 CWWn. 

acres. It is grown without water or manure in block svil. It ia 
sown in July and ceases bearing in March. Cotton is the hair or 
wool tfiat is atUtclK^d to the neetl, and i.i gathered from the growing 
ptmits as the pods burst in tliree or four pickings. The seed 
which is known as giirlci is much pri/xd tut food for milch 
cattle. The itteuis oru tuod in inferior basket work, and 

IBomtaj Qaaettwr. 



Chapter 17. 





cattio arc f^nxed on the loaves au<] iihoots after the cotton picking j 
lit over. 

In I8<1S,* At the !iiigge«tion of the Resident the late Sir Bartle 
Frere, Mr. Vary was scut to SAtAra to introduce New Orleans and 
other varicticvs of cotton aiid to HOt up cotton giiu. In 1850-51, 
ftWat 60,0110 pounds of New Orleaiui cotton aeed were riven to 
husbandmen, and, with great exertions on the part of Mr. Vary, 
about 32U0 oo'va (-^000 fnijhtut) were planted with this itectl- 
Evcn for the local crop the season was unfavooraUe and tha 
foreign crop entirely failed. The rain was at first abundant and 
the plants looked woU until September, when, except In a fow 

Since" M-herc they had ixxn watered, they werxi di^Atroyod by 
ronght. An experinieut waa also tried in various parta with 
sugar-loaf cottouseed, Itgrew well until the middle of Si-ptcnibcr, 
whun the planb* were destroyed by drought. This species was 
not considered so hardy as the New OrIean& As the husbandmen ■ 
won) discoura^^cd liv the cxperitnentii of I6o0-ol, the cultivation ■ 
of fon-ign cotton fell to about lOSO acnta (1349 bighiio) in 18&l-&a 
anij to about 300 acres (S70 bighd*) in J832-5!J. It then ceased to 
bei^rown. Attompt<4 to intTO<luco Broach cotton proved equally 
uiiHiicci'Sjiful. In 1850-51, along with New OrloAn.^ seed, Mr. Vary 
distributed thirty-five saw gins among the husbandmen, but, 
as the gin.i cleaned the cotton of too much dirt and li^^tencd its. 
weight, tlie few huitbandnien who uKcd them in 1850-51, declined 
to use them again in 1B5I-52. 

Tobacco, tamMkktt, Nicotiana tabacum, with in 1881-82 a tilla^ 
area of G658 aere."t, in j^rown in rich light i«oiIs general [y 
with the help of manure and without water. It is sown in see>l- 
beds in August, planted during September, and cut in December, 
The plant is not allowed to llowcr. As they appear all butU. 
and branch shoota are nipped off and only eight or ten leaves _ _ 
allowed to grow. For this reason Eunuis seldom grow tobacco 
as they fear it will bring sicknt^^ on their chddrcn." The 
cultivation is carried on by Mhdrs, Miings, and other low ca-tt«9 
who give half thv gross pro<luco to the owner of Uie land. In 
preparing Uui loaf for uiarket the cultivator spn-ads it in the 
sun till it is thoroughly dry. The leaves are then sprinkled with 
wat<!r, sometimes mixed with surad grass or cow's urine, and while 
damp are tightly packeil in a pit, or stacked under weights, and 
covered for eight days during whidi fermentation wta in. When 
taken from the pitor stack, the leaves are made into bundles and are 
ready for market. Tobacco is smoked and chewed by all cla&sea. 

Sugarcane, tta, Saccharum officinaruni, with in 1681-83 a 
Ullago area of 833C ucrc», is one of the most paying of vn 



■ Cuael'i Cattun in th« Ttonibuy PnwIildDcy. 84 ■ 86. 

' T)iu KaniG fear r if tri>lin«vo vrow iu^ {jrevuln umoiig tho PhMwitr Ltngijnt hii*l)*n')B 

anil tlict diijarAt KhiiIiib. Tlie ii1«s imbik to 1w tlmt the nAivotic [K>w«r </t tiiha 

U duu tii A Kiiirit tliit livi-n in tha plant, ami thnt if any 


ona iluitixiya 

it« briDA 

the tobacco spirit uiiw» iiiigiy *'"' atlaiikii the ninn ni the fhiliirvii «( I'lin luxii nlio 
madeh homolcM. Tlii* f«M ii( tho iiiihuaBnl spirit •cem» lo he th.- fvut ol the tliuitUiat, 
Jala, ud Un^r'at t«ad«ruGU lot litt. Uouiparc DhAmAr Slatiatival Acoount, "" - 





crop*!. Very (jrcai care is taken in its growth, ani\ it thriven 
Iwfit in shijiowiiih soil. Throe kimis of nuj^rcuntt lu-o grown, white 
khadj/a, tttripetl tidnijdi/a, and black kiita or tdmbda, 'Dio grouiid 
is ploughed from corner to Conner seven or eight timet). Weeds, 
w)iic)i arc Mtrliloin fi.>uiiil in watered land, ore cniffuUy picked out 
BA the ploughing goea or. The cloiU are broken an<l levtllvd, 
and large qiuintititvt of muunre ore spread over and mixed with 
ibu earl)) cither by hand or hy a light rake Cftllcd ddta. Furrows, 
six inches deep and about ) ( feet apart, ore cut hy a deep plough, 
divided into small beds, and watered. Sugarcane cuttingn, aliout 
a foot long and thi-ue or four inchvn apart, arc dropped length- 
wise into the furrows, and pressed hy the foot well into tlio 
ground. Wlicn planted in this way Bugarcano is called ]>av!y<i 
v» or foot-pri!!(sed cane. In growing the whitL- or khadija cane, 
the cuttings ore laid in the furrows without dividing the land 
into beds, and, after levelling the furrows by a Iwaia harrow, tlie 
plantation is frucly wati;red. Sugarcane grown in this way ia 
callc't ndti'jrija u» or ploughed cane. Thi^ ndugrya or ploughed 
cane being deeper set HtontU a scanty supply of water better than 
ii\9pdvl}/n or loot-oine, and, if regularly watered, comes to greatci' 
periection, 'Vhe cuttings are planted sometiniut in Januorj' and 
Fehruarj', hut more often in March, and begin to sprout after aliout 
fifUren or twenty daj-s. Before it ij* five feet high the crop is 
twice or thrice weeded. No further cleaning ia wanted as 
weeds do not thrive under Uic sliade of grown canea. Vi>fore the 
rainn set in, when the crop In not more Hmn three foet high, except 
the white variety which wants only about half as niuch water, 
the cane rcquirw* a weekly wattling, and. si'ter the rainn, a 
watering onee every twelve or fifteen days. The crop takes full 
elevin inonthn to ripen. The sugarcane mill coruiiHtn of two Idbhul 
rollers called husband and wife or navra navri. woi'ked by iwo 
or four bulluckfi. A cane pipe joiiLt the mill to the boiling jiaii, 
which is under the charge of the owner of the cano, or of some 
other ti-uatworthy pcntou, as to choose the proper time to take Uiu 

Kn off the tire rei]uirt\« mueli knowKnlgo and care. As the lire nnist 
kept burning fiercely, bdbhul loppings are an much as possible 
nsed for fuel. Two men are required to feed the furnace, two to 
drive the bullocks and cut and nupply thu cane, one to feed Uic 
roller.^, and one to see that the juice pipe runs freely. The sugar* 
mills ace the evening rwtorfc of all the village. ITie whit« cane or 
kftti'tj/ii in very hard and coarse for eating, hut the crop requires less 
lal>out and care than the otlier kiadti of cane. It is found over 
ainioitt the whole district The cane is usually preattcd at night 
between Janiuir>' an<l March. It employe a grout number of hands. 
At the time of preosing, the ownera never refu-te cane or juico to 
any one, and crowds of begi;nra throng the fields. They even call 

t>aiMei-sd>y to tAk« wnuc of their sugarcane and juice, believing free- 
laiided gifts are rewarded by a plentiful outturn. 

In* the year 18C0 an cxpcrimcut wa» made in the cultix'atioQ o£ 

Ctiaptar : 

* Jmmal Rajal AtMit Sooiotjr. Tot. XIX. 

(Bombay QuetXeerA 



ChRptw IV. 




impfii Holclma sacchamtus or Chinese migarcane. This nbuit whic 
is j^ijwn ill EviTOpe ftx forftift-, has un mfvnntaf^c over tliH or-liiiftry 
Mil jja real ii» in the very short interval ri-Hiiunnl U-twfon Om :«jwinj{ 
anil ripening. In the casa of iraphi 100 days only are requircil. In 
SAt^nt the result of the lirst t-xperimuiit was so far satisfactory thai 
the crop reached a height of oij^ht f<^et and wm tnuch upprvuatul 
by cattle. Forty stalks made one pound of molasses. At praaCTtj^ 
(1884) no Chinusc sugarcane is grown in the district. V 

Its uncertain and scanty minfnil iiiaIccs ea.-ct<;m Siitjira one of 
tho partA of the Bombay Presidency most liable to sutTt-r from 
failure of crops, Tlvs earliest record of famine is the famous Dar)j[a 
Devi fauinv, which, beginning in 1396, ih said to have losu-"! twelve 
y<.-urM aikI to have spread over all India south of the Naduula. 
whole diatricts were emptied of their people, and for upwards of 
thirty years, u very scanty reveunu wtw obULineil from the territory 
Wtweon the tiodjivari and the Krishna' The famine of HGO, which is 
known as the famine of DdmAJi Pant, is remembered over the greater 
part of tlic Dcccan.* In l&SO, mainly owing to military disturbances, 
thf cropK in the Deocan were detitroyed and a famine followed.* 
In 1629-;J0 severe famine raged throughout the Deccan. The rains 
failed for two years catising a grievoui* loss of life.* Acoonling to 
loeal tradition tlie famine of 1791-92 was the severest ever known. 
It Kcems to have come after a scries of bad years, when the evila 
of scanty rainfall were aggrivvated by di.<iturWnce and war. TI»0 
early rai us failed I'ntii-ely in the liombay-Kamdtak, were scanty 
ill the Doccan and OujaMlt, in KilthitiwjLr and M&nvdr, and were 
deficient in the districts ulung the coast from Broach to BAtntigiri, 
In October rain fell abundantly, and tlie famine was ended hya gooil 
harvest in the spring of 17!>2. In Sdtdra the rupee price of Indian 
millet is said to have risi-n ti) six pounds (3 ehers). Thu Native 
Governments granted large remissions of revenue, the export of 
grain was forbidden, and the sale price was fixed. Rice was brought 
from Bengal to Bondiay.* In nutivu opinion the famine of 1802-3 
came next in severity to the 17(>I-!12 fomina It was mont felt in 
Kh&ndesh, Ahmaduagar, Sholdpur, Btjspur, and IHiArwSr; but it ■ 
also pressed severely on Belgaum, Sfitilra, Fiwno, Sural, and Cutch iM 
elsewhere it was comparatively light. In 1802 rainfall was 
scanty, hut in Sdttim tno harvest would have been good or fair, 
but for tho raviige.s of J(us^'antrlto Holkor and his PendhJuis who M 
destroyed the early crops as they were coming to maturity and 1 

Prevented the late crops being sown. ThLs scarcity was followed 
y the failure of the late rains m 180;X The local loss and scarcity 
were increiued by the intlow of starving people from the dLstricts 
of the North Deccan where the failure of rain was more complete 
than in SfitiLra. The result was that the famine was almost M 
wjvcro in SAUii'a as in (he North Deccan, The pres-sui-e was ereatest 
in Jnly and August 1804, and was so grievous that, aocoming to 

' Onnt DutTi Mnrilth.^. I. 50, ' Col. Ethnidgc'i Rrtwrt on Tut Funinci, 99. 

* OoLEtliuridgQ'ii report on Paiit Fsuiini-s. 100. ' Klpbinitouo'i Ili*tory, SOT, 

* Ooloool KtUcriage'ii lU^rt en fiwt Fuuxinn, C5, GS, US, 98, 123. 


iiiioD, m(in lived on human (Ie»h. Com Is soli) to baro been 
■old at two pouii'Iii (1 «fwr) the rupeo. About 20,000 Htrai>;,'.Ts are 
Baid to have tlockod into tlm town uf WiU in thu hope of obtaining 
relivf fruiii Uio lilx-nJity of tlie Pant Pratinidhi, RiLstJa, and other 
wealthy families and no fewer than 10,000 persona arc said to Iiave 
died in tlie town of W&t alone. Abaudanco of water and plenty of 
for tl)u Burly raiits (Jnno- August 1803) hjtd hetm abmuumt, 
id miieh to lighten the general dinGeaa.' In 1821-26 a failure of 
the sariy rains caused considerabla oad widespread scarcity. In 
8£i&iB Indian milk-t prices row to twelve |m>uii'U (G «fter») tha 
mpoA. In 1882 a aeanty fall of rain in the early part of the acasoo 
eantteid widea{tread scarcity. Grain prices woro ao hi};h that grain 
eompensotion was granted to all Oovemruenl lurMittbt wlioso moatbly 
ulariM were lew than £20 <Rs. 2O0).* 

L The scanty and badly distribated rainfall of 1876, thirty-nine 

^■Coruparod n*ith an average of fifty inehen, h-d to failure of cropi and 
^BdtMtrcHHMiiiiititiliiijr to faiuino over about omr-liiitr of the •lixtrict.' 
^BXlie east and sou^-east suffered most. As rain held otf the early 
i^cropa failed in MAn, Khativ, and the greater part of Kh^nipar and 
[ Tia^ton. In ad<iition to Uiin failure of the earl v nunit, September 
I and October pasaed with only a few showera ana but a tunnll ares 
I of late crops was sown. WiUi high gruiu prices, millet at seventeen 
instead of thirty-five poundit,* and no dvmniid for fiel<l work, the 
poorvrclasWA full into distross. The need for Oovernment h<-hi l)egnn 
about the beginning of October. The grain -di^aliirs withhold their 
■tores and no grain was otfere'l for silu. The distr^«s and panic, 
especially among the lower orders of townspeople, were ao great tltat 
the Collector ordered £856 (Rs. 8560) worth of^iwri from Bombay. 
The arrival of the grain in Noveiubei- hail the excellent eflbct of 
•bowing the gnun defers tliat thev could not at one hound force prices 
ta& famine level.' As soon as ilic traders »aw that Govcritiuent 
really to import grain, thi-y o|)i'[ii?il thi-ir shops nnd liegan to 
ton their own account. Fi-oin DecoMbtT to March the prx-xiurc 
of Histreas was lighter as large mipjilii^ eatue into the dLstriet In 
the hot months, with rising prici*-i, the distre-sa increa-wstl. The long 
' of dry weather in July and August forced grain prici'-t rtiii 
her and caused much ami suffering; but the plentiful 
and timely rainfall of Sopt^miber and OctoWr renioveil all cause 
of anxiety. Hy the close of November the demand for spcml 
Govermiient help hod ceased. 

The folluwin" details show, month by monUi, the various phases 
through which distntsA<I and the measiinis taken to r^divve it. 
In September I87(!r»in so completely held off that people could not 
prepare tlieir fieM-s for the cdd-weotlier crops. The early crops 
tailed in Man, Khat&v, and the greater part of Kli<liiApur and 

' ObloDd Sthnidca'i KapfH en Piat Fuminoi, 70, 80, 87, 97- 

*Orf<MHl B*L»ru^'» Kapart, ISZ. 

■Th«aatiaiat« wa*iaMiMl!li$Jouti>(B toUl d 4798 •qoaro uilai, uid in ihmIs- 
feMMIjmOiMito/ 1.0GS,X>0. 

' TIur^-fiTv poand« for laillitt or h^ri «i>l tlility-nino jiouikU (or tiuliitn iiitllul nr 
jiM w«(» th« oitUaacy ni|>M pivim, 


Chapter I 



IBombay O&uttMr. 


Ch&pter IV- 


Tibgaon ; cUcwIierc, cxcopt in Moloolraneth where, aboat the 
miildk- of tho month tliore were a few good showers, the crops were j 
withi-ring. In KhatAv, KhAnSpur, nixt TfLtgaon, fodder won ttcarca^ 
and dear. At SilUm i^rairi prices rapidly rose till nlwtit tbecnd 
of the month jvdri fetched eir-htecn pounds the rupee. With waiit 
of fi^iM employment and »nch hit'h gniiu prices, tlic loss cau«e*l by 
the failure of the early crop^ U-gaii to dt*pen into liistrtao. Karly 
in OctolKtr there was & little rain at Wti, and on the 81st aliowera 
fell at Koregaon, T^sgaon, and IsliUnpur. Tiic viu-lj crops continuod 
to wither, whilo throuf^hout the district, except the «&alw, the 
Cold-weather crops wore eitlier not sown, or where sown were dj'ing. 
Cattle were starving for want of fwlder, and in Khatav and MAn 
wero bein^ sold at nominal prici^ or given away. In laonie plaovs 
the crops were cat down for fodder. Grain importations had not 
begun and grain-dealers withheld their ston:a. Prices rose so high 
ihak the Collector tlionght it nece.sHnr)- to onlvr grain froin Bombay. 
ArroogemeiitA were also made with a S^tdra merchant to impori 
^ain for sale at a iiio<^lenttu profit. At Tdsgaon grain was ao 
(liilicult to buy that tlie Coilijctor wnt fifty cartlojwLs of jtdri from 
S:ttiira. To help the import of grain the municipal duos in S&tlU* 
and T^^fkou were muponded. Cireat cotnmotiou and clamour 
pivvailed, specially among the !!>lh£r»t, M&ugs, and R4n>oshia in 
Klmtdv and Titsgaon, anu people began to leave the district. 
Theftfi were fre(|uent, and, in Tasgaon, band^of the poorei claaMs 
assembled and dt;manded work. In the Collecior'.-t opinion, had not 
the arrival of Uovemment grain forced tlie locaJ dealers to bring 
forward their stores, mcetin^^s would huvc turned into grwn 
riotA. To allay the disorder' local fundn workn were opened, and. on 
the 17th, Goverumcnt placed a sum of £2500 (ll«. 25.000) at the 
Collector's ilJ.siKwal for cimrituble relief. In November only a few , 
«howur.i fell in S&t^ra, PAtan, and M^. Where they huiI bi'cn so» 
the late crops withered. In the south ajid east water was grov 
Bcarca In Man the only KU])ply was from holea dug in river I 
Grass and straw were vei^' scarce, tuid in places evtui sugarcane" 
was UHcd for fodder. The grain ordered by the Collector arnved 
from Bomliay tltrough CliipUm. It» presence hwl a favourable 
itfli^t an<l stimulated private imports of grain. To stimulate iniports 
treasury orders on Bombay and other large towns were given to 
traders at par, and it wa.'< proposed to remit tolU (m grain carts. The 
rupee price of _;mri rose from eighteen pounds at tlio nc^nningof tho 
month to iiiixteen pounds towards the close, and that of bdjri from 
twenty to .seventeen pounds. Tboruwas much movement among the 
p(-nple, some leaving the district, others cominj; in large numlx-rtfroin 
Phaltan. Jath, Miraj, Sanpli, and other neiahliouring states. Still, as 
most lundholdtr!; had reaped some smnll har\-e8t and did not seek 
relief until their stock of OTain was tinialu'd. the pi-essure on the 
works was not great, the daily number of labourers rising from 1000 
in thu U^ginniiig of the mouth to 11,4H at the close. Of ^71, the 
average daily nuinl>er for the luontJi, 4056 were able-1>odivd, 
expected to do a full day's work and superintended by public works 
othcei-a, and 315 were aged or feeble, expected to do loss ilmusful! 



day's work ami Buporintcnded by dvil ofBcera.' Early in the month 
nie^^ wci-c tiuld nt tSitiirin uiid T^uon, and relief coiDmittmi! 
were fonned. On the 9t1i £200 (R8.2000), oat of tli« Gtikvrilr'ii 
grwit of £1000 (Its. 10,000), were plaoecl at tlio CoU«toi-'s ditmoBal 
to bft Hpunt on lUnut. About tliu end of tht- uontli cholerii nm'Io its 
appearand. December paased irithout rain tuul with tto change in 
crop prospects. Grain iiiiportatkiQa continued, and the miiuc piices 
fell for jv'iri from ciclito";n pomid.-* at th«' bupinuinj; of tne uiontb 
io 20| poumls about the close, and for I'ijri from auvcutveti to 19| 
pounda The scarcity of fodder was increasitic, and people wvro 
moving with tlicir cattle to the Konkan. A mild form of cholera 
continued pruvalent. The numbora of the diMtitutv increased on 
public worVs from 4056 to 13,371j and ou civil works from 315 
to 2703. 

lu January 1877 no rain fell. Grain importations continued 
and the HUpply was snfEcient. /i<iirt remained uteaily at twenty 

g:>u»dd the rupc«, and lajri ft-ll from 19i to twenty pounds, 
mall-pox broke out among the lalMxirun* at tliu Nher lake. 
Otherwise public health was good, except at T&Agoon, where, abgat 
the mtddlu of the month, there was ^.H^^ht choU>ra. The iiumburii 
on relief increased, on public works from IS,.*)?! to IS.lJ3i), and on 
civil works from 2703 to 3289. Aljout the middlo of February rain 
fell in the we»tum aub^diviaions of S^ttira Piitan and J&vli. Tho 
grain supply continued sufficient. Th« rupee price of 6<ijr* rose from 
twenty to 18 1 pounds and jiiiri continual steady at twenty 
pouiid.-!. Oholi-ra was prevalent and van increasing. The numbers 
on poblic works rose from 15,639 to 23,726; on civil work.t. incon- 
sequence of a reduction in pay in the civil works and of Uic 
tronsfor of workmen to public works, they fell from 3289 to 178.' 
During the month twenty-four persons were on diaritablc relief. 
Early in March rain fell over matt of tho <iistrict The gr^n 
supply continued suHident, the rupee price of jvdri rising from 
twenty to 18i pounds, and that of bajW falling from 18J toninetc«n. 
Emigration to Homlmy and the Konkan continued. Cholera was 
prevalent and increasing. The numbers on relief rose, on puUio 
works from 23728 to 2G,539, oa civil works frwm 178 to 239, 
and on charitable relief from twenty-four to 197. During April 
Bom« good showers, especially in the south and iwuOi-east, 
improved tho scanty wat«r supply. Tlie rupee price of both Jvdri 
and bdjri roso from nineteen pounds at tno Dcginuiug of the 
month to seventeen pounds about tho close. The oil! villages of 
KarjLd and Piiton sutTeced eorerely, the people living chietty on 
-wild fruibt and roots. The number of tlie destitute rose on public 



■ Tho urigiiAl lUy^ wi^ca won, iot a auw Sit (3 M.), for > wonun 2^(1. (11 lu.], 
luid f'iraboy or ziil 1^,(1(1.). Alwul tha mlitdla of Noi-cmbir > lUdixig Mb wu 
iDtroJuofd, provulna thttwben prlooi riMeOToniLibeen pounda the npa^ thamoiiej 
nto thuuU vuy wiU) tho nko of mla, and that a man Bhosld alwa^ ncolio tbs 
pntni t>t one pound of gninla addlUoB U> «*■« oiwia. ^ 

' Thv Doir rat«* war*, tor a maa Iho prtw o( omo pcniail of grain anil (</. ({ a.) 
initraJ of IW. (I a.) ; (or a woman tha price uf on* (lonnJ and M. I| a,) inttoadod 
li^. (l(r.J(and[oraboyotgbrtUia|itio*<i( liaUa)>oaudat|pmioaad|tt Ua.)- 

fBombay Qitutbwr. 



Chapter IV. 


vrorkit from 2(i,53D in 3i£,122, on dvil works from 239 to fili. and 
on charitable relief from 197 to 645, The mortality from cholera 
continiRtl Iicnvy. Lat« in U«y goo<l raiii fiJl in SiU^n, Jdrllf] 
Witt, R»il Vilva, and showers in M&n and TAsgaon. 
were slowly rcturnitig. Among tho hill pcoplo iu tho KLanc 
petty division of Wdi tin.-™ wiw great dinlrcutt, Init many hiwl Jeftl 
their houieH and Fouud oniplojinciit on the NJra canal in the ' 
I'oons dLitrict In Kh^oitpur, the Mhdrs and Rtitnovliix wore in 

f^cat want, and i;raiii was di.-Hribut«d to Uiem at their homea.' 
ho itupply of grain continued sufficient, but ropee prioea 
rose. Cor jt^dri from sovsntecn to 16J pounds and for bd^ri 
from Hovciitccn to ICJ pounds. The Hcareity of fodder wsa pren- 
ing hard, and tho moriality among cattle was increaaing. For 
the bencKt of tho uitinn poor ten addiliumd n.-tiuf houses wctq 
ostabliKhcd. Cholera ctmtiiiui;<l prcvulvut aii<l the mortality was 
heavy. Tho nuuilioi-s of tho de.itituto considfrably increased, on 
public works from 82,122 to 42.731, on civil wurk.n frum 514 to 
15t>4, and on charitable ruliof from (t4£ to 1833. Alxiut the Moood 
wook in June Ibo emitem atotmfi began. la T&tgoon ou two 
coftsocutive day.t al>out tux IucIk-a fell m torritntt. AtVillvaand 
other [ilaceA tlie w&eitern rains had steadily set in by the 22nd of 
June. l>imng the month an avcragi; of fO'Sl inches fell. Emi- 
grant's were coniing back, and uliotit the uiiddlu of the month 
large tiuuibers began leaving tho relief workji to return to their 
fielus. The sowing of tho early cropg wiv> begun and was rapidly 

?rogr<)ssing, and in pUcvM tho yonn^ crops had U^n to uiow. 
'h« &unply of grain continued good, but rupee pncea for biijH 
and jvari roeo from 15} and fat'tcen puunifs at tho boginniiu 
of the month to foiirtceti poiiixls towards tlie doaa The pM^^ 
largely supplemented their food with green vegetables, which had 
now Ik-cohio piciitil'nl, and in V&lvu mango, jack, and otl>er 
fruits could be ha<l i^i abundancei. In Piltan and V^va, the young 
gi-ass was high enough to uttbrd gi'azing for cattle and was tmdiug 
itA way to tlie maikeUi. Thv numtx^rs on relief fell, on public worlu 
from 47,849 at tho beginning of the month to 41,046 about lh« 
clone, and on civil works from 25IS0 to 1400.^ The mortality from 
diolei-a continued hi^avy. During Jul)- theru was a fair rainfall ia 
the west, but only a few light ahowvrs in the east, Ci-op prospects 
continued good, bub in places more rain was badly wanted. 
Emigrants were still returning, Cart-rate-s from Tihsgaon to Poona 
and buck rose from ordinary rates of XI 12s. to £3 I0». (Its. 16- 
S5), and grain traJSc iu carts from Chiplim was stopped. Thi^ 

i*oined to tno break iu tho monsoon, rMsod grain priovs, foryrati 
rom fourteen to ]0| pounds and for ^i^'ri n-om l4}tolli pounda 
the rupee ; on the 22nil, at 'riii<guon, grain was sold at seven pounds 
Hio rupee. These high prices cauted less distrena Uian might Imvo 
been expected, as vegetables could be tad in abundance and vera 

t In June tho Collcctorr piitaxtup to tliii noilo uf relief, m it wuoppoMd toUis 
tipirit ol OoY^rmnent onlani. 


' rur JuD* tbo mvonuc daily nitnibor «r tho i1»titut« wat, on paUic wgtb 
civU work* S314, ttod gn ch«ritaU« rullul 3708. 





freely eaioa, but* partly fram the want of Bolt, caosod much 
dtitease, asp«oiAlly dyneutery. Ciro4;ii grasd was coiiiiiij' to markut 
mill fodder was much cheaper, 'riiu mortality from cholera 
CoQtititi«d hea\'>'. TUo nuniU-nt on relief fell, on publio works 
from 46.317 to 28,G32, on civil worka frotu S2U to 806, and on 
cIiaritAlile relief from 3768 to 30&1. In August ttivro wa« an 
average fall of 7'37 incbca. Except vdid, mug, and rdla, vrhtch 
in pari^ were iiiucl) daiiinged hy the itcanty full of tlie previous 
nioiitli. the crop8 were generally in good order but in the i-aut 
reijuired more rain, 'ftiu supply of ({ruin cotitiimcd fair. Itiipee 
pricLS both for I'ijH and jviiri rviiiKiiicd ntt-odj' at eleven pounds. 
Chulera continued prevalent but was decrea.'itng. The nuiubGrx on 
relief works fell considerably, on pnblic works from2S,U32 Oj 19,G17) 
and on civil works from 806 to 624 ; on charitable relief tbev rose 
from 3031 to 53*5. In September there was a gootl and neavy 
fall of tain, averaging 10*53 inches. Except in parts of Miln, Wd.1, 
and Jdvli the cropa wore ovorywhera good. lit Kan(<t in some 
placcH tliu maize, vari, mva, ana nUa wvt« ImrteHled and groin 
was coming to market. Cart traffic to Chiplan, which ha<l l>cen 
stopped, was again opouud. Kup06 prices felt, for 6ii)7-t from 
ttwclvu pouu<U at the beginning of tho montli to nineteen pounds 
[about the close, and for jvari from 11^ to 17i pounds. Tho 
itondition of the |>coplo oonaidvrably improvud. Cholera continued 
[to rlecix^se. The numberaon relief fell, on public works from 19,517 
[to 1U,601 and on civil works from &34 to 494; on charitable relief 
Ithey rose from 5345 to 10,342. In October an average of 691 
[iucfie.f of rain fell. The sowing of tho cold-wcatlurr crops was in 
arogrwH, but it waa kept back by the bean* rain, which aieo in 
Jsome places injured Ujc npc early crops, Gram prices fell, for jvdri 
l&oni nineteen jraunda at tlie beginning of tho month to twenty 
" Dundu al>out the close, and for bajn from 21| to twenty>fotir 
ounds. Tho uumbore on relief fell, on public works from 16,001 
9718, on mil works from 494toll3, and on cliaritable relief 
[(rom 10342 to 7113. Early in tbo month (6th) oil civil agency 
[Works were closed. A mild typo of choloia conUnuod prevalent. 
[Ill NovvmUir there were a few sliowers in SMAro, P&tan, Vilva^ 
[and T^gaon. The harvesting of the early CTop« waa nearly 
finished and nibi sowing was almost complete. During the month 
grain pri«'« averaged 28} poundft for jvdn and for btijri 29) pounds 
tlie rupee. The numbers on public works fell from 2753 about 
the Im^nning of tho montli to 469 at tho end, when tlie works were 
cloned. The numbers on charitable relief fell from 1U73 at the 
beginning of the month to 134 on tlie 24th. In the last week no 
one waa cbaiitably reljevod. In December a few showers greatly 
benelitvd the cold- weather crops. Orain continued to grow <£eaper, 
jedri falling to thirty -one and it^'rt to thirty-two pouaclB. No oue 
took advanti^ of tlio Uovemmcnt offer of uiaritable relief. 

Hie following statement of millet prices and numlx'nt receiving 
rolicf shows tliat during tho 6rst three mouths of 1S77 grain kept 
pretty steatly at nineteen pound;* tlie nipeo, or nearly twice the 
ordinary rates ; that its price rotie rapidly in April May June and 
Joly. till it reached 1 1 i pouuda ia August, and tbst it tJtiou quitjdy 




[Bombay < 

Cliiiptcr IT. 




famine Caimt. 


Hrlit/ llmia. 



foil to 291 pounds in November, Ab early as December 1879t 
DUiii1>crs ou relief workn ruached 16,071. Fn>m that they lo 
steadily to 48,581 iu June, and then faJUng to 29,4-38 in Julyowine 
to tho large <lcni£uid for field labour, coutinued to decreaiie till 
Novcrubcr, when the works were closed. The nomborB on charit- 
able relief rose steadily from 24 in Febmary to 3768 in June. 
They then fell to 3051 in July, aad, after rising to 10,0*2 in 
September, foil to 328 in NovemlJer : 

8<ii<lra Famiae, IS7S-77. 


AytMAUwOiBJI "Ssuma. 



Ob Bdkt Woifcl. 









Koi amber „- 

























Uuck _ 








as? = 
















2(1 1 







ilU ■:: 





















TMklOiMl Ka. 

























A special conaua taken on the 19th of May 1877, when faniin< 
prcMuro was general and severe, showed that of 46,235 labourer^ 
44,344 on public and 1891 on civil works, 18,.$16 belonged to thf 
fiub^livisioiis whore the works were carried on ; 13,99S belonged t/a 
different aub-diviaions of the same district ; 6702 were from other 
diatiicte; and 7219 from n6ij;hl>oiiring .itatc^ As r«garxU their 
occupation, 30U2 wero manufacturers or craftsmen, 24,611 were 
Itohlcrs or under-holders of land, and 18,56S were labourers, M 

The total cost of the famuiu was estimated at £118.137 4«,* 
(Rs. 11,81,372) of which £107,528 2a. [Ra. 10,7&,281) were spent 
on pnMic and civil workfl, and £10,609 tt. (Ra. 1,06,091) on chari^ 
table relief. f 

Of twenty roliof-hoaaea or camps opened in the district between 
November 187G and November 1877, fivo woro on tho irrigation 
works at the Pingli, Nher, litliinpur, niid Mhasvad r«<i«r\'oira and 
on the Krishna canal extension. Of the twenty relief-hoosea, one 
was started in November 1876 and the rest during 1877, tlirve la 
February', one in March, t«ii in May, four in Jime, and one in 
September. Except at the Pingli. Nher, Islinipup. and Mliasvad 
reservoirs where small huts wvre rai.'scti atOovernmentcxponse, the 
buildings u^mmI for tJio relief houses were goaerally dkarmthai^t or. 





rest-house*, eJiavH" or villngn offices, and temples. The following are 
the tlatca at which the twenty relief houses were opened and cloaed : 
the relief-boose at Til8j^u was opened oti the Kith of November 
]87C and was doflod on the Irit of November 1877; at a cost of 
XIOS'*) l-l*. (R-*. HJ.237) it relieved amonthly averace of ninety-four 
men, MXty women, and eighty children. The reliel-houso at Pinfjli 
reservoir in MAii was opened in Febriiarv 1877 aii<l clasnl on 
the 31.-<t of October ; at a cost of £2SS1 4s. (Ra. 28,812) it relieved 
8r>8,7G0 persons in all or a montbty average of 89,862. The relief- 
house at the Nhor ro««rvoir in Khatiiv waft oi>cniid in February 
1877 and closed on the 2Urd of October; at a cost of £599 4m. 
(Km. 5002) it relieved 95,13S porsons in all or a monthly average of 
10,571. The relief-house at the IslAmpur re-tervoir in ViUva woa 
opened in February 1877 and cloaed on the 30th of September; at 
a cost of £169 2s. (Rs. 1591) it relieved 17,472 persons in all or 
a monthly avoraye of 2184. Tlic relief-hoaso at the Mhuvod 
reservoir in M(Ui waa opened in March 1877 and closed on the 30th 
of November; at a total coat of £2159 (Ra. 21,690) it relieved 
232,964 piTson» in all or a monthly avera^ of 25,885. The rdivf- 
houise at Peth in V£lva was opened on tlie 14th May 1877 and 
closed on the 30th of June ; at a total cost of £34 16s. (Ba.848) it 
relieved a monthly average of 2H men, 208 women, and 165 
children. The relief-house at Modha in Jiivli was opened on the 
15th of May 1877 and closed on the 1 Ith of July ; at a cost of 
£35 10s. (Rs. 355) it relieved a monthly avei-age of 900 men, 1150 
Vfomen, and 1230 children. The relief-house at Eoregaon was 
opened ou the I8th of May 1877 and closed on the 2nd of Juno; 
at a cost of £14 4». (R^ 142) it relieved 1620 persons or a monthly 
nv<M-a^e of 810. The ndief-house at S&tAra was opened from private 
fund.^ on the 18th of May 1877 and clomd in November ; at a cost 
of £562 8*. (Ra. 5624) it relieved 67,770 persons or a monthly 
average of 11,205. The relief-house at Kailegaou in Ehanipur was 
opened on the 1 9th of May 1877 and closed on the 29th of Juno ; 
at n co»t of £14 (Rs. 140) it relieved a monthly average of 157 
men, 270 women, and 125 cliildren. The roiief-boose at Vita in 
EliAiiiipurwaa opened ou the 20th of May 1877 and closed on the 
SOtb of October ; at a coat of £336 (K^ 3330) it relieved a monthly 
averf^e of COO men, 800 women, and 840 children. The relief- 
bouse at Kh^niipur was opened on the 22iid of May 1877 and 
tcloseii on the 1st of Novcmlwr ; at a co»t of £117 12b. (R«.117C) 
it relieved a monthly average of 1 90 men, 225 women, an<l 176 
liildren. The rolief-bousd at Khojid&Ia in W&t was opened on the 
3th of May 1877 and closed on the 1st of July ; at a coxt of £17 
(Bs. 174) it relieved a monthly average of 565 men, 468 
romen, and 464 children. Tlie relief-bouse at Pdtan was opened 
an the 28tb of May 1S77 and closed on the 30th of June: at a 
'totfdcostof £01 2ii. (Rs. Oil) it relieved a monthly average of 2125 
men. 2969 women, and 4506 children. The rtfief-bousc ut Wii 
was opened on tlio 30th of May 1 877 and closed on the 1st ol 
July ; at a total cost of £10 (Us. lOO) it rebeved a monthly average 
of 463 men, 718 women, and 1218 children. The relief-hoo-se at 
HelvAk in PAtan was opened on the let of Jubo 1877 and was 


Bell'/ Umw. 

IBomlwy 0««tteef, 


Chapter IT. 





cIo3e<l on the 1 6th of the same month ; at a cost of 45 18». (Rs. 59) 
it i-tfliovi^d a monthly averftgo of forty-two men, tlnrty-onc women, 
uikI fivu chilcirtin. The relief-hooae at Vadaj in KhatiLv wasopeoed 
ou the 1 1th of June 1877 and closed on the 11th of November; at 
s coflt of £243 t>8. (R.-S. 2'l%t) it rulicvcl n monthly averacc of 3l>3 
men, 504 women, and 752 children, Tho n-licf-hoiisfl at Miyni in 
Khat^v waa opened on the 18th of Jane 1S77 and closed on the 
25th of June ; at a co«t of £7 I6ji. (Rh. 78) it nilievcd 10.>7 pi:r:«oii4 
or a montlily awra^ of 20+ man, 615 woiD«n, and 23S cliil'Iren. 
l^ti relief 'house at the Kmhna canal extension was opened in June 
1877 and closed on the 30th of SoptomhcF ; at a cost of £4 18a 
(Rs, 49) it relieved JiBS iiersons or a monthly arentge of Ji8. The 
reltvf-lioiLio at Karfld was opened on the 7th of Bopteint)er 1877 
and closed on the 7th of November; at a cost of £-6 14a (Rs. S07) 
it rcliuved a monthly average of 297 niun, 584 women, and 707 
children. Boaidea the cost on these relief-hooaos, Oovernment spent j' 
about £23S6 (Bs. 23,860) in vUlage charity. ■ 

To superintend r<.liof work-s four m&mlatdftrs woro employed to 
tl^fi end of October 1877, one in M^ from the 10th of January 
1877, one in Klidn'ipur fi-om the 17th of January, («io in TA^^aon 
from thu 31»t of Jauunry, and one in KTiatliv from the 14th of Hay, 
Bc.^iden thcf^e four m&mEatd^H, during the various periods of the 
famine, the relief staff iocludod five European officers, Ur. East 
the first assistant coiloctor, Mr. Muir- Mackenzie an assistant 
collector, Major Bartholomew the diatrict police »tiperintcndent, 
&tr. Mainwarine the district forest officer, and Mr. Adams aa 
aaedataat superintendent in the RatuJigiii revenue siu^'ey. In 
addition to tliftse relief officprs, sixty circle in»i>ectom were employed 
on vill^e inspection in 1877 from the 10th oi May to the 30th lA 
Juna Larfjc relief cnnips on the works at the Pingli, Nhcr, 
ItUnipur, and Mhaavad reservoirs, and the Krishna canal exteunOQ 
were fruperintcndcd by a staff of public works of&cers. 

Some municipalities Mold f^raiu at fixed rates to the poor, a mods 
of charity which was much appreciated. It is a part of outdi 
relief, and if well supervised has no effect on trade or on pricea. The' 
sbusex to lic guarded agaJu.-^l aro simply those which are always 
present when either grain or money art; distributed without a task 
of aJlcged poverty, urmn sold at or below co^t price mecttt the eaaa 
of Uiose wlio are not paupers, are much straitened, but yet so loi^ 
im thev can earn anytliin;^ in their usual way or have any moans 
left will not go to work. For the same reason loanjt of {^rain to 
rcspectahle people willing to maintsJQ theii' dependents are safe and 
are valuable. During the fair season j^rain came in lajgo quantitiea 
into SdtAra from Bombay by sea to Cniplun and Crotb Chiplon to 
Karitd by the Kumbhiirh pass road ; duruig ^e rains it chiefiy came 
by rail to Poona, and from Poona in carts to SitAi-a along the Poona- 
Belgaum road. In the ea.'^t grain also came by riul to Shohlpur, and 
from SJioldpur in carts to SAtira. 

A great nuiulnT of people from the Mia. Khativ, Khflnipnr, am 
TlisgaoQ sub-divisions left the district in the early days of dis: 
Souic of them w-iuit north and noiih-east to Bombay, Berilr, 






Kli^tilosh.fuKl others wont liOiitli-westtotheKonkan. Tbopeoplewho 
k'ft th« tUstrict wuris those in cliargu of cattlo who lutiulij hiCcl some 
nieaiix, fuid flclil laboun^rK tui'l Niimll laiuDiohl^rH who hu<l no stock 
of gi-aiii and no credit. Of these three cla)i»es the lalmurei's wt-rc tho 
tinwt numerous. Tht- smnll hiinJhoI'lurs took with them their pair 
of htiliocks liiiil a cow or two, ami loft nothing Ih-IiiiiiI hut (in empty 
hoaie anJ a barricaile'l door. Some of them went to the Koiikuu 
and thi^ rest to the BL-ritrs. Many, especially of those who went to 
tlio BurflTji, are hcliovpd to have fouint opening»nnd Nettled. Of t3io 
lahonrinff cUaiea Hie hetter-oft' left first and found work in diHtant 
parts; otherti went to the public works and renmincd there pretty 
steadily ; othoTS wftiidcrwt to th« SahyAdris wIieiicD hiter on they 
M-andered Viack in much distreiis ; and otliers, especially the women, 
hung about the villaKea living on next to notliing ond dying in 
thoiisand;! on the Sritt foil of rain. 

The chief difficnltie!) in dealing with the famine were the obstinacy 
of some who would not leave tneir villages for the works and the 
vii^'rancy of others who persisted in waii'Ierlng iastcml of working. ditficultien were met by careful village inspection and genilit 
prcssurti in the case of the stay-at-homes, and by watchful superv'ision 
tty otiteers of lUl gravies in the eooo of the vagrontti. 

In the eastern sab-divisions, according to the a^cultural retiima, 
the number of cattle tell from fl9i,27a in 1876-77 to 775,393 in 
J877-7S, that is a loss of 218,879, In 1877-78 the aotmil number 
of offeiioea reported wai 5912 against *0U4 in 1876-77. Serious 
crime, such as murder, dacoity, and robbery seems to hnv« been more 

Srevalent. and the number of thefts was considerably moro than 
oublo what it was in 1876-77. In 1878 the tillage area fell sliort 
of that in 1876 by about 18,400 acre*. Of about £15.1,7+0 
(Ks. 15.57.400), the realizable land revenue for the year 1876-77, 
£!;!0,2C7 (R.V 18,02,670) were collected in 1876-77, £582 (R«. &820) 
remitted, and the rest was collected in subsequent yeara 

Chaptw IVJ 



Chapter V. 

, CAi-iTALtm. 





Ukdkr tlio Iieod cnpitAlista nnd tnulers, Uio 1878 IiiccnceTa 
papers showed 3fl,S2H persons n«iti»ifled on yearly incomes of raor 
than £10. Of these 1)887 had from £10 to £15 (Rs. 100-Ba. ISOJj 
4033 from £15 to £25 (Rs. 150-B«.260), 8316 fmni £25 to 
(KH.250-Hs.3:iO], 1031 from £36 bo £50 (Ka. ;150 - K«. ^00), 9&i 
from £50 to£76 (lis. 500- Bs. 750), 560 from £75 to £100 (R*. 760- 
Es. 1000), 327 from £100 to £125 (Rs. 1000 - Rb. 1250). lol from 
£125 to £1.^0 (Ri.. I2.-.0-K*.. l.WO), 176 from £1.W U. £200(B(.. loOO- 
Ba. 2000), 121 from £200 to £;tOO (Ks. 2U0O. Rh.3O0O), 105 froin 
£300 to £400 {Rs. 3000-Bs. 4000), 40 from £400 to £500 {R8.4O00- 
B«. 5000), 49 from £500 to £750 (Rh. 5000-R«. 7500), 19 from £750 
to £1000 (R9.7500-Kit, 10,000). uml 24 over £1000 (Rs. 10,000). 
Since 1879, incomes under £50 (Ra.MH)} have been exempted from 
the License Tax. In 18S1-82, of 2G61 assessed on yearly incomes 
of £50 (Ra. 500) and more, lUOhwl from £50 U> £'■) (R»..^00. 
Ba. 750), 456 from £75 to £100 (H8.7r,0-Ba. lOOO). ai3 from £100 
to £125 (Rs. 1000 - Rs. 1200). 101 from £125 to £150 (Rs. 1250. 
Ra.l500), 167 from £1.50 to £200 (Bs. I500-R8. 200O). 154 from 
£2OOb>£3OO(Rs.200O.I{.'i.S00O), 91 from £300 to£400 (Rh. SOOO- 
Rs. 4000), 51 from £400 to £500 (Us. 4000 - R& 5O0O), 48 from 
£500 to £750 (R». 5000 - Rs. 7500), 15 from £750 to £1000 (R«. 7500-j 
Ra. lO.OuO). and 2G froiti £1000 (Rs. 10,000) «ntl upwanLs. 

Thoro are no regular bankers in the diatriot. Deposits ustd to 
made with ccrlaiu bnnkvrs or sdvhira of high reputation, vrho . 
said to hare given interest up to Ihroo per cent a yuur. 

BilU oF exchange and totters of credit or hhaldvanpatras are i 
two kinds payable at sight or dtimhani and payable after a Sxt 
period or mudatield. The discount chargod on an oxchangti bill or ' 
/[»nr/i not iMiyable at ttight varies from ono to two per cent a month. 
liundlit of long periods are drawn almost solely in mercantile trana- 
actioDs by the consignor on the consignee, the period varying with 
the time calculatod for the clearance of tho stock by tho eonsii^eix 
Bombay hundiii are generally issued at eleven days sight and at a 
discount of one-half to three-qnartera per cent. The largest bills 
cashed in the district vary from £300 to £700 (Rs. 3000 - Rs. lOWt). 
Tho few 6rmB which cash thetse biUs have capitals of orer £1QJ 
(Rs. 1,00,000). 

1 CobtiibubHl by Mr. J. W, F. Hdi-UftckMuac, C.S. 



The only coins in common circulation nrr tho Tmptritl rapM ftn<] 
parte of tho nipco. Formerly both the chiin<lot ni{iee vslnad al 92*6 

E' cent «t<l the anliushi Tultuhl nt nincly-HeTea per cent of the 
peria] rupee were in circulation. They still often appear in rural 
boards) and in the huads of monoylendurs. 

Scarcely any class can bo tcnncci the reverta of fninl. It may 
be said that tvreuty to thirty )vr cent of all claaws are uirly endowed 
with a desire to save. Of the remainder the larger portion of Imnd- 
holdora Kptmd beyond their moons, whilu the Minr£r, Gujar£t, and 
Lingiyat Vtinia and tnxling Br^hmans almost to a man put by 
mo[K>y every year. Few of any class can be nid to accumolato 
wcoJlh. Almost all Barin);^ arc sfinundurcd OTarComily and religious 
oolabrationx. It iff *aid that the lar^itr bankers or mi^kfirs and the 
kiffher grades of Government native officiiils, nftvr deducting all 
oratnary and extraordinary ospcDHCs, mvo about one-third of their 
net profile and emolumontd. 

The dtatrict haa few large trading firtna. Tho leading firms are 
almotrt entirely for the export of field prodncn or the local aalo of 
RTain. Few, except lh« higher unlive oflloiaU, invest their saviiigs 
m joint btocic coiapaniea, (Joveromoot securities, or state Savings 
Bank- At the same time tho nmonnts invested in Government 
securities and Savings BanVs show a »t<«dy increase. In 1870-71 
the Savings Bank deposits amounted U> £2016 [Ra. 20,160), in 
1875-76 to jE35!)5 (R^ 35,050), and in 1382-83 to £6628 (Ra. 66,280). 
lu 1370-71 tho int«>ru»t paid to huldent uf Government securitiei 
amounted to £135 (lU. VSrA>), in 1875-7G to £1;W (lU. 1330), and in 
1882-83 to £281 (lis. 2810). Traders uae their increased capital to 
extend thotr business. They seldom start any now form of invest- 

No great amoont of cajiital is invested in hooss property. 
Aa a trader saves, ho attempt-i to secure for his shop a better 
po»ition and more warohuusing room. Honsos are rarely bought 
with a view to Bccuriug a return from tenants. This form of 
investment is confined to the few I'lirai.i and BohoT^s who own the 
liongalows routed by the Europeans &t tho lieatl-quarters station. 
Oocaaionally a wealthy pereon onlargos or uloma hia house for 
porpoaaa of comfort or display and tho poosesion of a mansion or 
v&da n reckoned a mark of wealth and importance. Considerable 
holders of Government or privato land especially Heom to con»<idor it 
a pfjint of honour to have a large honae in every village in which 
Uioy own land whether they live there or not. 

Land is perhaps tliefavoiinio investment with all clotuies possessed 
of a substantial surfJas, the exclusively trading classes «hmo 
excepted. Even among tmders all who are natives of tho district 
are glad to own land. But they will wait till good land is available 
before investing in it, and will nink in it only surplus profits not 
diverting any portion of their capital from their tniue. The social 
status conferred by tho possession of bind hSiS often much to do 
witli the investment, though when watered land, especially sngar- 
caoe land, oui be had on favonrable terms by squeezing a debtor 
tho produce ia looked to. The diffica)^ under whioh tbo tmder Ues 






TBombay QaiettMr- 



Clmpter V. 





ia thnt he nlwnys lins to siiblH. nnd ih nlmost ceHain to bo ctieatod 
tiy Iiu tenant. WUcu tlifl tenant in it debtor tbe trader cheats 
hitii back and in tbe end matters square tbemaelves to tbe trader's 
advantat^. ProfcBsiuDal classes bare a marked fondoen for land 
investnient. Few successful ploatli-ra, Gorrrument wrrant*, or 
OTCaprieKtii, rcliginiiit uicMidicante, Olid llio like will be fouud vbo 
do nut own some land. Tbe fondness for land inreetmcDt liM 
undonbtcdiy increased nndor Britisb rula Tfao causes aro tbe 
increased price of field produce, tbo diminuliou of risk from 
plunder ami war, the decline of otlior investnoenta as in natiTe 
mduHtricH and in advances to cbiefs for the support of thoir 
retinues and armies, tbo redaction in tbe share of fbo produce 
taken by tbo state, and above all the stability of tenure. Heiore the 
introduction of Britisb rule it waa with gnnt difficult; that a 
stranger could acquire the advantages of the mirds tenure. Now 
every one can have it, and it is this which induces tbe profesKional 
clossoit to invest their proiita iu land. The ittnte domand is certainly 
reduced. Wherever the etate demand was really fixed as in tho 
kamat or fully ossossed lands tho rate undonbt«dly was unormouxly 
higher tlian that now exact<(^id, bo high that it soldoni oould be 
levied in full. There were lands outside of <he tuitniii. But these 
were appropriated by tho privileged few to whom the village offioon 
or rent fartiH-rT> chut«o to give them. Tho nominal rate on all land 
waBalMSubjocttonuniberlessenhancementttand exactions, by erery 
c;rade of oUicial from the Oovernment itself down to the village 
headman. No materials are available from which to fntme aa 
nccumto vstimate of tho present sale value of land. Id some cases 
ail acre of garden land is Miid to have fetched as much as £100 
(Ks. 1000) and dry.crop land as much aa £30 (Re. 300). The 
actual price i« nircly mndo public. Landholder* hardly over part 
with tbeir land except ntider the pressure of debt. Of late jean 
the moneylending claasea have shown a great and a growing dusire 
to take possession of their debtors' lands and secnie for thomsolvea 
tJiC Inrgo iiiiirgiii of profit between tho GoTcriimont rental and the 
actual produi'o of the litnd. It i» rou^'bly estimated that, thoD^b it 
is not onterud iu their names in the Government books, about onc> 
Uiird of tho ariibki land has virtuallj pasaed into moneylcnilcrs' 
bands. It is doubtful how far this transfer of land has gone, hnt it 
is beyond doubt that more laud passoa in this than in any other way.^ 
For some years before the 187(i limine nearly the whole arable ar 
of the district was held for tillage. During and after the famine 
conifiderablc area of arublu land was thrown np. Moat of it has 
i^^in been taken either by Government for forests or by landholders j 
for tillngG. 1 

Ornaments are a universal form of invcstmont. Their secnrity, 
the ease with which money can bo raised on them, and the sUght 
loss with which they can be turned to cash, mako ornaments tbe 
^vourite investment of tho poor and middle classes. 

Tho old form of hoarding by burying cash in an earthen pot 
building it into a wall, though less common than in tho oM aosat 
times, contiuacs to an unknown but jirobubly to a largo extoot. 

It it J 

ne a^ 




nmo, vho as otto of the destitute reoeired relief during tlio 1876 
feminc, shorUj after the close of the famiiie charged bis wifo with 
digging up and parloining his himrd of »oToral ha&dred rupees.' 

OC all forms of iiiT&atment monevlending is the commonest. 
Monoylondicff a practised in different degrees by mombors or«lmoBt 
OTcry class. SntArs and Lohiirs,eTen Mh&r8,CbAmbhirg,aDd Vnddars 
lend moDCT. Perhaps Shimpis and K^siirs are the two caslott which 
haro tho largest proportion of anprofesaional monoylondei-s. The 
lending profeaaioiuil motkcylondors are Brdhmana, tiiiJArltt Vfinis, 
Miirw&rS''&Dia, Jniu», hm^jutu, Maritluis, and Mo^mim. Few li70 
solely hy monevlending. The Br^ioans ore husbandmen, land 
pruprtotora, traders, and, to a small extent, pensioned Goremment 
serranta and pleaders. A few of tbcm haro large capital and com- 
bine monojlending with trade an their chiuf calling. In Kiaid 
some Brahman families are hcroditary moneylenders, and draw their 
nroGta from moneylcnding olono. Onjar^, Ling&yat, and &Uirwfir 
V^Di monc]:lcnder8 are mostly ti-aders and in some cases laadholderv. 
Tbvf deal in olotb, groceries, and grain, and have shops both Id 
rilUges and towns. In S^ra iho Gnjarit Tflnia deal chiofly -in 
clarified batter and oil. The Mariitha aud Konbi moneylenders are 
nlmoMt ikll landholders and seldom extend their dealing beyond 
their villages. A very small portion of thorn draw part of their iucomo 
from trade. Some UiiRnlrn^n monoylenders are villa^ efaopkeepers. 
Of all moaoylendcra the Mdrwir V(Lni hait the worst Homo and is 
hwnhesC and most nnscrapalous in his dealing with tiia debtor. 
Aa a mid Uiim-jr Vitnis are not permanently sottlod in tho district. 
Host of them keep np relations with their native country, and with* 
draw to their native villugo when thoy grow old or when they hare 
laid by onoiigh to reot on. A new comer from MArwir generally 
begins by serving as the gumasla or aj^ent of one of his odbntrymon. 
When he has saved enough from his i/vogos to »&t np bnsinoiM for 
himself ho oponit a new shop in his own name, or ho enters into 
partoenhip with oUier JU&rwilri tradere, or if his capital is very 
small, he trades for a time as a poddtor. For trading parponea 
Hirw£ris generally combine to form a firm of two or three and 
isldoca of more than five partners. They have great confiduncio in 
each other's honesty. A MarwAri often Uvos m his own country 
and carries on busine«a at a distance through itgents or partners, 
low outea occur in which a M&rwAri, however unscmpulous in his 
dealings with other men, is false to his emplojor or putner. Next 
to Mirwari moneylenders conte Gujarat V^iiis and local Rr&hvjmna. 
Gniar^ Vinis called Gojars are gonerally settled in tbe district, 
and very fow retire to their native country ovou after accuniuluting 
large sums of money. Though they generally charge the same 
rates of interest as MArwdris, tho Gujars arc Itisa tinscrupulons and 
harah than the Uirwiris in enforcing payaient of debts. Among 
local Bnihman moneylenders of tho Deshwth, Qolak, Karb&da, 
KokauHiith, and Tirgul subdiviKions, the DeshMUia and Qolaks 
are the loading moneylenders. The remaining classes JaiD% liing^ 



1 Xr. A. ShowM, C;8. 

[Bombay Oaiettecr, 



Chapter T- 
I Capital- 

jftts, MariltlillM, and Moaalmins are mach, kindlier creditors and 
Sttldom ruia their debtors. Exoept Mirw&r and Gujar&t Vinia, tlio 
larger moacylcuders and landholders to a cnrtuin cxtont from a 
regard to tlioir good name and from kindly feeling treat their debtors 
with a certain amounl of leoiency. A notable exception to this ia 
wbere a cultivator boos a cfauruc; of profitably adding to bis own land 
by pressing a debtor. Few creditont are then harder or more un- 
Hcrupnlons. The amaller lenders cannot afford much kindtineaa and 
treat their debtors with considorablo stricttivsa. 

Professional moncylendors may bs ronghly arnu^cd nndor throo 
ehi^ dasaea large, middlu, and small. Tlie first or the snbatantial 
banker or HtirJcar carries on a considorable business in bills or 
hundia and ia carofnl to make advances only to portions of sub«tsaoo 
and on good security. Tho Urge laiidboldcra are often hopeleasly 
in debt to largo raoneylendoi^. The lenders are generally careful 
to keep their debtors' heads just abore water, in some casoe from 

gtod MOliog, but in moat bccausu tbu process is more prolltable than 
roclosnre. Host of the baukftra' dealings are with other moucy- 
loBders. In days of bettor credit they are said to have had larger 
direct dealings willi non-monoylending clasMS. They relied for 
punctual payment on the justice of their olaiias and the boncaty of 
their debtors. Such pressure aa was required was applied by 
pvivato bailiffs who sat dhania or fasting at tho door of tho dubtor, 
and compelled payment through tho terrors of religion, by annoy- 
ance, and sometimes by force. Since the introduction of civil courts 
these processes havo otii^cd. Lciidurs of thtci olius oft^ni rvuiit 
piLrt of a claim rather than face the odium and expense of a civil suit. 
They are the better able to forego part of theirclaims becaase their 
debtori^ art^ genenilly wi'll enough off to pay a largo porcontagu of 
the debt. This class of lenders advance large soois on mortgage to 
the holdors of ront-froo or quit-rent land, especially to district and 
village hereditary officers. Many of thcae families owe debts sevond 
generations old, tho lender resting content with periodical paymenta. 
Few of tlie better class of those borrowers have complained till of 
late the law preventing the alienation of hereditary sorvico lamia 
without tho sanction of Government haa been rigidly enforced. 
First clikss lending and trading tirms keep the jonrnal or htrd, the 
ledger or khatdvni and foor bill books, nn advice book of bills 
drawn by tho firm, a register of the firm's acceptances in favour of 
third parties, a register oi billa in favour of the firm, and a rotigfa 
memorandum book. 

Tho Noooiid or middle class of lenders form the greater portion of 
the most respectable lenders of tho present day. They are those 
who with no great capital lend money in snmller Boms and at higher 
rates than tho fimt class but still carefully and on good security and 
who are glad to avoid the courts. This class in most cases keep the 
day book and lodger and have a capital of £1000 to WOOD 
{Rs. 10,000- Ka. 30,000). 

The third clasa of small lenders have little or no capital. They 
borrow from wealthy firms and lend small sums to poor borrowora 
utDZtroiooly high rates. Lenders of this class keep tne most meagre 






Deccait I 


ncco[int& Their trftnsactions are on mortgago, poreonal soourity, 
nnd pawn. All of their a^roemeats are on tho haraeat terms as the 
Roourity is generally thxibtfiil and debtor and creditor are little 
retnoved from ono another in nModinom and diahoneHty. The best 
of this class keep at least the accounts termod pathani or lipane or 
run^h momoratiduta book and khatiivni or ledger. When they 
iiilutid to nhow tliuir accounts in conrt thoy make their debtors 
si^ eacli entry to avoid disputes. Thin seldom oociira as tho 
nccotitit« are too ansystetnadc and nntruatirorthy to be used in 
jiitliciul infiuirioB. Tho loweat lenders of tbi^ claas and tho host 
of uuprofeasional lender* koop no record of their tr»nH»ctiuiis except 
tho bonda which are employed on almost ercry occasion. The 
debtor is rarely fumi^cd with a receipt- The refawl to givo 
rei-L-ipttt has been made penal. But the lender easily evades tho 
law OS he is rarely tendered more than tmrt payment. If tho 
debtor demands a receipt, the lender declines to take anything 
short of tho whole amount due and throatons if tbo debtor prcsi^vH 
for a receipt to take leguj proceedings to onforce tho whole debt. 
Thns the debtor is forced either to go without his receipt or to rei^w 
bin bond on ruinous terms. In private or part privuto Tillagea 
it frequently happciiTt that tho proprietor or indtndtir manages tho 
moDuy lending of the village and has all his tenants in his hands, 
lu (luvernment villages one or other of tho village officers eomotimoa 
holds a similar position, tho headman on a large and the accountant 
on a small scale. Village office-bearers, as a rule, exact nearly as hard 
terms as professional leodcrs. They differ from profenional Icndon 
ill much more rarely Inking their debtors into ooorL 

In lixiag the tortus of a loan every circnmstanca in the case has its 
weight. The urgency of the occasion and the condition and credit of 
tbd i)orrowcr make a vast difference on the ratcH charged. I'wo suc- 
cossivo loaii.i from the itaino capitalist often vary birgely in their 
terms. Attempts to fix rates o! interest for the different classes 
of loans are therefore neoeesarily bttlo moro tban rongfa estimates. 
According to tho returns received, on easily coQvertjble monblo 
property and on good landed security large sums may be borrowed 
at SIX to twelve per cent a year. For smaller sums and in ordinary 
piiwn transactions the ratuningcs to eighteen per cent. In tranaac- 
tiouH on pergonal security a well-to>do borrower may raise n loaa 
as chef^Iy as nine percent. On the other liand hardly any limit can 
be set to what a deetitnte borrower may have to pny. On iinsec-itre<l 
debts a husbandman of scanty credit has gemindly to yny twenty* 
four to 37i op even forty per cent. The ratM of interest paid by 
busbandmen of good or fair credit are now (1SH3) tho same a« thwy 
TTcre before tho famine of 1876-77. Twenty yeaw nga lenders uaou 
to deduct bom the sums mentionodin Die bonda two to live per cent 
as nanotior premium, or as naznitia that is gift. This practice bos 
almost cousod though in some cases it may secretly continue. 
Cas*rs of tho entry of nominal rates of iDterest in bonds are 
rare. When tliey do occur they are little more thiin provisions 
to gnard tho lender against tho borrower's failure lo act up to 

Chapt«r 7 



IBombar Oa 



Chapter V. 


tho terms of the dgreement.' Moptgapea are sometimes c 
more heavilv than pomoQal bonds. li tlio borrower can bo 
dupod or if tooro is aaj snspicioii of otLer debtx, lie will not oiil,v 
charged a niinoua rute of interest but will be made to murtgsge ' 
eropa instead of interest aud to promiso possnaion to tho luo: 
OD the first failure of an instiilment. At thu aamd time tho mortjpi^'w 
OODtinottS to bu rc«pon!tiblQ for the Uoremmcnt iut9e>!U«ii)oul and to 
paj it will have to borrow still farther. It ia usual to aet off interest 
against tho profits of tho mortgaged property. 

Stipondiaiy Gorommont utrvaiiteaH a datw are not l&rg« borrowen, 
still some, mostly of the lower gmdos, are deep in ciobt, often of 
ancestral obligation. District ana village heri>diiaTy ofScen am 
nearly alwaya in debt. In many oasos most of thoir land hns been 
mortgaged for two or thrco generations. Debt rarely forces 
Tillage headmen and village clerks to reaign their offices. 
Under former rulers few held office except moneyed mon ; if ■ 
man fell into diffioultioa some rich member of the bixnily goncrallf 
took hia place. Under the British the hereditary right baa beea 
etsfctly respected. But it ia only when it is notoriooB, that anas'* 
iudigoDco is brought to light and bis dismissal enforced. Tbe 
balk of the local traders arc poor, and have to borrow to roow 
their gtock. Traders whose dealings are on a large acale are 
almost always also largo moneylenders. The stock of a email Vini 
or village shoplceepcr amounts to £oO (Rs. 500) nnd apwardi. 
Tbe terms on which a man of this class raises money to reaeir ini 
stock aro generally strict and tho rates of interest high, iliddlc- 
clrt-iH trsder^ rcuow thoir stuck by pawning ornainonte as aeountf 
and paying ten to eighteen per cent interest a yeiar. As tha 
omamente are redeemed when the stock is disposed of, the sam 
ornaments may bo pledged again and again, any proSt boia^ 
iavested in the purchase of more jowoU. Tho stock is not often 
pledged in advance. When a trader pawns no movablo propotQ 
the mon^ is gonemlly tent on hia personal security. Tbe oraftamen 
of t]ie district ur» not prosperous. I'lioy seldom have capHal 
enough to buy the now material in which they work. EitW 
the person who gives tho job supplies the material, or money 
is borrowed to bay the material, or the material is obtained froa 
tho trader at high credit rates. In borrowing to moot marria^ 
and other family expenj^es craftsmen have generally nothing but. 
(wrsonal security to offer and have frequently to pay twenty 
thirty per cent or oron higher. The country mechanic is freqnend; 
tin hereditary village s(>rvnnt and lives on dues in land or in kiai 
irbioh are paid him (or doing tho rough work required by how^ 
holders ami husbiindmen who supply the materials. He gonctall) 
owns land which ho tills biinaetC and ho diifera little in poaitioD fivit 
a cultivator. Masters generally advance their sorvnntii money oa 
easy terms, often free of interest stopping part of their wages tee 
payment, IF a master fails to help him a servant baa geoerallj 
resort to tlie worst cJass of lenders. 

1 To illuatmto tliu fiti-iit to wbL-h tbe manoli tliat M the pnmlnin or bonna mnlM 
fonncrif pravAiW, Mr. iiulitbdiia, thciab-jiichiDof Vita.cltM«eM«{n whlcbkbarf 
««ontodin1H.'>0>ckuowl<xlKvd the rocupt o(£121R«. ISO) Ihoughuulv i:6(IU.Mt 
wocMtiuUly puil. 


Of ill borrowor*, oxodpt the lalionring olaasce, ha8b«ndmon aro 
'the worab olT. HuBbanaaien may be rouglily divided into four 
clauses, t«n per cent with good orodit, twooty-five with foir credit, 
(i)rty with scnnty credit, and twenty-fi«j with littlo or no «rudit, 
Tbo tpii piT cent of 6r§t class husbandmen are well off, and excejit 
occasioniilty to moot cxtreordinftry CxpcD)«os of DUtrriagDS and laud 
inipi'uvoincnt, they nre generally in uo want of monoy. Thoy havo 
good credit, and can borrow np to £50 (Rs. 500) on perannnl 
security. To rniso loans of more than £^0 (Rti. 500) ttioy roquiirt 
to niortgngo Uad, honHea, or other immovable property, nnd thv 
BaniH litnt on mortga)^ are nbont three-qnartors of the valne of the 
murtgngcd property. First cluHS husbandmen also occasionully 
lend 8nm!l hiiiiih to the poorer hualModmon of their own villngo. 
The twenty-five per cent of second cla§a hnsbandmen are fairly off. 
Tboy are generally in nued of no loatiH either for food or seed, but 
ithey ofton borrow to pay tlio Government aSBe-tstnent and to meet (ho 
extraordinary expenses of marriages and other family events. They 
4iaT0 fair c«dit, and con borrow np to ElO (Rs. 100) on personal 
aoourity. To raiHo loans of more timn £10 (K«. 100), Uiey rotiujfo 
to mortgage land or houses, and the sams lent on mortgage are 
one-half to three- qimrtorij of the value of the mortgaged property. 
The forty per cent of third clasa hutibanduien are well olf for a fuw 
months after harvest. During the rest of tho year their condition 
is indifferent, and tboy hnvo to borrow for food as well us to pay 
the Uovernment assesiimeut and to meet the extraordinary ex{)cn!ios 
of mnrriagos and other family events. In poor seasons their 
— dilton 18 generally miserable. Their credit is scanty, and they 
not raiM cash inana without mortgaging land, homes, or cattle. 
On personal secarity grain advances mn made for food and seed on 
condition that tho advance is paid bock at harvest time with an 
addition or vddfia of one-fourth to one-half of the quantity advanced. 
The tweaty-Gve per cent of the fourth class are badly off during tho 
^renter part of tho year. Besides tilling small plots of land tlioy 
work as 6eld labourers. They have genentlly little or uo credit, 
and livD from hand to month. Aa a rule husbandmen do not raise 
loau» in ca^h to buy seed for sowing. Ah tho quantity of seed 
required in eomnaratively small, the first three clasaea or soventy-fivo 

I per cent of husbandmen generally bold enongb seed to sow the 
early or k/inrif crop. Uusbandmuu ttometimca need seed to sow 
the cold weather or rabi crops, and (or this they borrow aoed in 
adrancti on condition that the advance is paid baick at harvest timo 
togelhor with one-fourth to one-half of tho quantity ndvnnccd. 

Especially >n outlying villager few moneylenders do not also lend 
«fmin. Most villages nave a shopkeeper who combines nionoy- 
londing witli dealing in cloth and grain, oa well of in ^picos, 
condiments, sugar, and other edible comforts. Of the purchases of 
'BpioM and other condiments ncredJt occonnt is kept which is settled 
not oftener than once or twice a year. Prom time to time bonda 
are passed for the amount supposed to bo owing, which is oftoo 
enormousiy in excess of the ainonnl really duo. Tho customer kepps 
lio account and tho abopkceper takes a curreapouding adrantnge. 
This arrangemest between shopke«per8 and coatomera is lewi 




[Bomlwy Ouett 


Chapter 7- 


common iu towns tluin in tho mral part«. The sjst«m on wbicli 
grnin i» usually advanced is knovrii lui (he vddhi-diditi thai i« Uw 
one and a half iocreaae. Grain adraocea last only from the beginning 
of the HODth-wust ruins in Juno to tho curly harvest in October or 
NovumbcT. Foniiorly bonds were not titkcu fur gmiu advonodO. 
At present a bond ia passed in which the quantity of grain lent and 
tho qaanlity to bo rcpnid nro Htiit<?d at arbitrary priooa more or les* 
oorrosponding to tho market rate. Tho )x)ti(I is p&tsetl aa a oaah 
advance to avoid the higher stamp rates which attach to a grain or 
other trsDVfor in kind. By a ntutnal andcrstanding tho paymont is 
always made in grain. The iiicruat«e or tuidha i» geuorally twenty- 
five to fifty per cent and sometimes hot rarely as much as aerenty-fivo 
or lUO per cent. This sy-stom aomotimos presses hard on indigvot 
oultiratora att the creditor is cajvful to take his nbare of the crop aa 
BOOn as the harvest ia reaped. At the same time it eDOOorages the 
storage of grain by doalora a practini of tho bighat n»eIuInow ^ 
timea of scarcity, ■ 

It is the general opinion in tlie dista-iot thal.liowever mach tli? 
district may have iticriiuscd in trade wealth and resonrcea since it 
came under British ruSo in 18IS, tho indrbtodnoss of tho landhwlding 
(daasee is not less bnt greater than it then wiu<. IJndor the m)e of 
the S&tdm chiefs land was not liable to sale for debt. The lender 
had no wish to get tJie dubtor's hind ; his object was to rvcuvcr th« 
interest due on the sums adrancud. Tho fvaders were fewer in 
number and mon of higher position and of more forbeamnco than 
tiie pr(Hk!iit IvndvrH. Ax tho means of recovering doht went 
oncertain care was taken not to mnko nd^-n^ces without secnnty. 
Soon after tho transfer of the district (18-18) the rednctaon of (he 
state demand which ac(x>mpanicd the introduction of iho revnnne 
settlement, » reduction which roughly varied frxmi twenty to thirty 
and was often as much as fifty- per cent, increased the landboldora 
credit. Their credit was further enhanced by tho free powert 
of disposing of land iu mortgage or by sale which were secured 
to tho lioUlcrs of land under the provisions of the Sun-cy Acl 
I. of 1865. At the snmo time the landholder's credit was 
swollen by the abnormal choapnoss of money iiui] the bigb pricea of 
field produce which mled between 18(j2 and 1805 tnc years ol 
the American war. The landholdcra borrowed recklessly. The 
enhanced valno of tho land lu a security induced the lender* to 
encourage Uie landholders to borrow and introdoced a new and 
lower claas of lenders. At the same time tho provisions of the Civil 
Proucdnre Code which was pa«KC<l in 1S77 haa incrtoaed tho ease 
with which a lender could recover his debts, and the Limitation Act 
of IHQ'J, though it waspauod in the interest of the dcbtor.i with the 
object of relieving them from iIki burden of old and ancestral dubti 
was tnrocd by tho lenders to their own profit. The debtor at the 
end of the three years' limitation was forced either to give up hind 
or to sign a fresh bond in which a debt was acknowledged composed 
of the amount origiiiidly borrowed together with compound interest 
np to the date of renewal. The soreness caused by ttio working of 
the Limitation Act was intensified by the dccrwwc in the valno of 
land which accomi>auied the fall of pruiliuv price* in IS73and l»*i I., 
Creditors seeing the valno of tlielr security declining pressed 




debton ttd OMeed the exasperation which manlted in Uio fifp^an 
crimes of 1873-74. 

In 1S73>74 the second assistant colloctor notiood the fallowing 
caseH of agrarian crime.' In the Tillage of Cbiuclm in Tilggaon six 
men who had a lonfj-stauding ffrpdgonf^insta tinjarut V&ni moaey- 
lendor entered hi» honae nt niiSnit^lit, lutinlercd hiin with axes, and 
severely wounded his aged father, his younger brother, and his sister, 
Foar of the men wore hanged and one was transported for life. At 
Hitignngaon in Kb&i((piir AJor men, whoao whole proportj had been 
sold by a Oujanlt Vioi creditor, attacked their persecutor and cut off 
his eara and tho iitump of hifl nose which had escaped on a forinor 
occasion. At ViH^pur >u TlUgaon one Appa EAvji owed money on a 
bond to Hirrtehand Giijar, Uirflchand threatened to sell Appa Rivji'a 
land, but pnnitii^Dd liu would nut sell tt if Appa Riyji got one Appa 
MfiJi to go hail for bim. Appa MAli accordinglr pnKsod a boDcI o£ 
£20 (Its. 200] to the Gnjar, giving his house and land as s<;curity. 
The agreonicat was that Appa liAvji should at the same time in 
eonsidoration of this and otber debts pass Appa AUli n bond of £40 
(Hs. tOO) giving hia land as security. This bond was novor forth- 
coming. A'pnii MAIi waa put oS time after time. Meanwhile the 
Gujar eaforced Appa Mali's bond for £20 (Rn. 200). After all due 
proooodinga in the civil court Appa MAli's lands and honao wore 
soiled and hia btnd was given to Appa RAvji to cultivate. Appa 
Mfili despairing of redress a'aylaid Hir&chand Gujar and murdered 
him in open* daylight in the presence of sovcral witnesses. Ho 
confessed every thing and courted the fulleist inquiry into hia money 
transactions. Appa Mdli was banged. 

'ITio agrarian riots of 1875 were not so common in Silt£ra as in 
Pooua and Ahmadnagar. Only one instanoo came boforo the Riots 
Oofflmission.' On the tenth of September 1876 a riot took place 
in tbc village of Kokrud on the north bank of the Vdriia, some 
few miles W4»t of Shirfitn, » country town about sixty miles south 
\ of Satdra. Kokrud contained 150 to 200 hoosea. The riot was 
Against the mouoylonder of tho village, Nilna Go jar, whoso 
dealings extended over many of tho surroiiiidingvillagOH. In Koknid 
alone lOS persons owed Nflna Oujar £995 l£. (Ks. 0959) bcsidfls 
gmiu and in Chincholi some thirty persons had given him bonds to 
theextetilof £1903*.<Rs.lOUU). One of tho rlngloadors stated 
t the immediate cause of the outbreak was two attachments which 
shortly before bees exocutod by Nitnaon tho housesand property 
two of the villagers. He was also slated to have harueavd tho people 
nerally. The reault was a combination of all castes and profeasious. 
bout n hundred villagers, who all appeared to bo rt-aidents of 
Kukrud, uiol about niuu at night in tho temple of Mariamma on tho 
skirts of the village, and from it ])roceeded to the Gujar's bouse. 
Tho house which was attiu'kt-d contained the shop. It adjoined but 
was separate from the Gujar's dwelling house. Itahiru Ming took 
command and divided the riotorB into bands. One band of seven 
eight wero iet to break into the shop from tho front, and a 

Chapter V. 





' Dmcui Riota CominiMiao, Appendix A. 40-41. 
* DovMD Rjota Commiirion, Aptxadit C. 10- IX. 

[BombBj OauttMr 


£liftpt«r V. 



Kocond biuid was poeted cotu- Uk> back door, Tho rest wore Etauoned 
at tiio various iipprofK'huK to prvvont intvrfontitn: hy kocping up s 
fii-e of stonov. Twii Uujar tuco and throe women wrre in the boose 
nt tlio tiiuB of the attack. They wore warnod of the intC'nded 
Attack and had tafcon tho procantion to gut tho rureuuc j'-Uil to 
sloep with thurii. Thi8 wait the only assistaucfl giveu them by the 
i-ilht^^ officers. The boose was broken into by the front dtxr aud 
windows. Tho GujnrH rotrtmbod ilitu tui inner room, from which 
the back door oucuvd itibu (ho yard. The nicih tore up the accuunt 
books and piled tbem ou the floor. Oil was poured on the heap, 
btrchea were brought, tho heap was lighted, and tho booMi firod. 
With the hi'lp of tho jmUI the Gnjars ceoaped to the next bonne 
atul fn>i» it to a nei){hboor's direlUng. The house and shop were 
burnt with a logs of cloth and grain estimated by tho Gnjar at 
£700 (Ks. 7000). Tliirty-six per-unit wore arreatod beaidixt five 
whom (ho police Aout up as wliD»iuies. Of the accnaed twenty-four 
wereEonbis including members ofthetwofamiliuB of village hoadnrao, 
ona was a ChuiiibhiLr, one u MhAr, six were Mungs, him a Sut^r, one 
II tiurav or pneat, one a Nhdvi or barber, one a Belddr or qoany- 
limn, four wore KhumbhiLrs or potters, and one was an Attdr or 
Mnxnlmfln sconl-hiiwkor. Most yf tho accused udmilt«d their t^bore 
m the riot. One of the leaders a HfUi or woavermadea full confession, 
while Bahiru MAngand others doniedall knowledge of tho couspira^. 
News of the riut^ in thu Puona and Nngar districts bad no doubt 
rl^acht)d all psurta of Uio couutry, but there was no 'evidence to 
show that the riot was originated by outsiders from other parts of 
the Doccan. On the report of tho Duccan Kiotd Commission SiUiira 
ntiK included in the area to which tJie Oi'ccan Agrlcultnri&l*' KclteE 
Act (Act XVII of 1870) has been applied.' Under the provisions ot 
this Act no land can bo eoldinosocationof udecn'onulcii^ispc^-itically 
pledged, the regiatrolion of all lands has been made compuLidry, and 
erety transaction has to bo investigated independently of tho Umd. 
Tho ooiirt« have power to rcliovu tno debtor by decreeing paymonta 
by instalments, while arbitratiuo is oncoamged by the system of 
village muusifs and conciliators. The meat striking residt of the 
Act hiM l>ccn the extraordinary check to litigation, whilo the rapid 
i-ecovery of the dislriet from tlie Ions caused by tlie 1^76-77 famine 
nnd the ease with which the revenue has been realised during the 
four yenr» ending I88'2 seem to show that the landholder's power _ 
of borrowing hn* not been unduly curtailed. 

Since the 1S7G-77 famine, exix>pt in the oostem subdivisions i 
bl^n Khatitv and Khiin^pur. little land haa fallen oat of till _ 
Though it continncs in the former holder's name much land baa tat^j 
passed from huflbandiueu to non-cultivating moneylenders, ettber 
under civil court decrees or by mortgage. Until tho introdnctioa 
of the Dcccnn Agriculturists' Relief Act land was frequently sold 
under simple money dccroon. In sudi cn«o>« the hardship ia to some 
extent softened by the fact that tho creditor has often for want of a 
tenant to let the land to the former holder. Thobai^inasto the share 

ons ofl 

1 Dotiul* of tUo wui'kiuj[ g( tbc Aat aro givou in tlis Tooiik Statiatkol Aoooonl. 




Ivfi to the tenant i« ofton hftrd enonj^h on paper, bnt it is mid tliat 
tlio holder'a special knowlodgo bolp«t liim to eriulo tliu Huvcrity of 
Ibo tvrms. tSinco tlie paesiog of tlie Deocaa Agncaltnrista' RvlivF 
Act in 1879, nart of tho land mortgaged hu bmm Kdeomod. Land 
is mortuca^a either with or withoab poaMBsion. In it>ortgiif;ea 
without poHtsesHion part of tlio produce is paid to the moneylender 
intemst till Uiu mortgago is redectnod. In mortgages with 
iseaeion the Manitb* or Liiiff^yat tnoneyloiider gooCT&lly 
msolf tills tho land; while the BrSiinaa or Gujanli asd M&rwiir 
Vflnt moneylund^r, ua a nilo, allows tfao mortgagor to till the land 
as teoaut, generally ou condition tlial tlie tenant ymyH the landlord 
half to three-fifths of the produce and that the hmdlord pays tlio 
(joT(!mRi«nt »ssci»im«nt. In souio cosca in which the posse&aioQ of 
buid has been tranafcrrotl (o thoiii, ut]>ecially to buKliuudiiivn, tliu now 
holdore have inrestod money in the land ana taken steps to improve iL 

B«pO(wiUy in the south and south-cast among tho Jains, laboor 
mortgage prevails to a lii»ib!<l (.'xtvnt among small landholdeni and 
poor hbourers. When pressed for money either for marnages or for 
the payment of debts men of this class occasionally plod^ tl^ur 
BorriceH to profestional moneylenders or to laree and well-to-do 
hoitbandmen. The mortgaged serfices are generally valaed at 3*. to 
■14. (lb. IJ-S) a month;a taboorer has to servo five years to work 
off a loan of £10 (Rs. 100). The labourer receives tlie money to 
advance. In return be is bound to give bis whole time to bis master 
ami has scarcely any leisure during which to mako private enming& 
He master un<lcrt»kos to feed tho servant and to provide him 
with a turban, a coarse blanket or kumlili, a waistcloth or tthotar^ 
and one pair of shoes a year. Unless ho tnkes his meals at the 
credittjr'K, the Mervant generally roceires from his master • mootUy 
allowance of forty-eight to aixly-four pounds (6-8 paylit) ot 
grain and a small quantity of condiments. The engagement does not 

grovide for any obarges for lod^n;^ or for marriage or other 
icidental expenae.i. Though they are not entered in the engagement 
A Kinall reward for occasional good service and a proaunt oi a turban 
or a waintcloth are given to tho servant on marriages or ether 
social ceremonies in the creditor'n family. Thongh the bondsman's 
aervtoos are entirely at the disposal of the master, the master can- 
not hand hiui to another person except for a time and for emergent 
>sons, and with the debtor'.i con-^ent. Nor does tho master's right 
tend to tho bondsman's wife and children even though they are 
rn during th« term of their father's service. In co-tes of fiickncas, 
old age, isabili^ to servo, or donth, tlie servant's wife and children 
Ifive thmr aervices to the master to work oSthounliqniibited portion 
of bis loan. Tho master cannot inflict corporal punishment on 
the servant. The course generally adopted to enforce a bondsuuui'g 
aervicu is bo warn him whenever he is found to be remiss or 
negli^ient in his doty, and to deduct the number of blank or 
UBsabBfactory days from the ]K>riod of the service. Servants generally 
naaage to work to their masters' satisfaction. When higher rates 
of wagea attract him olsowhure, the servant arranges to repay tho 
balaoce of the debt tn cash and then leaves his master's service. If 
bo Unvccs without making any agreement tho toiut of brokeu 


La .Ml 


Ska vie 


Chaptcir V- 





faith hauatt Iiiin whorover ho goos and makefl it diGBctilt For 
to Itiid emplojment. lu moitt CMds Uie Korrant is hitliful to 
engagetneot aad will ataud tempting offers of increased wago«. 
ESsccpt uudor special circamstances the mortcrageof labour does Dot psoa 
from fiithcT to aon. The system of domestic »l«Tery or hereditary 
eorvicG which was a marked feature of aociety under the rule of thio 
Sdt.Ara chiofg, has almost ontirelj passed away. In Bomo o£ the 
liighor Mariltha anil Urahtnaii faniilit;» tlivro arv etill nialo and 
female serranta who are attached to the household and some oC 
whom generally accompany a daughter o£ the boose to bei 
bu&bund's homo. 

About thirty yeara ago (1858) the wages were very tow, aboufe 
two-thirds of the present wages. The present (1833) ralea are for 
a carpenter Is. i'L (8J cm.), for a blocKsmith Si/. (5^ as.), for a 
Imoklsyer T^d. (-Vj as.), for a maaon d}i. (G( ad.), and for an 
unskilled workman Hd. to i^d. (l)-3a4.)> Women are paid 
two-thirds and childron, when thoy caru anything, oDO-half m a-, 
nian'ti wages. Laboarora are paid either in kind or in ca»h, daily 
wefkly or fortnightly according to circumstanooa. Of late the 
tvndoncy has boon to change from wngcs in kind to wagos in cash.' 
field work laate nearly nine uiontha in Iho yt^ar, from June to 
February. Between March and May field labourera are generally 
idle. Somo support themselves on tJieir savings if thoy have ai^ 
and wmo live ou money or grain burrowed from moneylenders on 
condition of paying it back during the next worlun^ season. 
Labourers employed at sugorcnno mills aro paid specially high rates, 
a akillod labourer oaniing 9d. to 1*. (G-8 a».), and a oommoalaboursr 
6d. (4 (u.) a day. The? are allowed to eat as much molasses or gul 
as thoy ploaso, and idso uoch to take homo a small quantity of 
niolassuH and one augarcana Ijnbour^rs are in rare casea employed 
by weavers and oilmen to work for them and are paid 6d. (4 as.) and 
4t{d. (3 as.) a day with no cxtnx allowanoe. There am no steam 
factories in the district. Women employed in spinning cotton are 
paid SJti, {2i as.) a day. They work from eight in the morning to 
five in the oveniug with uno hour's n.'at ut noou. The local unskuled 
labourera are chiefly Mh&rs, J^dngs, Ildmoahia, and others. Good 
CH.sto Hindus havo no objection to employ theso laboorers out of 
diiiirs. Laudholdertt do not consider tlicir gervauts as members of 
their families. Thoy seldom feed them, clothe them, or help them 
to bear t)iiL< exponso of marriage or other domestic ceromouias. The 
labouring classes liud more ooustaut and better paid employment 
than formerly. Those who are not given to liquor generally save 
enough to bo able to enjoy specially good food ana to wear epociaUy 
good clolhoa ou holidays. 

Yearly price details, which are little more than cstimatee, are 
available for the forty-threo years ending 1882. During those 
forty-three years tho rupee price of Indian millet, which is tho 
staple grain of the district, varied from seventeen poonds in 1879 



■ lu JilvU> Hull] woiken md •gmctiiae* pkid mly l|iJ.(It at.) a day aodcuui i 



Id ninety-tbree ia 1842 and arerapod fif^-bntr ponnds. Of tho 
forty -til rev yenn, iu three tko prico was bolow eighty pounds tba 
rapee, ninety-three Id 1812, eif;hty-6vo iu ISoO, nnd eighty-oDo in 
J856 ; in Gve it inut botireoti eighty and seventy poonda, sorenty- 
•enn in 184^ and eeventy.fonr in 1851, 1852, ISdS, and lfi5i : in 
Uiirleeu it tras botwocn seventy and sixty, HOVL-iity in 1835, sixty- 
aereo in 18(>4, sixty-six in 1869 ISCoiind 1869, ^isly-tive in )845, 
sixty-throo in ISW, sisty-two in I860, 18«1, l»l32 and 1803, and 
Bixty-onc in 1844 and 1^18 ; in nine it was botwcca sixty nnd fifty, 
sixty in ISaS, fifty-eight in 1«H> iind 18(1, tifty-si-ven in 1857 nnd 
18<>6, fifty-three iu ISC? ISlS and !S70, and lifiy-ono in I&82 ; in 
three it wns between fifty nnd forty, Eorty-nine in ISSl, forty-Uvo 
in 1647, Aud forty -four in 18l(> ; in soven it vna l>i>tween thirty and 
twenty, thirty in 1871 and 1877, twenty.*ight in 1872, twenty-six 
in 187;j, twcnty-throe in 18!iO, twonty-tWT> in 1S7&, and twcnty-ono 
in 1878 ; and in throw it wa« bctwtxiu twenty and Gftet'n, twruty in 
1874, nineteen in 1876, and seventeen in 1879. Till 18t»5, except in 
1S40, 1841, 184(i, 1847, and 1857. tho prico was below sixty pounds 
the ropee. Siocv 18(>5, except in I8C9, the price has bik-n above 
six^ poonda. The forty-three years may be divided into 1>ix 
ponods. Except in 1842 when tho prico was ninety-three poonds, 
and in 1846 anu 1847 when the prices were forty-four and forty- 
five poonds respectively, in the fmt period of ten years ending 1849 
tho price varied from seventy-seven in 1843 to fifty-oi^ht in 1840 
and 18+1 mid ivwraged sixty-two pounds. In tlie second period of 
eeven ycant ending 185C, tJie price varied from eighty-five in 1850 
to seventy in lHo&, and averaged Boventy-six pounds. In tho third 
peritid of nine years ending 1865, tho prico varied from sixty-scrm 
in 1804 to fifly-s0ven in 18&7 and averaged sixty-three ponods. In 
tho fourth pcriodof five years ending 1 870, thcprioo varied from sixty- 
six in l8<>9tofifty-threeinl8fi7 1868 and 1«70 nnd averaged fifty -six 
pounds. In ibu (iftti period of ton years ending 1880, ihe price varied 
Cromthirtyiu 1871aiidl877tnseTeuteenia l871)undovemged twenty- 
fourpounda. In the sixth period of two yenrs 18S1 and 1SS2 tho pnoca 
were forly-ninoponndsfor 1881 and fifty-one for 1882. The details are ; 
SiUdnt Oraim Frit*» ia Pawad* for l\e Rupu, 1S40 • ISSt. 

fiiar FKun. 

tWOJD PniM. 









t t 







fabo lUM.. 


















H M 
















BIM ~. .~ 

U M 


















iMIkn MUU 

Itma Puira. 

VWrni PauotL 

K » 
M » 





Cbaptn 7. 

MMra OMia/MCM ta Pota^/orlh, Rupiw, /£fO> r«n-«OB(fanod. 


Firm fMuniL 













ludiwt UlIlfE 













■I U 












M U 



The tablo used in weJghinK precious stooee, diamouds, nibiiM, 
emeralds, and pearU is four gr&itui of nhcnt or inxtoeQ gmios of rice 
one ratti, and tw«iit)'*four raUvtonG tiik. These weights are squaro or 
round and lire made of flint. The table for weighing guldaod KJlver 
it eight gunjiU onQ md«a, tweivo nitUag ono Iota, t-Keaty-ioar toUi^ 
one nAcr, and forty ah<tr« one man. I1te guuja u the soed of the 
Abras prccatoriii!<. The md^a and tola are either Bf)aar«, round, or 
ojlindnoal, and are made of crystal, glass, broken chinawan), 
lead, brass, or bollmotal. For tho tola the Imperial rupoe ia 
generally used, which weighs I IJ m/ttda. Iron, sino, bnus, Icail, tin, 
nnti other cheaper motaU, and cotton are weighed by the table, two 
uniha-chhalaka ouo chlmlah, two ehhatdks ono adfdv, two ad;iat:s 
one pav, two pavf one uc-lihi^r, two afhherv ono iih/-r, t hirtvrn thirr* oua 
man, and twenty man« ono kkandi. The aniha ehkatiik weighs abont 
twoanda half and tho «Aeraboat seventy-six Imperial rape(». Spic«s, 
sngar, molassca, alkali, coffee, and othei- dnigs are weighed by this 
fable, two «av<iMi« one aiiosJ^*, two aiteskrU one pii^ri, twopamv one 
dhadtt, four dkoAA^ one matt, and twenty maru ona AsAoiufi. Tbfl 
aavdshtr weighs thirty Imperitil rupees. 

Rico and other grain;* and salt are gonerally sold by measu: 
and rarely by weight. The table is two nilvdti one kolva, two kolv 
one chifta, two ehipUh ouu mdpta, two tndpla« one sfter, two »h«ra ona 
adeshn, two ai/^c/tW* one pdyli, sixteen jiiit/lu) one man, and twenty 
miinn one khandi. These meaanrea are shaped like an houTglass, are 
made of wood, iron, copper, or brass, and have a Government stamp 
pr»«ed on them. The Ki/ni of grain weighs about 6} and thon^^^fArt 
about 208 Imperial rupees. Milk, clarified buiiler, and oil ar« sold 
either by weights or rinL-HSiiro^. Thu weights are the same as thoas 
need in Mclliiig wppei- and sugar. The measures are, two pdvthen 
one achhrr, and two adihera one aher. The fdvther weighs twenty 
Imperial rupees. The measures are either maps made of copper 
and bra«s, or loUU rnado of earthenware. In the eastern sub-diTisions 
of M&n, Khat&v, Kh^ufLpur, and T^gaon oil ia measured by the ladle 
or pali, and a sot of smnll metal bowla or lotAa which serve as a 
qiiartor, a half, and a ono fhitr measure. Perfumed oils and powder 
are weighed by the weights used in weighing gold and silver. Tho 
length measures in lisu are the f7<i/ and rar made of iron, brass, copper, 
or wood. Tlioyiyisaboutthirty-ficeinches, luidis divided into twenty 
Coor lasiiti of a little less than an inch and a half each. The vdr is about 
one taau longer than the gaj. Except silk waistrloths or pildmbara, 
brocade shoulderoloths or ilupfit<h, and other costly srticJcft which 
are sold by weight, cloth and piece-goods are sold by thu length. 

Deecan ] 


Bamboo mitttinff or tattyiia and coanw Rinttmg usotl in protooUng 
walk fr^im rain are Bold by tb« aiirCace. The surface meiVMiirt^s nra 
cither llio Eii(;iish foot and yard, or tho Kativ-o ciibiU or hdl» and 
ttpaim or vitd. Tlie luit is tho longtfa from Uio clbow-joint to tbe 
end of the middle fiu^^r. All masonry vork, walla of brick or 
stone, foil n lint io 11 H, [ilintli^, nnd plntfomifl, nre mewarcd by cabic 
foot. Timber iti measurad by the cubit or by tbe gitj. In sndi 
earthwork aa digging r«sorvoirs and ponda, tho anit of meaanremont 
iH cnllud rluirl-aJi. Tho cubio oontontt of n fkavkadi which is ten 
htUn long, ten hnU broad, and one hdt d«ep, aro ono buadri>d cubio 
hdh. ji^rtb-works Bocb as monnds of earth, roads, and ciuial 
ombankmcntH, M also rciigb-ht-wn atonoii and rond metal, which 
am HjJnMid and piled in lieapa ou the ground and UMod for 
motallin);r roads, aro nioasurcd by the cnbic foot Chips of atonea 
BBiid iit.ii niolnl are sold by » mcMuro culled tlio khan<ti. Bofore 
tho tiitroductioii of tbe rerenoe annrey in 1S5:J, the higha vim umoiI 
aa a land mcasuro. b^ hiiU or 8^ foot mado one hHlii, twenty 
Itdthii ono jidnd. And twenty piind* one bigha. Since tho introduction 
of the revenue survey, except iu a few uuaurveyed alienatijd 
villages, the bigha miwtturo haa given place to the English acre. 

Cliapter T- 


(Bombay Qaietim 

Chftpt«r VI> 




Iv the daysof tho MaritliJis there were two priiicipiil rootea 
the SnIiyAtlris. One tho Poona-Kolhilpar lUid Komilalc 
rnn by the little Bor pass in Poena, the S&lpa pass at the 
ROrtli-east of Koregaon, the Nbftri pass soDth-cast of Eorecaon, and 
tlion cither by tho line of tho pro»vnt SAtnra-TAsgnon rood tliroagli 
'VAtgaott and .Miraj, or by TflrgaoD and Maaiir to KarM. S&tAra 
lay slightly oS tho road to the Hoiith-weat from tho village of Denri 
Even tut far back hm llm days of Sbivilji the Sjil{)« pnsH i» said to 
hare been made practicable for wheel traffic and tho old bno is still 
pointed out. It is Tory steep according to modem nolionji. Tho 
other main lino vnu that cant Ut Paiidhnrpar by the Kaldhon 
paBH. From the earliest times the Mala, North and South TivTiv,and 
Varandhd passes wtireiisod for pack bullocks to and from ibeKoiikan. 
While lit ShiugnApur iu Mdn and Dikaal in Khat^r there were paths 
communi eating with the Phaltan plain. 

Forts nciirly iilwayK nitirkod the old pns80e. VAsota and Sh&hl 
were near the North Tivra pass; Bhairavgad between the Knmbbi 
and Mala pasios ; Maliimandangad noar tuo Amboli pnn ; PrachitgiJ 
ooar tho South Tirra pasei ; l*mtitpgad noar the J£vli pOAS ; Kenjalgad 
and Kamalgad near the Wjii passes. TAtbT&da and Vdrugad com- 
cinndvtl roiitus into tlio Phaltan country. A very ancient pilgrim 
ronte marked by reft-lioiiseN nt tho nrincinsl villages ia the 
KHtniSgiri-Pandhnrpm- rente, which passed on the South Tivra pass 
Ihenee either by Yelgiion to Kiir&d, Siirii, and M/iyni or by Ashta 
Tfl»gaon and Vita into the Atp^di sub-diTi&ioa now part of the Pi 
Pmtinidhi's posscssiona. 

In' 1820 ten routes or lines of traflicran tTiroiigh tlioSHtimdistric 
Of these ten lines, two went north and kouIIi from Poona to Beli_ _ 
two went north-east from S&t^ra to Sirur in Poona and Abmadnagar, 
two went cast from >SiUiini to Shol&pur, two went aoiith^wcat from 
Karfid,oue to Btijjtpur and the other to M^Tan in RatnA^ri, and two 
went west to Diiuoli in Bntniigiri. Of tho two lines which ran ftonth 
from Poona to Belgaum through Siltira, one line, about 241 miles long, 
went by tlie Bor pass through Koregaon, and the other Hud, abont 
213 miles long, crossed tbo Nira near 8hirval at tliirty miles Bontli 

■ ComniJnJ from mntrriaU «Dpplicd by Mr, .1, W. P. Mulr-Mackcniic (XTI 

Mr. C. lirvrutoii C. K. cxuuutlvc oiiginonr, ai<J Ifjio BulitUlgir UilAti CutisAilbax S4t' 

• Clnno*' Itio«ntry, 31-87, 44-46. 64.C9. ^ 




Y Ashta 



of Poona an<l tfairty-foar miles north of Sitim, »ni] pMsed by tho 
iGi^matiki pana thrungU S&Un, K)*rJE<],aD(l IsttfLmpnr. The Kh&uuttki 
pa», nbo called the Eh&Ddita or Uarali pass, was thirty>six miles 
■outh o( PooDR And twoDtj-citftit miles north of S^t&rs, and was a 
eood road for cnttle. Of the two liaca which ran nortb-oaat from 
Ei&tira, ooa went oiffhiy-Beveu milea to Sirur in Poona, and tlie 
otbcr wuHt 120 miles to AhmiidnsgMr. For tliirtj-four railo« from 
S&t^ra to Shirval both tbeso lines followed tho Poana>Belguum lino 
bj the Kh^matki pass. Of the two lines which wont aaet from 
SitSkTA to 8hol£tptir b}r Pnndhnrpnr, one line, about 131 miles lon^, 
went by Triputi, Vinhlipur, KImtguu, and Finnrli, and suath of thia, 
tho otber line, about 148 mUes long, went by Rahimatpiir, 
PnNcs&rli, Miyni, and tho Kaldbon pass. Tho Kaldhon pass, though 
fit for cartA, Itad a bml ascocL Of the tiro Une« which ran «outti> 
wvst fi\>m KarAd one line, about lITmiles long, went by the Ankiitira 
or Aiia.-^kum puss (o ItAjApnr, and thoothor linu, about ll9mtlei* 
long-, went by Ki)lhSpiir and tlio Phouda pass to M&lvan. Oftbell? 
miloH by the Anhuara paaa only thirty-three milea from KarAd to 
Malkdpar wore fit for carts. Though it was much usvd by VttnjirM, 
the Aukiuira jnutn road had nvilht^ rCeit-hoiises nor temples. t)f 
tho 1 19 miles by the Phonda paaa the eeventy-fire miles from Karid 
to the puss wore fit for carta, tbo two milvs through tbo puss wcro fit 
for pack Initlockjt, and the r\-»l ivoa fiiirly good through thin forest. 
The Phonda pass, one of the easiest rciutea between the Konkaa 
and thu Doocan, was bolter than tho AiikuHm pnsK. Of tbo two 
liDOa which went wQst to Dipoli in Kaln^^giri, one line from 
SholApnr, about 222 mileR long, followed the SSt&ra-ShoUpm- line 
by tbo Kuldhon pass to Fusce^vli in Khatitv at 1 16 miloa from 
ShoUijiiir. From PuHoidiYli this line turned aouth-west by 
Uulbirjietb, Pitan, and tho Kumbhirii pass. The road from 
PttM>s&vli to the Knmbbjirli pass and beyond through Batn^^ri 
was generally bad and rocky. The other line to DJipoli.aboat sixty* 
seven milea long, went west from S&t£ra by tho Amboli pasif. For 
thirty-tbrvo mUos from SdtAra to Valrau itour thn pa»» the road 
wna fair, the fire milea through the pass Ihongb passable were 
difficult to cattle, and the rest (hrongb Batn^giri was vxtremoly bad. 
Tbo Amboli pass wsii steep towards tho top aod hud a circuitous 

Ueforei 1840 cart traffic was almost onknown. The first mado 
road was from Poona to Siitiira by tho SiUpa pass. In 1841 the 
wholo of this road was made fit for carls. In 1848, except along 
the old Poona and S&t4ra<Mah£baleshrar made roads, the tmfilc 
went by pack bollocks. The road from Poohil to Belganm aod 
Dhirwir which thon ran by tbo present Nbivi.Deur and Siitjira- 
Tiigaoti lino, and tbo road from Sit^a to Kolhilpur wliich then 
tan by Masur, Kar&l, and Kasognon to the Vilnia, were both partly 
pMsablo to carts. During tho fair soasoa the route from HHira to 
Poona by the Khdmatki p«ss was chosen by bullock drivers aod 


I Bond detaib lor ISid ud IMd an chua> takea from ibo Utc Sk BsrUa Frrn's 
AOBia] fUporis. 





Chapter VI- 

Iionemeo, but thd oM Poona road !>>- tlio SdlpA paas teems to Iian 
been that cbiclljr nsc<l by oartft. Id 18i8, a ntontlily aTcmgeoE 
about 8000 carts, inclading titose coming from Paadharpur by 
Pbaltao, went by tho SAlpa pnes.* In 18-t9, Hir Bartle Frero, tbpa 
CommiHsioDor of B&t&ni, iiolioetl that tbe direct difitanoo from ihe 
^ea of tbf cbiof Sdtira marts varied from thirty-fivo to aiity milea^ 
while that of tho marts lu other Dt^ocnn districts nod EhAudeoli 
Ysriwl from fifty tu \2Tt miton. luspiU'ofthiHneamesaa by cart roods 
tiie coast was 140 to 200 miles from SfiUra and only fievcnty to 
180 miloa from tho other districts. This mm due to the Sahyfldri 
barrier between SAt^ra atid the coast. At this timo tho Sahy^ri 
pusses witliiit Sitt^ralimitBwero, atthe best, fit only for laden calllr, 
and even these cattle tracks lay fiftoon to thirty miles apart. Under 
■ British niio thrvu Uiuibng Siulra pnssc« have been made fit for wheels 
ucroMH tli» Saby&dris. In 1857, the opening of tbe Varaadba pass 
put W(ti within sixty miles of Miihiid by eart road; in I8&4 tho 
Oponinj;^ of thu Kiimbbiirli [tnKH put Kar&d ivithin sixty miles of 
Cbipluu ; and in 1^76 the opening of the P'itstierald pi^s placed 
WiU and S^tAra within fifty miles of llahiid. At present these 
tUVott pBKXCs form the chi»f outlets to the comt.* ^Vith regaid to 
the comparative efficiency of packs and carta as means of transport, 
Sir Bartlo Frcro calcabitod that carts saved two-fiftbs is cost nQ<[ 
one-thinl in timo. 

oost nQdjfl 

' In IS4H, ill the |irt<8>'nt lUrtrict of RltHni, cichi<ting Tftinon, Ui« MimlMr of esfta 
wu SI IK, lit which ^lUT hud wtuulcn whccb vitli tlnm, l,txa hitd «toiio «ke«iB. and 
110 bsd whMb <ilKolid worn]. Of Ihcao. carta with woiMiou wli««I« wt-n bIddb iwcd 
lor trkffio, M th« (kmo whc>al carta dr&wn by twelve bullui^liii travvllcd onlv two- 
thfrdi ot the |>iics of the c«rt> with wooitcn whecia mad thmilrswii hy three boIlMfciL 
Thaatons wheel carta have now jlS^) moatly giisn pIm* to ci^te with wooilait 
wliapU, apnke*, and titna. In IJiiS tlic nalnlicr ol bnllocli* siid oowa «na WtiSIS 
iit[»Jn«t2!H>. 1)0-2 ia l^'S. The K'catcr Diinilicr In IMS ia prolutlily ilue iwrti)- to tlxi Ui» 
hulhwk trulHo will partly Ui tho large nrca of woate iaiiil. In 1849 between tl« latof 
January uul tho 30th of June, ll4,li<M Iml lock* that ia « daily svetu* «t 
lUHl wnnt l>y the KuDibhAril pua. 

*Th« (ollawin0~ atateniont ahowa the tmtTir- liy Dn-r ps«t/» Twiwcen Hvocmt 
I8T7 stiil Jntw InTK. Aa thia tmfllc beloD); i. ■ .i<<l i im . ^1l^;lj. Isingli. VhiUttui, i 

1*uidii4r|iur. m wvLI aa to >iAl4lra, the atai. ji:> jii I>k . ::i>t ihiiw the iliatni:! iinpc 

Mid cnurta. but the ^oneral naofalaoaa ol Uium p<uuH<a. B<ni<liH by ihcia |inw roada 
bnllocka &ud their way to tho coast by the North Tlvts, South Tivta, and Hal* 













ToMI ... 











" Wift 






3 B 
P o 




'" 1 















At preeont few dUtricta sro so well providoci with roads as 

tlie SiUra dLitrict. Durinj^ t)i« four niiny munt)i» from Junu to 

Beptetober, aa tbe porta of Cblplan and Mabfid are closed, tittle 

tf^u i« caiTHM] ovtsT nay of the roads except the I*ootia>Bolgaam 

road. At present (1883) tl>e district hiu fiftyoiio linvK of road 

rDDning over 956 milpB. Of Ihe^ie ^OC] miles are metaUed, 166 

Iiu1v« iinurunir<^ lliat is Init] wilh orumWy trap, lOSJ bridf^ed, and 

120 partlv bridged and drained. Of tlie-^o, Hevttn lines ruiiiiing over 

UTi I milte nra inaiulainpd out of ProTiDcia] reTenae«, and are under 

tba cUargc of the public works department. The remaining forty- 

fnor lines running over <>S^t) miles are tnaintainod from local funds. 

Of the forty-four loual fund lines ibree are first class lines nnning 

over 8It j inilva, tbirloun are Mccond olaw linos run ninf; over 204 

inilee, aud tweuty-olgbt are third class lines ninning over i90 

miles. The lir^t and second class lines are under tbo cbsrgo of the 

pulilii! work.s (lupartinont and tbc tbird class lines which nro mere 

biir weadier tracks, are under the charge of the rev<-riue dopiirtment 

Tbeymrlyordinarj'cliarpos which have been sanctioned for fire years 

arc £\b (Km. loO) the itiito for firNt cIasm lines, £d (K8.50>for80cooci 

daaa lines, and £:t (lis. 30) for tbird class lines. Of the total Bf^- 

one lines thirteen are most important. Of these four linos, the 

Poona- Helgauin, Sdtjirn>Ijonnnd or Old Poena, SitliTa-T£«gaoii, and 

Kar&d-'I'dagaon roads run north and sooth, and tlie remaining nine 

lines Varan d ha- Dhnrmapuri, Snrul-MahiibaleahTar and Fit/.Gcnild 

P^OB, Witi-Adarki, Hat.'tn^-Miiliiihitic.i'hvnr, 8aliRi- Faiidhiiqtur, 

Malhftrpelb-l'audharpor, Kariid-Nii^j. Kari'id<Knmbb''trliandPeth> 

Singli roads run east and west. Ol tbo four lines which nin north 

and aoulb, tbo Poona- Belnuin mail road ix the cbiof hue of traffic in 

the district. It is metalled and bridged throughout and runs in 

(be district for 101 miles from the Shirval bridge on thu Nira in 

Ibe north Uj Kanfgnonon Uie Vlirnaiu tbo Koiitb. Of these 101 miloa 

93} liewithiu district liiuits and H miles within Kolhdpur limits. 

The road passes by the Kbi^Diatki pass throngh the Witt, SitAra, 

Karid, aud VSlva Mib-divi.siou.s by the towns of Kitfim, Umbraj, 

Kar^d, Kasegaon, Neria, Peth.and K^meri. It is passable by carts 

thruugbout the year. The road is bridged on tbo N ira near Shirvul 

at tliirtj miles from Poona, on tlio Kriithna near Uhuiiii at fifty-BiJc 

miles, on tbe Vena near Varya at sisty-flOTen iniIea,on the Urmodi near 

L&lna at scivvnty-uine mdc-s, on the Tfirli near Umbiaj at ninoty-oue 

miles, on the Koyiia new Karidat 101 milex, nnd uii the Winm near 

Kaaegaon at 120 milee. It has six travellors' bungalows, two at 

Bbirrnt in W&i, onent S£tim> two at Atit and KarJld m'Kii.rAd, and 

one at Nerla in Vnlva, and four dintrict ofiiccra' bungalows at 

Umbraj and Kar£d in Karfid and at Kas4?gaon and Kuncgoon 

in V&lra. This ro«ul is crossed by almost all iho important roads 

of llie district na foedcrti. Through the greater part of its conrso 

this rond is well shaded by road-sido trees, cbiefly biihhuU in 

tbo black soil and figs, Inmnriuds, an<] mangoes in other 

Darts. 11ie S&t/im-Lrmand or Old Poona road, about thirty- 

loar miles long, has l>eon a local fond rood since ]863-ti4' and ia 

now in tbo firt^t class. It Ivnvcs the Poona district at the Nira 

ad niD8 south-west by tbo SiUpa pass through part of Kbaud^la, 


IBombuT Oasetteer. 



Chapter TI. 

rottd S 

Pbaltan, Koreg^OD, and SAUra. At Lonand in ^Vdi tbiit 
crossdd by tho Mnh£d-l*nndtisrpur road, at Tadrala in Kor 
1>y the Wli'Adarki rcuid, aud at Sitiira it mcrgos into the Poona 
Belganm road. It is murtimed, tJiat is laid witti cmmblj' trap, »nd 
is bridged throtij^hout vxccpt nt ttio V^&naon tho fourteeotb mile 
Qortb-(-ii:!t nf 8iit4rA ftiid ill one or two Other Huiall KtrcikuiH. This 
road in shaded by magnificent avcnaea of tamariad and fiff trees. 
^l<y!(l of tlic bri<]^iii{f wnn dono oftor 1818 bj the first lUj& of 
S&Uini. Ithn.iii trnvollera' bungalow at Dear in Koregaon. Tb« 
road is pasgable by carts during toe fair eeason, and with diEBcalty 
diirinf^ the r&itt». Many carta still pn.'for this ro«id to tlio Poona- 
Bel gaum metalled road. The £>)lUlra-T^gaon second class 
local fond road sixty-fonr miles long runs Eouth-eaat through 
tho SAl/lni, Korogaon, Khiitilv, and Kli^ulpiir xub^di visions 
hy Kjihiiimtpur, Fu!tai&Tti, Kudepur, and V&ogi, and joins tLc 
Kar&d-T&sgaos road near Turchi about five miles north of T^gaon. 
Kxcopt tor firtit eight milcH between Siil&m and Chiiichner, Uio 
road is not bridged and at Dbdmner in Koregaon the Krishna is 
crossed by n ferry during tho raina. On tbo borders of KorogEOD 
ntfd Khat^v the road orott^ea the XlUtvi hill-pa«.t over which a new 
lino with easy gradients has lately beeu finished to Puses^vli. 
I'Vur miles north of Piisostfvli a branch road lendw threo miles east 
to Aundh, the residence of tho Pant Pratinidhi. At thirty 
miles sonth-east of S^t^ra and three mdes sonth of Pusos&vli it 
cro»se:t the Mnlh£rpoth- Pandharpnr road and at ihirty-idne miles 
Boutfa-eaal of SiLUira ami about three miles east of Kadegaon in 
Eh&nlpnr it crosses tho Kar^d-NJigaj road. Tho road is Rt for cartOj 
during tho fair season. Tho trafRc on 'this road i» chiefly north 
PnsesJivli throagh Itahimatpur with Sfit^ra. In the ^r season it i 
not incoDsidontble and consists chiefly of local prodnee. At Puseeivli 
it luut a di»trict bungalow, llie Karitd-T£ngaun fint c-IaHH local fund 
road 36i miles long runs south-east through mrtsofKarild, V4iva,aud 
T&sgaonby Shonntli.TAkfiri, andKiiudal. It isnii(n(>nnl,thatislwd 
with crumbly trap, and is passable by mrta during the (air seAson, 
At Kirre, about three miles south of Kar&d, the road crosses tbafl 
Krishna and at about five miles woet of Tlisgaou it crosses tbs^ 
Yorla. Both these rivont are nnbridgcd. For about seven miles 
between Scrch and Kundal the road borders the Krishna canal. 
This road carries heavy cart traffici and has lately been nuoh 
improved by building culverta and road drains. It ia fit for carta 
throughout the year, but the surface is by no moans equal to the 
heavy traflic which pn8»eM over it from March t.i) the middle of May. 
Of tho nino linos whieh run east and west, the Varan dha-Dharroapuri 
socoudcIassProvincialroadrunseighty-scven miles from Dfaarmapnri 
on the border of ShoUpnr and I'haltiin to Voraudha at the foul of 
(ho Suhyitdris and from Varandfaa to Mahid. The road passes ifi ths 
north through Phalton, Wiii, and Bhor. At Lonand on tho border 
of WAi and Phaltan it crojtses the old Poona road and at Shin-al it 
crosses tho Poomt-Bolgauni road. From Lonand to Shirvsl the rood 
is more or leas murumrd niid the Punt Sochiv has lately been 
draining and nturuminff the portion between Shirval and Bhc 
For eleven milvs from Vanuidha at tho foot to llirdoshi at tl 






Wp of tlw? Saliyidris the road i* bridged, drained, and metidlitl. 
Prom Ilirdoahi the road rnns we&l to the port, of MaJutd. 'ITie 
Varan dbu-Dliartun[>Dri road in passable to carts daring tho fair 
•eaaon. The SuruUFitxGerald pass road Icavm the Poona- 
Bel^amn n«d at fort^-eij'bt miles from Poona in Witi, and nins b; 
W&i nndMaloobnpolh toUahiid in Koldba. Of the total sixty-one 
mil«s from Sural to MabiUl forty*six arc ivitKin .SiiAra limitaL 
It is a first cisse Prot-ioctal road, and is and bridf^od 
tlironghout witliiii dititrict Itiiiil?. About two miles west of W&i 
the road paeaes by the Pasami pass and about two miles west of 
Malcolmpcth by iho FitzGcrald pass. It is 6t for carl« throagbout 
ibu year, and hm throe travcllera' bungnlon-s at Pinchgani, \Vi(i, 
and VAda near the FitsGerald pass. The Wdi-Adarki pass road, 
is a MMwnd class local fund road, abont twenty •two miles long. It 
mntt from the i'haltnii ."tatu to Wiii by the A'darki pass and the 
tihirgaoa gor^e, and oiecis the Surol-FitzGeraid pssa road at W^ 
Sinco the ISiH ^unino the rond bos boeo much iiiiprorod by 
Msiiig Uie gradieulB at the Khirgaon gorge or khiud and building 
revetment walla and drains. It is tic for carts at all seaso;^. 
The 8i;Jira-M«]«olmpcUi fimtclaK* Provincial road, about Ihirty- 
Ihreo miles long, leaves the Poona-Itelgaum roud two miles north vl 
Sitfira and mos by Medha and ihe Kelghar pass. The eleven 
miles from Kttlgbar to Mali&baloihrar and tbo two mtlea along 
vt hicb itii ouUT^e liea on the Poon^-Belgaiim mail road are metalled ; 
ibe rest of the road is murumedL Tbe rivers and larger gtmuna 
aro bridgv*! and tlie smaller tftreama are oroHHod by road dams. 
The road is fit for carts at all seasons. The Bdllra- Pandharpor 
road sixty-foor mileii long is a socond class local fund road, but is 
bodog gradually brought iuto the first class. It rnns dne ea»l 
tlirougb the SAt^ra, Koregaon, Kbatjivj and H&a auhdi virions. Of 
the Kriaboa, Visna, YurU, and &Uu, which this road crouM, tbo 
VAsnn alone is bridged and the Krisbna has a flying bridge at 
Hihuli ahont three miles cast of SiitAra. Besides thc«e bridges tho 
road has a few culverts and n^ud dams at intervals. It crosses two 
small hill posses of e«sy gradients, the VardhaitgiKl pass at eighteea 
mikiH and the Mahiman^d pass at thirty-three miles east of Sit&ra. 
Tbo road is fit for carts, in parts at all sousona and in parts only 
during tbu fair season. The Maihiirj>eth-Pundharpur road, abont 
Gfty-fiiur miles of which lie within tbo dLstnct, is a ttecoud class 
local fund road. This n>ad ^tju-tH at Malliirimtfa about eight miles 
oaat of PJitan on the Ravild-Kumbhririi pasfi road, and runs to 
Paudharpur tbrouph parts of P&tan, Kan'td, Kh^nipnr, KhatliT, 
Atp^di, and Uiu by luo towns of Umbraj, Miuiur, Mdyni, KaldhoD. 
anil Diganchi. For eight miles betweea Malh^rpeth and Umbraj 
the road is murvmed and bridged, and nt all si«son8 carries heavy 
traffic. At Umbraj duriug llio rains the Krishna is crossed by a 
flying bridge and during the fair weather by a heavy sandy crossing, 
l-'or the remaining forty-six milcit from Umbraj the roud is a fair 
wcftthcr tnu:):, croAsing the Niiidni at twenty. five mites from 
Malh&rjx.-th, the Yerla at abont thirty-livo miles, and the M&n at 
abuut seventy miles near Digauchi. This road passes over the Ural 
01]^ or khiud tu PMan and over the Sh&mgaon gorge ou tlic 


iBomlny Onzetteen^ 



CbapUr VI. 

borders of Karttd and Khiliiiipur. Dotwoon Umbraj and Mivni tbo 
road bas a fow ciilverLt and road dams at inU-rv*l». Tbo ICarwI- 
N^gaj Hc-cond class Provincial road, of wbicb iifty<iuDe miles lie 
witbin the district, runs to XAgiaj Uirotigb Kariid and KbSndpur by 
tlio towns of Kari^l, Kadegaon, Vita, and Klilinnpiir, and From 
Nfignj to IliiSpur throufjb tlio ifiraj and Jath states. This road 
jnacoa over tn« SatbUbivg'ad yauts in KarAit nn<l crosses the Kriidina 
at Kar&d, the N&idni at Ainriipnr twoire wiles from KartUi, tfaafl 
Vorta nt llauuiant-T&di ninoti^n miles, and tbe Agr^oi at* 
SiilUingad forty mJlvs. Theiio riven are nnbridgod, bat some u( 
thi! smaller strcamti liave road dams. Uuring Uie 187G-77 (aouDO 
the road was mnch improrvd, and daring the fair season is 
panablo to carts, llio Kanid-KumbbArli pnss road, a first cloaa 
Frorincial road, rona tlirougb Ksi^ and Fdtan by the Kumbbirli 
pass to Cbiplon in llainriu'iri. Of the total length of fifty-ei.sht 
miles from Kariid to Chipliiri, forty-six niik-s nro kcjit in repair by tbo 
oxeoutire engineer of SAt&ra : of this tliirly>ninc lie vilhiu K£tirs 
limits and seven witbtu Itatnfigin limits. This road ia metalled 
and bridged throughout and pasHablo to carts throughout the year. 
It'carriea to the ooaat all the exports from the »outb, 80uth-«Mti 
and cast uf tlio district. Tho Peth-Sitngli road, aboot twenty miloa 
long, is a first class local fund nmd. Of tbo total tvrenW miles fifteen 
are muTHmed and bridged, and tbe remaining five mdes are being 
complctud. This road joins Petb on tho Poona-Belgaom loadto 
tbe b&ngti state, fuuda tho Karit<]-KumbliiirU paaa rrad. Bod at all 
seasona carriee oousiderable tralEc. ■ 

Bosidca these thirteen chief lines fire notable third class loca!^ 
fund lines are passable to carts during thu fair season. Of those 
the T&sgaon-Mogrdia road, about for^-five miles long, rana aoulb 
from Phaltan to T&sgaon by tho Mognila pass in MAu throngb tbe 
sub-divisions of Mdn, Khautv, Khiiii&f>ur, and Ttlegaon. Tho cbtcf 
towns on this road are Pingli in Mdn, hl^tyni in KbaUlv, Vitain 
Kliitnitpur, and TAsgaon, At Pinpli the road crosses llio KitAra- 
Paiidharpnr road, at M^yni the Mitlliitrjieth-Pandharpor road, and 
at Vitn tho Kar&d-Niigaj road. Tho PuMMMtvli-Sbtngnipur rood, 
about tbirty-foar miles lonff, runs from Pusosdvli on (he S&lAra- 
I'ds^on ruatl through Khati^v and ildn by tbe sub-divisional towns 
of Vaduj and Dafaivadi. The Nhivi-Ueur road, about tvrunty-four 
miles long, runs south through Korogaon from D«ur on iho old 
i'ooDJX road to KhAvi on tho SilJira-Tiisgaon road, and joins the old 
Poena road with the tidtilra-l'iisgaon road through Koregaoo. TTmi 
Ttegaos-IslAmpur road, about twenty-four miles long, rima byfl 
Bhilavdi to IsWmpMr on the Peth-SAnglt road. And the VAma" 
^■alloy road, about thirty-sis: mites long, runs ircstwanl along tbe 
V'ltma from Pcth to tho 3f ala pass, by the tovma of Shir^, Uilin^ 
and Chanm. f 

Bcttides these, thero are two notable bullock tracks. One tho 
Valvan-PAncbvad niiis twcnty-ono miles from Valvan on the top of 
the Antbola paas to Medlia by Xldmnoti and twelve miles further to 
PAnchvad by tJie KudAl gorge which ia passiU>le to carts. It joins 
tho Koynn, Ycnna, and Kniliil valloya with tho Krishna TsJley, and 
brings a great deal of traffic from tliu Konkan by tbo Ambola ]Hlsa.j 

ean I 



This tnuik iit ynarl; rcpainxl so fnrow AW^i on the P^ncbvad Kiilo of 
tlie KndiU gor^, nml it is coiileiuplaied to make it passable for carts 
bom Aiev^di to PilDchtmd whore it moots tho Poona-Bolgnatn road. 
The other, llic SAtdra<P(ttAn tr«ck nbout twentv-oiio initen long, 
nins over two iliDicull hill gvuHOB for wveii miles uotwooo VajivMhi 
and I'itAQ. At P^tan this track meela tie Kartd- Cbiplun road 
by the Kumbhdrli pass and i»vcii a round of sixluvD mik-s by tho 
Pooii&.It«]guiitn road. 

The Sabyddris and their oilfllioota are eroased by thirteen made 
pwssas. Of these 6ve. the Kbtoatki on the Mahiidov range and 
the Tnmndha, Pasarni, FitxQ«rald, and (Cninbhlirli on tfaw Siifayiidri 
range are thu inu«t impnrtitnU 'i'hu KirAuATKi pwK, crusimd by 
tho Poona-Kclgauni luelalled n>ad, begins on the Mnhiidev range 
nir-ar the rilhgu of Khandilia in Wai at forty milra from I'oona, riina 
up th« hill fur four inilv8, and runs down for about two miles to the 
nllage of Vela at forty-six miles. The paaa waa bognn iu IHSO and 
oomploted in 1859 at a cost of SM16 (Its. 119.160). On the top of 
the pass is a toll bar which was sold for £809 (Rs. fOOO) for 1S»2-S3. 
Almost all traffic whioh before tho making of this piMit went by 
(ho old Poena road, now goes through the Kti^nuilki paas. 1*he 
Vakandua pass in the Sahytidris, which is crossed by tho SholApnr- 
Ualt^ or Vnraadba-Dlutrraapnri road, bt-gins at tho village of 
Hirdoabi in Bhor ot 90vvnty-iiix road mile.s fnim DlmrmtLpuri, mna 
lip the hill for two milea. and enters the Konkau by a deHcont of 
abcrnt njno mikis near the village of Mfinjri at ctgbty-sevi'n road 
milea from Uliarninpiiri. Tho pass vnut begun in 18^1 and 
completed in 1857 at a coRt of £ll,10« (R«. l,ll,0lJO}. Porabont 
a mile tho pass runs over a narrow and precipitous spur almost all 
in rook-culling. On one side of tho pass tho prnnpico i» 2tK) to 
SOO feet high and tlio other aide is a xticcr dc«c«nt <if 600 to 800 
feet* 'Phis is one of the moat peculiar and striking Uuea of road on 
tlio wbnlu length of the Sahyddri range. The pass has two toll 
hara at Uirdoahi and Varandha. For ifaoycar !8H2-S3thtf Hirdoshi 
loll bar was sold for £150 (ILs. L^OO) and the Varandha toll bar for 
£160 (Rs. 1600). The Pas^bni pass in the Sahy&dris crossed by the 
Sural or Poena- Mu)utbaleshv!tr nictalUd roail, begins in WAi on tho 
Vairtltgad spur of tho fjahyiiilris at llfty-^iif iniloH from Puoiia and 
mns op the bill for about six miles. The pass was begun 
iu \B^0 and compleUid in I8ti3 at a cost of £l*j,910 (Rs. 1,(19,100). 
In 1872-73 it wna improved at a further coxt of about £9000 
(Ba. 90,000). On tho top of the puxii at the village of Ub&ndegad 
Ibt^re is a toll bar which was sold for £241 I0«. (Rs. 2415) in 
1882-83. This is Iho main route for passengers from Poona to 
Mabtibaleslivar, and it t.i cros!H>d by a ouiiHidcnible goods traiHc front 
Slitdra to Mahid. The Ambenala or PiuOerald pass rond in tho 
Sahyjldria crossed by the Sfit'dra-Muhiibalesh^'ar and the Kurul- 
Mahd bales hvar rondn to Mohiid mns nboiit twenty miles from 
tho top of the Mahibale.4hvar hills to the village of Kapde 
at ihu foot of the SahyAdris in the Koukiin. llio pass was bcgna 
in 1871 and i-oinplcted in 1S76 at a cost of £W,H;2 (R«.4,4't,.j20). 
The FitsOerald |«i.-^ Iuih been lined with considei'able care, and 
appecuB to bo the best and cheapest route available. The ascent 
■ 1S82-!U 



[BombAj O&tetteer. 



Chapter TI. 



is CD fjTadanl that ponies hava boeo trotted from the 7iiU 
bungalow at the foot of Prat!tp)?a<l ta Mnliillialosbvar withont 
dramnK rein. The ()i»tri<;t tragic to the pori of Mali^ is pretty equally 
dividM betvrcRn Ihc Vitniiitllut mid Fitxtivrald passes. At tho nllago 
of AmboDala faalf-vray doim the paast thoro is a good iravclleni' 
biiiiK^uw and a toll bar which in 1881.82 wld For £4] (Ka.4I0). 
TbeKcuBuAitu paxs, in thv SahyAdria, crossed by the Kar^d-Chiplan 
road, bogins on tbv Sahylklri main rsD^ at the village of OhAnkal 
at thirty-NCven railea irom Knrdd and tw^nty-rtaii miles fmm 
Chiplun, rons tip for two miles to the village of Khempffc on the 
top of the pass, and ninu dovD for asTtm miles to tbo rillagv of 
Pophli at tfau foot of the 8fthyli«lris in Ratndgiri. The pan has 
ateop gradieuta and flharp carves. It n'a.s b^pin in lo55 and 
fiuisliod in 1864 at a cost of £30,&«3 (Ra. 3,05,8y0). The traffic 
over this paas is the heariest pass traffic in the district. At tbo 
village of llhinkal at the foot of tlio Saby&dria in F&taa tliero is ft 
loll bar which in ISH^83 fetched £ICSO (R9.16,W>0). 

Besiilcs tboso chief mado pasees, each snb-division except T&s^ 
bhs scvurul Knmllvr pua»cii and gorges called khimtn. Beginnin 
from the north in Uie western and ceiiti-al beltx. \V4i has nine 
gorges. Of these throe the Harli, Vihigaon, and (Jancsh are on the 
Ohandan-YaDduo spur of the MahAdvr ranc^c between Vi'ii and 
Koregaoti; one the G^a is in the KhandAla petty diriaion, and 
iive the Anvad, Eauheri, Koraal, Mandap, and T&ygbiX are in the 
W&i tadmlatdjlr's division. The Hakli, a mere footpath with little 
tniilic, is about cij^hlcon inilcs oMt of WAi and joins the village of 
Uarli ill Wdi with the village of Solnhi in Korogaon. A little south 
of Harii, the VinAoAO!( gorge joins the Tillage of Vahitgaon in W4i 
with the village of Ronduliibad in Korogaon. It is not tit for carta. 
A little itotith of Vihitgaon, the OAxesn, n footpath with litllit traffic, 
ioina the village of Kfaolavdi in SViU with the village of Banv&di 
in Korogaon. Tho GXha, on the hills between KhnnoAla and Bhor, 
givoK a tihort cut fmni Blior to tbo Poun»<Belganm road at Khandfila 
and leads by the liarli gorge to Korognon. Up the gorge lie the 
villi^e of Mirja of the Bhor alHte and tbe vill«^[re of Atit of the 
Khandiila petty {livtHion ntiddown the pass lie the villagosoIKanhaTdi 
and Utraviiof thoUiuirf(Uvr^\ hi 18^2 the I rack over the gorge, which 
had bepu very difficult, was widt*ned and improved at a cost of about 
£C0 (Kk. tiUO) by one Mainai More of Mirj&chivAdi of tbo Bfaor 
atAt«. Laden aninialc now cross with case anci empty carts i 
themselves of the short cut. The pathway is about ten feet b 
and is roughly built with dry atones and oorered with murum 
crumbly trajx It has no toll. Tho value of the yearly in and out traffic 
is roughly estimated at about i^iOOD (Hk. 30,000), chiefly in grain, 
tobacco, salt. oil. clarified butter, coooa- kernel 9. spices, gmunwinta, 
TCgotables, driod fish, and native shoes. Formerly tho traflicovor this 
gorge was much greater; now the Sholilpur-Midiitd road by Bbor 
antwa most of tJie heavy traffic. Tbe Akvai> gorge, about six miles 
uurth of Wai on the MAndhardev hilla, gives a short cut from Bhor 
to Wii. Acroxi* this gorge tracks with good gradients were, 
formerly made, loading Uxtm Ving and Shirriu in the north to Wii 
wad Abliepuri in tbo aouth. These tracks are now seldom repair 






but' Iboy are still passable ihongli bad m places. Tliougli largely oaed 
boforu tLo mukitig of the prcseol good roads, tbo tracks uow carry 
liulc truflic. Oi) ttu) orewt oi tho RorKo nro a rost-houao or 4harM~ 
thdla aad three reservoirs built by IMi 8^ob Sachir, tho groat- 
^frendmotber of tho prsBetit chief of Bhor. Tho ro8t>bouse iii k<>|it 
ID good ropnir nnil \nK» a giirduii of fruilB and flowvrs. Of the throa 
reservoir* tme ia usod by BriUiiuaa», thosecoud by nou-IJriihman 
Hindus, aod the third by Muaalm^is. The water is good and 
ploutiful and ih brought by an undar^ronod ouuionry chnono] from 
a spriDg about throo-quart^rs of a mils to tho vmi. Thu KAtiiiiHi 
KOrge, on tlio hilla between KhatidAIa and W&i, ia a cattle track of 
fitlle itDportauce nod leads from Kauheri in tlie north to I.ohfira 
oud Bopnrdi in tho Mutlt. The KoiiAi. gorge on the hilU butweea 
yiH and iJhor ia about l«n milos nurtli-woMt of Wlli and lemda from 
Aara id W&i to Tit«ghar in Ithor. DuriuK the raina the track 
across tho gorgo is impassablo but in tho fair aoason it is largely 
asod by puck bullocks, ohiofly currying rice, gram, and grain. 
Atxmt twenty yc«rti ago tho track was made by tho public worka 
department, but has now fallen iotu disrepair. The Mandaf gor^, 
OD tho spur divii,ling thu Kriiihnn from llio Kudal valleys, is a short 
cot from Viiijv^li in th» north tu Mliusva iu tht- soiiili. It is a 
piiok-bullock trac^k and is ritrely niH>d. Tho TAyorat \a tlio old way 
from Chikli to Bhilar and other villa<;«s on the Pnucbgaai and 
UiUuibalcahvar plateau. Being stoep and o<tit of rupttir, it ia littlu 
tuud. Laden cattle can paas with piuob difAcultv. Tho track was 
formerly mocb used and beara marks of hanng bven built and 
protuctod. It WHS chiefly used as tho track for MnbAbaleabvar and 
was tmpruved by Cifuend Fhayre. This and tht! Anvad pans aru 
ofu>u tjtlkod of an Phiiyru'd i-oiula. 

Jiivli, whicli ia miR'h covered with bills, has numerous small iMsses 
gorc^A- Fow of tliem coo be used by carts and not many of tb«m 
laden cattle The eight most important are tlio Btlmnoli, the 
Gojjva, tho Kindit, the KudSI, the iSior, tho North Tirra, the Fiir, 
and the Itadtwli. Tho BAnKuLr roa<l over tho spur dividing the 
Ycuna and Ko^*ua rivcrft runs from hledha in the north lo IJdmnoti 
in the south. II juiua tho Koyoa with the Yonna valleys and gives 
passngo to tho Konkan produeo which is brought into the Koyna 
valley along numerous smtill gurgos. Tho roail ruii.t about lOOO 
leet above itea level and in piisitaljlo by pack bullocks for about eight 
moutba during the fair season. The gradient, though not had, is too 
Bovure for carts and tlio path is hardly wide enough, it has lately boon 
muoh iinprovvJ iwid isywirly rejuui-ed from local funda. TbeOouVA 
road, also acro&s the »pur dividing the K.oyna valley from the Yvnua 
ralley, runs from Modhalo thu village of Gogva on tho SoUhi which is 
a foodor of tbu Koyna and iitilab&bulcabvar ia known us the Blue 
Volley river. It in afair briillc path with Htlle traflie and KOvvro 
gradientfl. Tho KAnoAt road which is a couliiuiHtion of the Biimnoli 
road in tho west is a fair bridlo path. It winds for about fourteen 
mili-d along the Kfinddt valley, a feeder of the Koyna, and dis- 
aiipeuTfi over the main SahyiUlri range inro the Kitukaii. Tho 
Kou.^L ri>ad, over the spur dividing Ibe Yennn vallxy from Uis 
Kudiil vulluy, is about tiftvco wUcs west of iiiUu^a and uigUtooa 

Chapter VI. 


(Bombay Gaietteer. 



Cbapt«r VI. 

miles eo&t of Mulrolmp^th. Kn<]&1 lif-8 »bout fix miles narth-east of 
tho gor^ »n(l Mirdliu ubout » mile to tlie south. From Medha the 
roud zigxags abont two milea up the goi-^, witb a good ^nidicot 
and cornea down the Kudjtl side byafnir grii<)ipiit. It joiiin tlie 
YeoBA valley with thu KuiUl Tolloy. From Kudul tlie track runs 
ca«t by II short «ut lo the Pooua-Bftlg;tuiu mail road, and from Medhtt 
it ruitd west to lUmaoli in the Koyna valley by tho Bimnoli road, 
and from C^mnoli furthor west into tliu Konknii by Hn* K&ndit 
gorge. From Modhn to Kudil it i* easily pnAsablo by laden carla> 
but friiiu Kud^l to tlie Poona-Belgaum road the cart track ia difficalt 
and bad. 'L'he v^ae of the yearly in and out tratBc across tho gorge 
is estimate^] at abont £2000 (Rn. SO.OOO), oliivfly in grain, molaases, 
Y0gi-liil>1r», mill u Huiitll <)uaiitity of flail and dried fish. Th^ road has 
no loll and ia yearly repaired from local funds. Though tho rowlway 
bas lately been much improvcd.butterDiadoroadBc&rryoffino^t of tlie 
heavier traffic. Tho MoR Inu-k is another dhort out from the Yenna 
Valley to Kiid&l and the Pooiia-Uelgaum mail mad. It is a stc«p 
and rn^f^pd track, fit only for pack bnllocks and foot passengers 
UJioH iiltk' tmflic and is not rcpnirod. ThcXoidii Tivi;a roadorer 
tha main Sithy^idri riiiigo Iii>s about ton mitvH vonth of the KAndA( 
and twenty-live miles weat of >!^^t£^a. Though a mere pack-bnllock 
track, tho Noith Tivm can-iL>a a considerable traffic, chiittly grain, 
molattseit, tobacco, chillies, uTid oil from SAtAro toRatnilgiri, and rice, 
coCDanntR, spices, datea, and nalt from Ratn^giri to Sitora. Most of 
this traflic tinda its way direct to Siittlra by KargaoD and Pari! 
over the Biimnoli-IhitcgHd spur by a path formerly well known 
as the Uaurla pa.'!), and part gi)i>S nurtli nnd^tt by IMmnoli 
and Medha to the Kud&l frorge. The value of the yearly traffic is 
ostiuintcd ut about £I8U0 (lis. IS.OOO). The track is in many parts 
rough andatiYtp and lit not ropaircd. It bats no toll. Tho PXr and 
R^iiiToDi passes, ' abont two milca south of the FitEGcrald tiaas 
iho main Sahyjldri rango, arc two parts of the track whicn leads^ 
from &Ialcoliu|ieth to tho Koukun by Fotbpiir. Of this track 
PAr is the lower part and thu Riultiidi the ujijier part. It haa been' 
Bupornc'dcd by tho excellent FitzGerald pass road, and is now rarely 
need. It was formerly improved at acoosidorablc cost, but it baa J 
now fallen into disrepair. It was nln-ays too steep for cartK. 1 

SAtAra bna two gorges, tho Bogua and tne KAntan. Tbe 
BooDA lies closu to tho city of ^iitara in the sonth between Ih* 
old Hjitdra fort and Ynvtoahwir. It is a short cut from tho city to 
tho Puona-Bclganm road in the south and alao joins the city with 
tho important village of Parli iu the west and frcim Parli with the 
North Tivra pass nu the main Sahyadri range. Tho road across t bit) 

forgo runs throuffh a tunnel about 1 00 yurds long. Tho tunnel was 
rst dofliguod in memory of ShAhji of SAtdra (1839- IS 18) and 
was afterwards in ISf).'} much improved by the Bombay Gorcrnment 
at a cost of Ji'iWO (Its. 29,000). 1'hv pniuuge through the tnnnvl is 
iu excellont order. The road for aliont a mile between tho north 
end of the gorge and the city is repaired by the SAtira municipality 
and for about three miles between tho south end of tho gorge and 
tho Poona-Belgaum road it is repain^d from local funds. Though 
carta occasionally Cud their way to Parli, the seven uUes to Parli 





kre sale only for Indcn cnttlc. Ttiv j-cnrly in itnd out traffic is 

feittiiiuited Ht nbotil £7500 (Rh. 75,000). ' A toll i» the gOTgo 

yurldN »ii ftverago yearly revenue of abottt £100 (Ra. lOOO). T^e 

itAKZAV gorge, on the spar of the MnhtidvT raogo which sepantea 

Wai and Sit^ru from Koit'giKin, joiiiR iho Tillngo of Mnlgaon id 

1B&t4tra with tbo villiigo nf Aiubiivda in Koregaon. It liact little Irafllc 

JHod M uol often used by carta ibooKh t hoy can pass acrosa the pforg^ 

I Besides the Ilarli, ViibigaoD, Gancsfa, and R&n^mn, ivhich mn 

|iuto Kore^ort from Wdi and .Siiti&ra in the n-oM, Koregsou bat 

[TiTu gorges in the east, ail the chief iipur of (lie Msh&Ier range 

wliifh ttepsntes the central from tbe eaatei-n bolts of the district 

Itt^f^inniiuf from tho north tlw Bve gorges arc tho Ri-da, Gancsb, 

[NigiiBtbvfldi, NhSvi, and Arvi. Tho Keoa, »bout sixtwn tnilo« east 

of S&t^ra and fifteE>u uilea north of Itahimatpar, ia a mero foot- 

jiath with little tralHc, and joins tho village of Bhadia in Koregaoa 

with the villnge of Atjiipur in Phaltnn. The Ganksii about six 

milOH Kouth of tho Reda, joins the villnges of Kui and Nhtlvikhiirtl 

in Koregaon with the village of Ner in Khatir. It in a little 

used cart track. Tho NAoxXTUvJtiii, within a mite snuth of the 

; Gaoeeh, joins tho ritlugo of Uorjitiv&li iti Koregaon with Ldlgun 

itD Khat^v. It i» a mere footpath with little traffic, llie 

Nti.tvtahoat ten miles sooth of tho N^gn^thT£(Ii,JoinH the village 

of Nh^vi-Budnik in Koregaon with tho vilUgo of \ lidi in KhatcLv. 

It is pnKWiblo by cnrUt, but Ima little traffic. This gorge i» close to 

the Nhivi made pa.i8 across the Siit^ra-T^sgaon road. The Abvi, 

' aliout two miles sooth of tho NhUvi, is a men? footpath, joining the 

village of Arvi in KorogiMu with tho villugo of Kuritt in tho 

' Kbtla&pnr Rub-dimioa belonging to the Akalkot ittato. 

lu PAtan two tracks run over ama)! hill passes and gorges. Of 

those tho Siit&ts.l*£tan track runs by tho village of SaduvAghiipur, 

about ft mile north of Filtan, on the spar which dindt>s tho Tdirli 

from the Kera. Tho track is passable by pack bollocks and foot 

I passengers and is yearly repaired from local funds. The yearly in 

j and out traffic is cxtiinnled at about £500 (Its. 5000} chiefly ia 

I Wt^luuts, cocounut», coriander, dates, gronndiiiit, molasses, oil, 

turmeric, and salt. There is no toll. The hiil track which runs 

west to Sangameshvar in lintnftgtri by tho Mala pass ou the main 

8ah>'idri mngo, i.i about iittoeu mik-s lung from Dhonovddi and 

eight miles from Morgiri. I'he track ia (it for pack bullocks and 

I carries a eonsidorabto traffic, chiefly in chillier, groundnut, 

I myrobaliiu>i, oil, and tobncco from Piitaii to Sangameehvar, and ia 

I bctt^nuta, cocon-km-nels, and dates from Katnilgiri to Sntllro. 

In Kardd tho only hill track runs by NandlA])nr in Kar&d to Aria 
in Valvs. It begins at Ndudliipur about fonr miles south of Karjld 
and runs by tho villngcs of Kfilii, Nundgnon, Oud, Umbda, Gurda, 
L&lgnn, Ghogaon, and Vclgaou. At Yelgaon the track divides into 
two branches, one running to Aria by Yellapur and Kaaogaon, and 

» other by Pane.hgani. Fi-om Aria in VAlva it runs into RatnAgiri 
the Kundi and South Tivra piWsea. The track is fit for carts and 
pack bullocks within Kai-Ad limits. The yearly in and out tmflic is 
ei-timatod at about £U'O0 [Its. 10,000) chiefly in wheat, gram, and 
jvdri from Knritd to Ratn/igin, and botolouts, coco<anut», rice, and 
^yLironi Itatn^iri to Kardd. In ViUva th» ShisAu-DethAba hill 





Oiapter VI. 


Ifsok, ftbnnt twcnty-sovou milcia lon$f from Shirdla, ranii iilong tbe 
V'irna rirer. From Devh^rn thi8.traclE lewix into Botnfit^ri b^ the 
Kuiidi and Soath Tivra pussvs. For about fifteen milas from Shirilm 
the truck ix fit for chHn, aai for the rc«tof its length it is fit for 
pack-buUockH and foot pasist^ngersL 'II10 yearly in aod out traffic is 
estimated at about ;^U00 (R% 30.000) chiefly in wheat, gram, 
grooDdnuts, molasscn, and tolwcco from V^lva and t>otelnut'S, cocoa* 
nots, siigiir, and diilt from RjttnAgiri into VAIts. The track liasbooaJ 
much improved from local fuodfl. ^ 

In the eastern belt bt^nniucf from the north, M£n tuui twenty 
small passes and koi^dh or khwh. Of tlieae six are pasaable l^ 
carts, thirteen b; pofik-bullock!), and onu by foot passengers.* 
Bmidea the Qanesb, Niffn^thrfldi and Nhiiri iK^wccn Khatir and 
Koregaon, and the Kntcudvid-Virli between Eliatdv and U&a, 
Xhatjir has fivu gorges within KhatAr ltmit«, two of them fit for 
carts and thruu fur foot^jinttiicngers.* Kh&niunr has twc^nty-nino 
gorges, eighteen of them in the group of the Khitnfipnr hills and 
deven in tno group of the Kurla hills,* The TjUgaon sab^vision, 
heiog mostly pliiin, has no notablu gorges or hhinas. 


* Th« wlx «art tracka ore wholly m Uio Mtn mbdiriiion. Tlwr <"* '^ BIm' 
b«twa«n Shlngnlmr uid nuipri, tho DniiivxIi-NiilliAl r>Rtw0«i Ahiixll wul 
MAhIni*i>E>4> tlia KAtukhat(v-\rhiuv»l tictucco Nnravii.i kiul Iitiiliiinl, tlie KutU* 
tainwa^MUauid SliiiiKnApiir ruiil KothU, tliaMh>irr»il-VM'kutB-M>l<nldt)wtwMa 
PklMrda Mid VukuM-Malvj.,!). and the T^ifvni-Uo04la bOm^a PtwU-fiiiilrmk 
and {"ingli-Kliurd. Of thn tliirtcon p*ck-1iiillnitli Uwjka altMoi u« within M*a 
limits and tw9 b«tve<'ri Miin -itnl KhaUv <ui<l MAa aiiJ Atpldi. Th« <iI«t«i witlibi 
HAn liinitsars tfaa Dnlilvivil'NiittuJ Iwtwcou i\liii»li adiI Mahimu^Ml, Uie OtmdariB- 
Kaldhon betwon KaravoAaud VardJU, Ui« tioadavla-Tonilla iMtwoen VAiifanxMnolu- 
V^li aciil Kcrakiial, Ibv NUIvtiti-IUjApur ImtwMii MatTil>li nnrl Rljiiiur, Hit itali-diti- 
Vuxlhaiupd bctw«u[i Malvftilianil VardhftDgul.UiuUluuvad-IiijalNivWio-maKludki 
uid Bbsh-sili. the MnifriU-Otrvt b«t«i4N Mc^rtla uid Uim, tho Punpri-DUvBi 
botwoiiii I^mpri aiid OUaini, tli* SiUbtibMwMo KBlakjti and Vtehcwhri, theToadh 
botwcm Totidb and Uhuni&tv&dt, uiid tli» Virli-KaUbon bctvcco X'irti uid Kaldbea. 
TliD other two are tho jAinli1iiitiii*S)ii'iii'a<ti li(<tu'«>ii Kiilin iii Xnn >iu3 Umlnda in 
Atpildl, and t1i9 Kiikudvttil'Virli l>plu-r«ri Vajai in Mda and Factirail ia KfaatS*. 
Tb« ODo (ootpnth in tbu Narvuiu Kiikudvad betwuen Vodjil and Kirlcol. 

) l^c tn-D curt tnuksaiD JAygaoii alwut twu iiulcafron AluidltMiidl'itifpdiliialimit 
five niilea wont □[ Vadti} twlwMn IMavIa and Piitdj. Ilia J^rfMOi hoM Itttio tmlk^ 
Iiiit the I'in^)Ui U eroaacd by the Ttagaon'MogrsIs road and eamoa Irtaa KhOAr 14 
DahivaiU and IVndharpur grain, ohiUica. aodothm-lUld prndncclo thcvalaa o(£2D0 
(fLt. -JOOO). 1'ho tlirco (ootpatU ant the TodnUKhatval between tbe tIIUum of 
THdul and Kbntvol, the Pcdgacni bctwivn tbo viUajpa of Pedsaoa and Vtdi, and tho 
rniharmal between the rillacH of L'ltibnrina] and vetna. 

' Til* olghtcen abnnt the KhAiiApor bilti on BSlain)(] hntirem Balrldl and Valvan. 
tLa Rinur tiatwccn Itjinur and PactieiiaDii. the BhirghAt Iietwixm HiiTa and KanAoi, 
the Chinch bntffonn PochcRiuin and Knlo-KAnuigi, tlin llHruoli* bctwKii QkoU- 
Budnik anil Para, tho Devj betwocm Devi and BMkTadi-Hadmk. the DhonllvAdi 
bvtwMn KbliiSpiir and Ijaign, tha Honldara liotwMii QhuU-llii<lnik anil Pailli, llio 
Baoharviili between Ghoti'Klisrd and Paid. tJia Kuril belwiMti Kuthuid Vila, (1m 
Heusanvldi butwenii Balvldl and rhinchnii, tlie NitKoba btftwum KhAii;i|>ur ami 
Uotbi, the Pain Wvnwn Kannr and Palit, the H:lnif;)>Jit hHwivii Kanu>5i and Kut> 
Karanfii, the K(<i'aiig;auii lietwiwii Bai'angann and Liult*, tbu SliiuduvMi ha*«r*^ 
BalrdiS and Bbud, Uiu Tuktiuili h«twouii Italridi mid Kbanuudi, and the Vlumbs 
butnecn Konnri anil V^tstiiilu. OttliMu ei^^teen tpir^tv tliu Hdiaghdtaluna bnatictly 
piuiuiblu by cart* uiid the re't an uaad hy paok tm II wtm and foot pnHenctn Tu 
edDT«ti goroHa about the Knria hilU arv cfrv PhikAi hutwvtu Khelgaon and Karlt, 
Qaneoh bflweeo Chinchni and Olitli, t1» Homnant b«1nriiCD Tadli and Macliinidni, 
Iha Kival betw««n 8b(djpion and Kiial, tba Nvrli between Nrrii and Tsmbn, tbv 
flraoht betvenn Acad an d Kvlm- H amaksh n. tb p Samiidmbrar between l^cmalitra and 
ITapari, thaShonavli between Soukita and .Sbiiuoili. Uid Vadpuin betwicn Sauaal 
■od Vad^aoii, the Vdj;hdan betir«au J«d«ar and ShinJOMui, and Ya^ori bci 
Shelgaou oud Kcrt-iv&di, Koim uf Uumc {uigM an pnMable by oarU. 









OF the three systems of railways, the East Deccan or Hotgi. 
Gada^, tho Soath Dirccan or Bcldri-Mnnaagaon, nud the Wost 
Doccnn or Poonn-bondn which arc Ik-uij? introaiioctl into tho South- 
ern Sfiinlthft and Kitiiaroso tliiilriclA of Bombay, the We«t Ueocnn 
or PooDa<Louda by Miraj and Bclgsnm will diroclly aSeci Sdl^m. 
The be^nniiiK of tho Poona-Loiida railwsys iros sancttonod ia 
DvocDiWr 1883. Of 275 milvs, the total lonj^fa froui Poena to Londa, 
about forty-Hoirna run from Po'ioa through the Poooa 
district, 101 miles through the Sit&ra district, twonty^one miles 
throogh the SiHngti sad Afirnj states betwoen SAtAra and Bolgnaoi, 
ami IOC miles through tliu Hoigitiim dislricU 'Vha 101 luileii within 
KiUAra limits pass south and >touLh-c-uat along almost the whole 
oeQtre of the district through parts of WAi and Phsltao, the 
vholo of Korcgnon and Kar^, and [>art« of ViUvn luid TAtiigaoD. 
The line enters SilttirB at tho Nim about forty-seron milea from 
Poona and leavea S&t<lra at the Verla about 148 miles from Poona. 
In tho SlUAra sectioa of 101 miles ten third class stations are 
proposed, tliat i« an avcm^^ of onastalioii fur every ti<ai miles of 
line. IHie tfn sUitions will bo Lonaud ul b'H inilos ironi Poona, 
S&lpa &8 miles, V^iiir 6S{ milett, Padii 77^ milee, Koregaon 
64 miles, Rahimatpnr 01} mites, Masur 1043 miles, Karad 
liond IIS^ miles, Macfaundmgad 125 miles, and Eundal within 
state limits at 13'> miles.* At S&lpa nt tifty -eight niilvK the liue will 
run through the S&lpn tunnel, which ihough dilScnlb is not 
more than 500 feet long aud is estimated to cost £11,400 
(Rs. 1,14,000). At Padli at ~'l miles (he line enters the rich and 
fertile valby of the Krishna, aud for the reroatniog sorenty-ono 
miles of the SitfEra section tl continues to run close to the Krishna, 
being never more thnn four miles from it. Consequently for about 
uiuety-ciglit miles tho lino on the whole slowly falls from Padli till 
it crosses the Kri.^hmi in BGlgniim at about 1 "5 miles. To avoid the 
hea\~y outlay which would haVe been incurred by running the line 
along the western cur right side of the Kii&hna, which would have 
net^eKiitated tho bridging of tho Krishna and almost all its chief 
tribntariet) the KudAli, Vena, Urmodi, Tfirli. Koynn, and Vinia, the 
SAt^ra section will ran along the eastern or left side of the Krishna, 
and tbedtRtrict head-quarter station of Sitdraand the large town of 
Kar&d will eenwqucutly lie at some dtstauco from the line. For tho 
ity of Sfit^ra the nearest sljilion will bo Korcgaon at ei^ty-foar 
lilus from Poona and twelrc niikfl eaat of Sut&ra ; and for the town 
of Kiir^ tho nearest station will be KaMtd Road at 1 1:1) miles from 
Poona aud four miles <»tt of Kar&d. Tho line will have a ruling 
gradient of one in 100 and no curvo with n smaller rftdiu.t than 

MlOO foct. The only large bridge on tbia seotion will be over tho 
Ferlft at 14S miles from Poona, with Sve spans of lOO fout girders 
bd an estimatod cost of £16,700 (Rs. 1,67,000). Excellent stone 
nd lime are available on the aoct^en. I'ho nvemge cost of tho 
iue between Poona and Belgnum ia eatunated at about £94'63 
(Rs. 94,G30) a mile, or a. total expenditure withiu S&tara limits of 
about £955,703 (Ks. 95,57,630). Tho Poona-Londa lino was begun in 
^^uoaiy ltlii-l-aadisexpcctedtobetiiiishediQl8d9. Beyond the district 

Chapter V 

> Tbf piMltiiHi gf oau oc two (it tbit «t4tl4ii« Lv uot'yM^fiuuUy fixed. 

' ISomliay I 



daptw VI 


wibliiuSAn;,']! and Mimj limits, thg cloven miles oHino trom tho Ycr£ 
\a tli(!oxtreiiiesoiilho[ thuS/iti>ra»eoliontoMiraivrill huvutwo slatioi 
at N&ndreh soiltlt of the Verlii at 148 luilea aoaat MirajatlEiOmile 
and A btidffo ncro&s the T^a^foon river nC IM milea with three spani 
of 100 f«ct girders and an cstimiited cost of JtlO.OOO (Rs. 1,00.000). 

Of thti thirty Util bun soroutvon nro on Proviiiciiii and tliirtwn 
oa local fund roada. Of the B«rentt>en Proi'iiicial tolLi aix are on the 
Poona-Belganm road at the Khdmatki pass in W&i. at the Ximb &nd 
Kodoli gorgvs with a sabsidiarj biir at tho SitAra tunnel in KjUAtB, 
at Vdh^gaon and tlio Xoyiiu bridf^ ia Kur&d, and at tho VHms 
bridge near Kaoegnon in Vdlya with a anbiiidiarjr bar at Kitnicri ; 
tffoareon thcShol^pnr-Mah&droAdatthe Varandhapass at Hirdoebi 
and Vnniiidim; two arc on the Siind-FiuQorald pusn road at the 
I'aKartii paaa iu W^i and at Kapde at the foot of the FiuUerald imws; 
tno are on the Sdtdra>MahiLbaleahTar road near the Yenna bridge 
at Ankla in SkiAr& and at Kolgad in Jftrli ; three on the Karid* 
Cltiplun road at the Kmha gorgv at tJiikurdi in Karad, at the 
Kera bridge in Piitan and at th« Kumbhitrli psuis at the foot of 
th* Sahfiaris ; and two are on the KarAd-Bijipar tuad by Nigaj 
nt the 8urli f^orge on the borders of Karud and KhAniipar and at 
the Kii^nitpur gorge. Of tho thirteen loml fund tolls two ara 
on the old Poona road at the Veimn bridge in SAtira and at 
tho Silpa paaa on the borders of Koregaon and Phalian ; one ia 
on the Wai-Adarki pasti road at tho Shirgaon gorge on the borden 
of W<i and Kon-gnon; four are on the Slttim-Pandliarpar iT»d 
at the Trtptiti gorgo in Koregaon, at Vardbangad on tho bordore 
of Koregaon and Mdn, and at the Gondevla gorge and Bhaldev 
in Mdn; one is on the Sal4ra-T48g»on road at tho NHilivi pan 
on the bijnWH of Kurogoon and KliaUr; tlirec are on tho 
Malhdrpeth-Pandharpnr road at the Cral gorge in Pilau, at 
the Shamgaon gorj^ on the borders of EarAd and KhAiiSpar, 
and at tho Tamit goram DOar tho village of Kaldhoii in Kbativ ; 
one in on the Kar^d-TAagaon road at TAkdri in VAlva where the 
Krishna canal crosses the road ; and one is on the Peth-Singli road 
at tho Gotkliind in Vilva. Tho tolls ehargL'd arc for every four- 
vheelod carriage 1». (8 an.), for every two-wheeled carri.igi> drawn 
by one animal Sd. (2 a*.), for every two-wheeled cart or carriaR« Gd, 
(4 as.] if drawn by two animals and laden and 34. {i ns.) if nntaden, 
9rl. (Qas.) if drawn by four animaUnnd Inden and 4^(1. {9 as.) it 
nnladen, 2». [H«. 1) if drawn by eight animnls or more and laden 
and lit. (8 a*.) if unladen, 2*. (ite.l) tor every elephant, id. (j a.) 
for every camel, horse, pony, mule, buffalo, or btilloclc whether 
laden ortmladen, %<l.{^ a..) furevery aits laden or unladen, iff. (]'j a.) 
for every shwp, goat, or pig, OJ, (4 as.) for every palantjuia 
or other litter carried by four or inors bearers, and Zd. (2 as.) 
for every small littor carried by \csn than foiir boarcra. Except 
at the Koyna bridge at KarAd where lid. (1 a.) ia charged for 
every cart laden or unladen and at the Silpa pass on thq old Poooa 
road and at the Triputi gorge, Vnrdhangad, tlio GondavU gorge 
and Dhulduv on tho Siutnt-Piindlmriiur road, whei-o :W. (2 <w.) 
instead of (W. (4 an.] are charged, for every two-wheeled cart if 
drawn by twoaoimale and laden, and li<i.(l (t.)iast«ad of 3d. (Saa.) 



if nnladpn, thaw fees itropctM-rally chargt"! at aliiinKt nil tho toltB. 
In 1881-82 the u>ilsreali«»d£ll,9IO(itH. 1,19,101)), of ivIiichi;IO,2<>* 
(Rg. I,02,(i4i>) were lor Pravincial tolls and £llJtC (lU. 16,460) for 
local fund tolls. 

Of tho «ixt««n etik'f l>ridf^ botoq aro oa tbo Poon*-Uolgatira 
road, arrosa the Nira, KriNhnat Yenna, L'rmodt, TArli, Ko^na, 
aud VAroa, At thirty miles from Poona near Shirval the Nim 
is croesod on the PoocA-RcI}^t>m rood by au iroo lattice ^'rder 
bridf^ resting on tna.ionry piers. It has eight apiins of stity foot 
each with a total length betweea abutmeuta of 501 feet. Tho 
roadway is twenty-ooo feet wide and 46) foot abovo (ho riror 
bod. The bridge wiw built in 1872 atu cost of Jtl 3.290 (It--*. 1,32,960). 
At ftfty-Aix mili'^ from Poona nt Uhiiinj the Knshoa ia croxitcil 
on tbo Poona- li«!ganni road by a nia«onry bridge. It haH nino 
segmontal nrclic^, nich of thirty foot epan, with a total length 
of 310 fwt. Tho roadway is twenty foot wide and twenty-dght 
fevt iiboro the river bed. llic bridge was built in 1864 at a cost 
of £3635 {Ba. 36,350), At Varya miles from Poona 
tbo Yenna is crottstid on the Poona- Bo I gaum road by a maaopry 
bridge. It lui9 oigbt segmental archou each of thirty foot sjtan with 
a lo^ lougtb of 275 feet. Tho roadway is twenty feet wide and 
twentj-ono feet above the river bod. The bridge was built in 
lS6i at a cost of £3642 (Rs. 36,420). At sevcnty-nino miles from 
Poona ncnr Li'Una tho Urmodi is croswd on the Poona-Belganm 
road by a masonry bridge. It hait three elliptical arches each of 
sixty fee*, span, and two semicircular archea each of fifU-on feet 
»pan, with a total length of 259 feet. Tho rorfdwuy i* 20) foot 
wide and thirty-tlirce foot above the rivor bo'l. Tho bridge was 
built in 1865 at a cost of £3924 (R«. 39,240). At ninety-one milea 
nt Cmbraj the Tirli is croBsed on the Poona- Belgaum road by a 
mam>nry bridgo. It has foor segmental arches cooh of forty feet 
»pau with a total length of 178 feet. The roadway is twenty fi>et 
wide and fifty-throe feet abovo the river btsd. The bridge was 
built in 1877 -at a cost of £11,489 (Rs. 1,U,890). At 101 miloa 
fn>m Piwnii at Ksrid the Koyua is crossed on tho Poonn-Belgimm 
roaii by a bridge (lartly of raasonry nml i)nrlly of iron. It has 
eight spans with a total length of 709 feet. I)f the eight spans 
foor in tho south are masonry arches each 6fty-four feet span, and 
the remaining four, over tho deepest part of tho river, consist of 
iron girders each lOd feet span and rosting on massive masonry 
b^ocrs. The roadway is 21} fe«t wide and »0} feet above tho 
^Brer bed. The bridge was bnilt in 1B7J at a cost of llHfiOi 
^^Bla. 4,8.'i,9*0). Owing to tbo nature of tho atibsoil of the rivor 
^Ifcd great difficulty was exjierionced in getting fouudittions for 
Homo of the piers of (his bridge. At Kanogaon, 129 miles 
from Poona, tho Vdrna is cro^d on tho Poona- lletgaum rond 
b^ a masonry bridgoi It has eight !<e(rtncatal arches, each 
sixty feet span, with a total length of 577 feet. Tho roadway 
is twenty feet wide and 30^ feet above tho river bed. Tho 
bridge wa.t begun in 1876 and completed in 1883 at it coat of £26,661 
(Rs. 2,66,610). BvitidoM by the Hhiiinj briiIg«on the Poona-Belgaum 
road tho Krishna ia crossed by two inasuiiry bridges, at Wii 



[Bombajr Qht 



Cbaptw TI. 


fiftr-fonr mitos from Poona on the Sornl-FHaGoTald pass 
auA at Vadiith six iniIo» it<irtli<e««t of SiUm ou thv old Poonui 
Tlin W£i bridge baa ei^ht se^oieotal arclies each of tliirty feul npun 
with a total leo^^ of 2o6 feet. The roadway ia twenty feet trida' 
and thirtjT-six (eol nboro t)iu rivur bi-d. The bridge was btiilt in 
ld7l at a co»t of £3931 (Ks. 39,310). The Viulutb bridge hu nine 
arches each of fifteea feet spas, one arch of ieventy 'four feet i*t)aa, 
and one small wat«r-wiiy of six by serca feet. The total len^li ia 
Si's feet. The rundwiiy in 27i fet't wide and thirty-firo fett abore 
the n%'vr bed. The bridge was built in IS^Iii. Besides bj the Vnrya 
bridge on the Poona-Belgaum road the Tenna ia eronftod by — 
three masonry bridg<o», two on the SaUtrn-Malcolmpelh road abm 
Kiinherd eight milw and at K*-lgbar twenty inile« north-west of 
Siit&ni, and one on the old Pooua road at Vddha-Kheda thrt-v miKv 
QorUi-east of StUira. The Kanhcra bridge has eieht segmental 
arches each of thirty-feet Kjian wilh a total length of 288 feet. 
The roadwav ik twenty feet wide and 2G} ft^H above the river bed. 
The bridge was built in 187S at a coal of £3!)4tf (Rs. 30,480). The 
Evjghar bridge has one arch of sixty feet span with a total length 
of sixty feet. The roailwny i« twenty feet wide and twenty-fiva 
feet above tlie rirer bed. The bridge was bnik iu 18.')2 nt a cost of 
£588 (Bs. &8S0). The Vfidha-Khoda bridge baa five artln^Jt each of 
thirty feut span, oiit> arcli of ten feel span, and two small water- 
ways of «ix by noven feet. The totjil length is 322 tvct. The road- 
way is twenty-seven feet wide and twenty-Hve feet abovu tho river 
bed, ThebridpewaabuiltinlSt'ibyShahjithBSStirachief.' Be«idcsA 
by the Kamd bridge on tho Pountultelgaiim road, the Koyua ia^ 
crossed by two biosonry bridges at Hirosthi in JAvIi cigbty-tbree 
niilea from Poona on the surul-FitzGerald pass road, and at 
Helviik in PAtan thirty-threo miles from Karad on the KarAd- 
Kumbhilrii jntsit road. The Haroshi bridge has three thirty 
feet aruliea with a total length of ninety-nine feet. The roadway 
is 18| feet wide and -OJ feet above the river bed. Tho bridge 
was built in l87o at a oxst of £8S5 (Ra. 8850). The 
Helviik bridge has five olliptical arches each of sixty feet spaa 
and two semicircular land arches each of twenty feet span, 
with a total length of 421 feet. The roadway u ISJ teet 
vido and 46^ fcot abnro the river bed. The bridge was built 
in 18C1 at a cost of JE42 l9 {lU. i2,\90). Besides these bridges on 
the chief rivers, the Kera tributary of the Koyna in crossed by a 
masonry bridge at Pi'itau twenty-one miles west of Kaiiid on the 
Kardd-Kuicibblirli pass ruail. It hiut three elliptical arches each of 
sixty feet ttpan with a tolal length of 190 feet, and the roadway is IS} 
feet wide and thirty ■live feet above the river bed. Tho bridge was 
built iu 18t!S at n cost of S.iH6 (Rs. 23,1(30). The Viiana is croesed 
by a maKoiiry bridge at LliA-turiia eleven miles east of S&t^ra os the 
Sitl&ra-Pandharpur road. It has five arches each of forty feet epoo 

I Th«Vft<Ui>-Kh«lft liridgo bear* nn inscription of ^AIiJI'k in Bogliahsn^ UanUhl. 
Id thfl 1S53 dowl tliii inMiriptloii, wliich ww (in the |ian|>et w^ll of tho brlilire, vx 
«MTi«U away. It wm n^kMd by k [raiih tabliit In a Mtar pivt of tlCe btMM, 






« » tolal loni^li of 2-10 fcet. Tha roadway is tironty feet wide 
Md lliirt)' .foot «l>ovo iho river bed. The bridge w« bui[t ia 18S1 
ai a eo8l of £4910 (&a. 49,100). 

There are elovi>Q trnvellera' banafalrtwd, fourteen district officers* 
bungnlowSf and 297 rflst-honaes. Of the clevcu trovellera' boDgalows 
six ore oo ihv Fnoiui-Bulguiun road, tfo at Sbirnd in W&i, one at 
S^titra, two at Atit aiid Kanld in Kartu], and on? at XerU in V^va ; 
two KTe on the Snriil-Mabilbate»bvar roml nt Panch(;rani and Wfti 
ID W&j ; ono is on the Sjitiira-MahAbleahvar nKul at M^udha in JivH ; 
one i» on tlio FilxGcnild pitM ruad nl Ambonala near Pratipgad; 
aod ouo i.n thu old Poonaroud at Dear in Korpgaon. Knob of thoso 
bongalows hiu tbr«e room.1 each with accunimodation and furnituro 
fijroao traveller. Of tho two ban^lowast Sbirral thouow bimgalow, 
whinb is abotit 811 foot long' and 34} feet broad, fanjt, besides 
three rooni.'t, a cook bouno, a )(weoi>or'H tiotiso, and stabW ; and Iho 
old bangalow, which is about fift^-nine feet long and forty-two feet 
broad, has a cook hou^ and stables. The Sit^ bungalow, which 
13 aboDt 65\ foot long and S0( foot broad, has a cook room, 
a peon's room, bath-room.'*, and Htablofi. The Atit bungalow, 
which 18 about xixty-eigbt feet long and 32^ foot broad, has a 
coolc room, a peon's room, a sweeper's room, and stables. The KaHid 
buD)^Iow, wtiicb us about fifty-one feet long and twenty-tbreo fwt 
broad, has u cook room, a mn^tsman's room, and ^tables. The Neria 
bungalow, which iit about fifty-ono feet long and twi'uty-thr4?e feet 
broad, baa a cook room and a peon's room. The Piini;bgi»ai 
bungalow, which is about sixty-fonr foot lonir and S.'t^ feet brojtd, 
has a cook house, Kvrvunt's and moitamaii's rooms, aii<l Mtubles. The 
W*i bnngalow, which i» alwut COi feet long and 601 feet broad, 
has a ciKik house, a measman'a room, a peon's room, and stables, 
The Medha bungalow, which is about l>^ 4 foot long and'2!)4 feet 
broad, bos a cook room, a peon's room, a sweeper's but, and stables. 
Tho Ami>enala bungalow, which is about 62} feet long and 46^ 
feel broad, has a cook house, a servant's house, n gardener's house, 
and stables. Tho Denr buugmlow, which is iibont sixty-lire feet 
long and forty-iiix feet broiid, hs.t a cook mom, a storo room, 
batb-Tooma, and stablea. Except the Ainbenala bungalow which has 
a corrugated iron roof and a stone floor, all these bungalows have 
tiled roofs and mvrumed floors, 'lliu walls ai-e geucrully built of 
stone lime and brick and sometimes of lime and brick and of 
brick and mud. Kach traveller occupying a separate room baa to 
pay a fee of 2«. (Re. 1) fur one day and one night and of l». (6 as.) 
for one day between stinrii'e and sunset. 11iu tmwlloi's' bungitlowa 
are dopartmentally managed and repaired fiom the general revenues, 
cseept the l>cnr bnngalow which is repaired ft^m local funds. 
The uHogalows have an establishment of n peon and a sweeper, 
and some have a mossmao. I'hc ues.-«man geta ICm. to£I (Ra. 8-10) 
a month, thepoonSa. to ICs. (Rs.l-tJ), and the 8Wcopur8<. to l&t. 
(lU. 4-7i). Tha peon looks after the building and furoiluro, and 
helps travtillers in getting provisions 

Of tho fiiunoeti district otlioera' bungalows four at Karid and 
Umbra] in Kariid, at Kunegaon on the VaruA bridge in V&lva, and : 

Chapter ' 


Chaptw VI. 


Rk!it Hornis. 




Helvilk in P^ton belong to the executive engineer for toads and 
bridj^ri* ; mix iit Siil^par in KarAJ, at TlUc&ri in YiilvK, at Mayoi and 
Kliu'.^iin in Kliatdv, and at BijovAdJ and G«nd»vla in HAn, belong 
to Ibe exceptive oiiginccr for irrigation ; andfuurat Stipin Korognon, 
at Pusosnvli in Kluttuv, at V'^Dgi in Kb&Dflpnr, and at Kasegaon in 
VilTft, belong to the Collector. The four bongalows belonging to 
the executive engineor for rotidit and bridge? liave stone brick and 
mad vralts, tbatdied roofs, and murtim&d floors. All have oeok 
honsps nttiM^hud and some have stables. All are looked aft«r by » 
Kuli Iftbourer who ie paid a daily wage of Stt. to *Jd. (2-3 a*.]. 
Of the six bungalows belonging to the exocutivo eoginf.'or for 
irrigation, two at SidApQr and Miiyni are second clasii and thu 
runiaiiting four are first class buildingH. All arc looked after by 
peona who receive a monthly salary of I i". to £1 (Rh. 7 - 10). I'he 
four Coiloctors' bungtdowit have stoue brick and lime walUaud tiloili 
roofs unxl excvpt the Sap baugaJow all have cook bouses and atabtcs. 
All are looked after by peoue who are paid Sir, (Rs. 4) a montb. 

Of 297 rest-houses or dharmghiU'i', which, bosidos Tillage temples 
and efuivd<«, arw udod by native trtivellera, eighteen are in Wai, sis 
in JAvli, twonty-tvt'o in SAtAra, twenty-eight in Korcgaou, eleven in 
TAtan, forty four in KarAd, thirty-four in VAlva, forty-eight in &IAn, 
thirty-five in KbntAv, twenty-nino iu KtiAnApnr, and twon^-two i 
TAegnon. Of tbe«e fwrty-fivo have been built by private moai 
and the rc^t from local fnnds. Of the 207 reat-houaea tbn-fi Iut< 
corrugated iron roofs, X93 have tiled roofs, ninety-nine have mud 
roofs, and two have thatched roof^. Kxcept a fuw which were built 
of tttune and lime, most rest-houses are built of stone and 
brick and of inferior wood. Of the 297 rest-houses fifbeea can 
accommodate ton tmrollurs, ton fifteen trnvellers, forty-threo 
twenty travftllera, forty-seven twenty. lire travellers, thirty-aix 
thirty travellers, twelve forty travellers, sixty-four fifty trhvoUers, 
tweuty-two fifty to sovonty-firo travellers, thirty-one seventy-five to 
100 travellers, six 100 to 121) tmvollora, one 125 to 150 travellere, 
tJireo 15U to 200 travellers, and seveo-^UO to aOO travcllon. lotl 
rest-housCFi trnvellers are allowed free quarters. 

' Of the twelve ferrios wliicli ply dnring the rains, that is from tbai'4 
middle of June to the end of November, eight arc wriiifs the Krishna 
at MAhuli in SAtAra, at DhAmner in Koregaon, at Umbraj Knrild and 
i£Arvo in KarAd, at Bnrbe and Borgoon in V'alva, and at Ithilavdi in 
Titsgnon ; two are acro.Sd tlio Koyna at Hungvad and Yerad in PiUan; 
and two are acruas the VAma nt Shegaon nndTAiobi in Valva. Most 
ef the ferry boats have been built by the public works dvpnrimont. 
Of the twelve ferries four nt Mahnii, DhAmner, Umbraj, ana Bhilavdi 
across the Kriithua are iron pontoons and the remaining eight aM 
wooden boats. These feny boats are generally thirty-fonr feet long 
fourteen broad and three and a half deep. They are generally 
worked by a cruw of six men, MnrAlhAs by caste, ana carry at a trip 
forty to fifty paasoiigera or four bullock or pony carts. For Bvery 
trip ouch passenger pava ^il. (^ a.) and each (»rt l», (8a«.). In. 
1S82-83 the forriua wcro'furmod fur Jt^OH [Its. 2080). 



SAUn forms mrt of Uio Dvccad postal diTision. Of tho sixty-one 
Mt oflioes one ui a disbarsiug ofGce, thirijr-ono wro 8ut>H}fiiccti, and 
twenty-niiic are villapre officea. I'he disburaiag office is at SiUfiin in 
cliari^ of a postmaster who draw§ a yearly salary of £120 (Ks. 1200) 
rising to £108 (K& 1680). Of tJiu tliirty-^no eab-offioes which 
are in olinrpo of Kub-ixMitniaitters drawing a ymrly salary of £18 
to tSi (Ks. 1S0.8M)), twenty-six at Asbta, Uabiradi. I«IAiupnr, 
Karid, KbandAla-Birda, Kh^v, Eorcgaon, MahAbaleabvar, Uasur, 
Httyni, Mccthn, Mbosviu], Ncrlu, P&nchgatil, IVitiui, Rahimatpar, 
lUjeviidi, Sitl&ra, Shiritla, 8hirval, 8urul, Ti'ugaoii, Uinbnij, Vodoj, 
Vita, and Wdi are within British limits ; and tice at Auudb, Bbor, 
Jatb, Phattan,nDd VirvAdi are within limits of the HatAra agency. Of 
the Iwcuty-niDO village offiocc which are in cbargo of schoolmasters 
receiring yearly allowances of £1 4ii. to £G (Ita.lS-60), twenty-fivo 
at Atit, JUirdlon, BLik^r-TjUgaon, Ubilavdi, Bbuinj, Ch&phal, 
Ch&ref^on, Dh&Todshi, Ginri, Eadogaon, K^la, Kameri, K&rva, 
KiaogaoD, Kh&napur, Kxbolra-M&huli, LimbgoTo, Marul, Nilgaj, V&l, 
Paseeiivli, Hheoavli, I'arala, Tadgaon- KnrtU), and Vi&lva are within 
British limits; and four at Atpddi, Diga.nchi, Kurla, and Taradouon 
aro within limits of tlio Sat^m a^ODcy. lu towns and villageH wbicb 
haro po«t yfficcs, htlu-ni nro delivered by thirty-six puslmen, of whom 
t«ndra.wy<!ar1y salaries of £1*2 (Ha. 120) and the reinaiuing twenty>six 
of £!) 12«. {Ra. &G). In small villages withoat post offices letters aro 
dflivurud by forty-six villaj^ postmen dniwing yearly salariea of £10 
1G«. to £12 tK«. 108-120). At all Ibo village oBicei* money ordora 
are issued, and at the disbartiing office ntid all the sub-oBicas both 
money orders arc issued and savings banked. Mails to and from 
Bombay arc cjirricd by tho Great Indian Peninsnln Kailwny biHweon 
Bombay ami Poima; the inaiU betw<«n Puonu and Stlt^ra are 
Cftrried in pony carta or tdntia lOiku which run from Poona to Hubli 
tbroagb SAtara, Kolhapar, Belganm, and Dbdrwfir. Daring the 
hot KoasoD whon tho Bombay Qovornment stops at Mahlibalashvar, 
tetters are carried in Jiony carta between Sunil cm the Poona- 
Belgaam road and MaMbalefilivar. The post offices are saperrised 
by the snpenntendent of post offices, Deccan division, who has a 
*~~ irly BiUary of £340 (Us. 2400). Thu snperintendont is assisted 
Sit&ra by an inspector who draws XI20 (Rs. 1200] a year and 
whose head-quortera are at Sdt&ra. 

There are two third class UoTernment telegraph oBIcos ut Sitt^ra 
and Mah4baleshvar. 

Except Kartd which has three, each of the other ten snb-dinsions 
line one chief trade centre. Of the thirteen trade centres one is in 
Wili at Wai, one in J&vlt at !t[alcoIiiipi.tth, one in Sittilra at Sd,t£ra, 
one in Koregaon at Rabimntpur, one in PAtan at Pdtan, three in 
Kardd at Kai^ Cbflregaon and Umbraj, one in Vdlra at IsUimpur, 
one in Man nt Mhasvad, one in Khiituv at Pusesuvli, ono in 
Khilnitpiir at Vila, and one in Tisgaon at T&gaon. WAi in Wili, 
ou tho Kiishno, contains about l-SO well-to-do traders, mostly 
Br&hmans, Mdrwiir and Gujarilt Vdnia, Mnrtltha Kunbis, Sdlis, 
Koshtis, Tdis, K&sitrs, and Masai nutne. Of these traders, the 
Hnihmaiui and Gnjar^lt Vauls nro gCQorally nioneylcndcrs. Except 
tiiat the MarAthu Kuiibb and Uujurdl Yutus bny from tho growers 


Po« Off 10 


Tains CsirraK 


Chapter TI. 





on omit payment r&v nagar or gut, rioo, tormoHc, earthnnte and 
coriamlor ec-ed and export them moatly in bullook carts to thu pn 
of Mahnd aud to Poona, the chief trade consiala in importing nrticl 
anil Kcllini^'lUoiii on cash [inyinvnt in thu town and nei^hboarto 
villages, i'rum Bomliay and Hoona, Jlrtrwiir V.-liiis import Bomba 
and KngHsh piecegooda and twiat; from Chiplun, tho VaniK impo 
salt betelnats dates and groceries ; from Poona and SalAni, ibi 
K&s^rs iiujwrt co|)pcr and brass puts ; from Noir or Malcolmpet 
the Musalmitn^ import potatoes and vegeUtblci<; and From Rivdhii 
and Sui-ul-Kavtba the &iLlis and Koshtia import small ijunntiliu o 
women's robos ur lugdti: ResldoB importing women's robes from 
BavdbAn and Siiriil-Kiivtha, the 8&Iis and Koshtis prepare women'a 
robes, wab^Urlotha, bodio-'cloths or lihttrnt, and olbcr Iinnd-mado 
gootia from the twist which tbuy buy from M&rwkr Via'n and wll 
them to consumont in thutr lionsoa. Of late, in consequence of tlio 
opening of good rDadst, tho growers Iiavo bogun to take their 
produce to the port of Mahiid and sell Ihero to tho Mahild trailers 
instead of paaaing them through tho handa of the Wii traders. 
Malcolmpith in Jiivli, thw Inido ccntro of the favourite health resort 
of MaliitbiLle«livar, baa iudeptMidunt and wvll-to^o traiU-rs, mo«tly 
Mxirwur and Qujanit Viinis, Parsis. Christians, and Miisaluulas. 
During the fair season, pspocially in April and Sfay and again 
in October and Novunibor, Malculmpeth is tho cootro of 
ninch traffic and trade. The traders bring rico from the neighbouring 
viUsg«ft, and sugar, salt, cocoanuts, groceries, spirits and winea 
from MahAd, Poona, aud Bombay. Excellent potatoes are grown 
on the hill. Sat&ra in SAtdra contains about &IIO independent traderv 
chiirfly BnUiinanR, M&rwdr Ouiamt and Lingiiyat \''itui3, Telis, 
Tdmbolis, K£s&rs, Bohoras, and Persia. Sail, pieoegooda, metals, 
stationery, grouorios, rock-oil, and silk are brought from Pooiui 
Chiplun and Mah&d aud sold whole^alo or retail on cagili pnynieul 
Conrse sugar, earthnuts, chiltiea, aud turmeric are bought t'rom tbi 

?;rowera by Brahmans niid local and Mdrw^ Vauis and sent t 
'oona, Chiplun, and Mah^d. Of Into years theni bu boen little 
change in tliti amount or character of lh» Sittiini trade. Rnhirnatpor 
in Koregaon contains about 155 independent aud well-to-do tradera. 
They are chiefly Briihmans, Milrwdr and Gujarat Viinis, Shimpis, 
Sangars, Muraiha Kunbis, Juin», Koshtis, Kilsfirs.and Mn»nlmins^ Of 
these Irailcrit the Ur&hmaus are geui^rally moueylendera. Bombay and 
English piecegooda, twist, and silk are brought by the Mdrwfir Vdnis 
from Poona aud Bombny. The VAnis, Jains, and Marnthii Kiiobia 
buy from tho growers raw moIasMes, tnrun'ric, earth iintji, and 
corinndcr mo'hI, nciid them in bullock carts to the ports of Chiplun 
lliiijpurand ilahid, aud bring from those porta salt, cocoanuts, dateiS, 
and spices. All of these articles are sold on cash paymeut. The 
Musalinilus, Saugars, and Koshtia buy twist from the Mdrwdtr VAaia 
whicli the AliiHuluidns weave into turbans and the Sangars and Koshtia 
into waistcloths, women's robea or tttgilis, cotton sheets orj>rf*«dt», 
and other hand-made piocegoods. These articles are partly sold in 
the town, und the rest are taken to Siittira and Chiplun where they 
are sold to local traders. Pdtou, at ibc iiicetiug of tho Roynii. aud 
Kara on the Kartid-Chipluu road, bas about twenty tradors, i 



BrihniaDS, Vinia, and Sbtmpis. Rice goes from PitUn and Tiria to 
Kcr&d tmi. Chiplnn, nod from Ctiipluii are brought sstlt cocoanuts 
umI groceries. Kuriid, at the meeting oE the Kmliiui and tho 
Ko^A on the Poona-Belgaam road, has abont 4U0 tradf^rs, 
moeUy Drihrnans, MArwilr Gnjarjit nn<l Lingiiyut Vanis, Telia, 
Saagara, KoshtU, Shimpi*, and MuHalniAns. Uf the§u traders 
the Brahman^ are generally moneylenders. The Uirw^r VAnis 
brinR' ptecegooda from N^lgpnr, ShoUpiir, nnd Terddl, and 
iromcn's robes or lugdit from Buvadb&u and Hnltkavi. The V&nis 
and Telia hay from tho. growera for cash and »caA to Chiplun 
raw sugar or ytd, tnrmcnc, chilliea, earthnuts, tobacco, and oil, 
and in exchange bring salt, cocoanute, dat«s, spices, and groceries. 
Tbese imported articlvM nro sold in tbu town and ncighboaring 
The Silis and MnsalminB bring tnUt h^m Bombay whica 
py wwivi! into tarbans, waistcloths, and other hand-made piei^egooda. 
Koshcia weave j>it«>(/i'i> or cotton sheets These liand-made 
piecegoods aro sold to the penplo on tho npot. Chiiregaou, in Karitd 
on tho river KAnd on the Malhirnelb>PandIiarpur roiid, has 
GDJnriit Villi and Teli traders. Since tlie oiieningof the Kumbh^Ii 
pMs on the Karad-Cbip1un road tho Ch&regaoa traders have 
proanereid. They liiiy from tho growers for cash, sesame, 
eartbmit, RifHnwer, and other oil .leixls which they piess into oil 
and H^ud in large qnantitica to C'hiplan in exchange for salt and 
groceries. Umbraj, in Karid at tho meeting of tho Krishna T&rli 
and M^nd on the Foona-Belgnnm road, has about Iwenty-llvo traders, 
mostly Hrdhiuaua, Gujarat and Ling^yat Vdnis, and Shimpis. Of 
thcKO traders the Brithmans are genoratly moneylonders. The VAnia 
bay cbilbes carthnnts and rice fnnii the growers of PAtno, Tarla, 
and Morgiri, and H'uA Ihom either to Kilugli, Miraj, or Chijdun, and 
bring salt, tiatee, and groceries in exchange from Chipinn. The 
Shimpis bny women's robes or tugdU and bodicocloths or khana at 
Pfil and Tlirlu. Tht-ite imported artiolvit are suld «a ca«fa payment 
in tLo town and neighbouring Tillages. Isl&mpur or ITiun in Valra 
ba» abont thirty traders mostly BrAhtnans, JlirwAr Gujarat and 
Ling^yat Vitni«. and MariSthn Kiiiibis. 'Iliu traders send to Chiplun 
largo quanliiies of tobacco and raw sugar or ffnl, and in excbnngo 
bring Kalt, dates, betelnnis, ^oceries, spices. English and country 
piccegoodg, and xaettiB which they sell at IslAmpur and the 
^orighbouring rillagec. Besides IxLiinpur, tbo large village of 
_3hinihi in VJlva is famous for its brasa lamps or samaiii which iho 
'Kis&rs send to SJilAra, ShoUnnr, and Poona. Mhasvad in Mdn, 
on the MAn river on the bitdra-Pandhurpur road, has about 
eixty independont tnulcn, mostly Brdhinanii, Uiijar£tand I.iugAyat 
VAnifl, Sbiuims, Jains, and oaugars. Of these traders tbs 
Brdhmans and GnjarJit V&nis are generally moneylcudcrs. Bombay 
and (^uglivh pi('cegood8 are brought iu largo fiuautities by Gujariit 
■Clinic and Shimpi<( from Bomlmy and Poona. The \ dnis and 
laiua buy from the growera millet orldjri, raw sugar or gul, khapla 
or wheat, and oarthnnts, and send them in cartloodw to ShoUpar 
and Pandharpur in tho ea.-<t, and 8&tara Mabid and Chiplun in 
iho west, and from Chiplun bring salt, cocoannts, and spices. The 
Sangurs bay sheep's wool twist from the Dhaugars, and weave it 

Cbapter ' 





Cbaptfir TI. 

\ Piuatirli, 



Mars BIS. 

into blankets or tambli^, antl send them to Chipinn, IfahM, SitAra, 
Pandliarpur, and SholApnr. PnKeH^rli in KnatAv Iim about 120 
indcprnilont traderx, mostly BrfUiniftns, Oujariit and local Vdnuij 
Telix, KoHlitix, Siilin, Hanjjfnro, KuMirs, and Iklitmilm/ms. Of these 
traders, the BrdbinansancfGnjar.UVanis are (renpraily money len dm, 
BflRibsy anc] En^!i«h piocci^oods nod tnist are brought by tlttj 
ShimpiB and tinjnr/it Yiinis troin Bombay and Poena. I'he twis^ 
ia boagbt by Siilia who Tresve it into cotton sheets or paaodU. 
Sesame safflovrer and eartbnats are larftely boagbt by tfao Tclis 
from the growers »nd pressed into oil which is sent to S&Ura, MabAd, 
and Chiplnii. Tim Vinis bny from tfao growers raw sngar or gut, 
garlic. Mid ont'tlinutH, and send them to Dirimali, ShoUpur, Mahtid, 
and Chiplim, and from Cbiplun bring salt, cocoanuta, andgroocnos- 
Vita in KhAnSpur hm about 150 tradors, mostly Brfilunans, M&rwAr 
and local Vdnii^, Hhiinpis, Tvlitt. K&tilrM, Snngan, TAmbats, S&lis, 
and Mu»ilmAnfl. Of those traders, the BrtLhtnann and MArwA^ 
\&aia are generally moneylendere. English and Bombay piooM 
goods and twist aro brought by MArwir V&nis and Shimpis from 
Bombay and Poonn. The twist is bought by Momin Klu^almiiaa 
who weave it into tnrbanfl, and by Sangars and SAUa who weava 
it into cotton sheets or pdsadig, which are sold both at Vita and 
Kadegaon. From the growons, JI.^rwHr and local VAnis buy taw 
sDgar or gut, and tho VAnis and Telis buy eoNimo oarth- 
niit safflowor and other oil seeds, press them into oil, and vend 
tJiom largely to Cbiplan and in exchange bring salt, betolnut 
datoR, and groceries. Tho KhdnApnr villago of Lingra gro» 
gdnja or smoking hemp, enough to meet tho demand of tho whole' 
district of Snlf'im. TiCtgaon has about !50 traders, with ciipitals 
varving from £10 to £10,000 (Rs. 100- Rs. 1,00,000), mostly 
Br&hmans, Mflrwilr Gnjivriil and Lingiiyat Yiinis, Mnrdtha Kunbis, 
Jains, Telis, and MusalmAiis. The trtider* buy from tho growers 
cotton, tobacco, raw sugar or gul, and eartbnnts, and send them 
to SAtAra, KboUpur, Poena, and Chiplun, and from Chiplan bring 
in exchange salt, piocogoodn, dates, silks, wigar, mntMl:<, and spices, 
which aro sold to the people for cash. Aa there are no steam prossest 
cotton, wliich is the chief article of export, is loosely packed nD<^ 
loses mnch iu quantity and quality. 

Thirty-four weekly ami half-woekly markets ore bold, twclro oi 
Mondays, throe on Tuesdays, four on Wednesdays, six on Tliurfldaya 
two (HI Fridays, five on Saturdays, and tivo on Sundays, in twentyJ_ 
three villages and towns. On(? is in W4i at W«i on Mondays and 
Tuesdays ; twLi in J'ivli, at Medha on Mondays and at Malcolmpcth 
on every diiy in tho week during the fair season; two in SAtitra, 
at SStiim on MondajT? 'ITiurednya and Saturdays, and at Parii on 
Mondays; two in Koregnon, at Kithimatpur on Thursdays and 
Fridays, and at Kumta on Mondays; four in PAtan, at PAtan 

Mondays, at T.^ila on Saturdays, at Morgiri on Thursdays, 

at DhembevAdi on Tuesdays ; llvo in KarAd. at Kar&d on Sanda| 
and Thursdays at Vadgaon on Momlays, at Umbraj on Monduy _ 
at ChAregtion on Saturdays, and at Belvade on WtHlncttdays ; two 
in VAlra, at Isl&mpur on Saturdays and at ShirAla on Moadaya^ 
one in TAsgaon, at TAngoon on Mondays and Thntsdays ; 




Kli4uApur at Vitii od Mondays; oue in Khatdr at Pusesivli on 
WeJuesdays ; and two !□ Ulin, at Dnliirodi on Mon(la}'6 and at 
Ubaavad on AVcdncsday*. ThcKo miirWpts iirv (li.-ttrilnititrg nitlior 
tliaii colIuuUng vc-utrca. Except at Itetvade niid I^Iur wliera cows, 
oxen, bnffaloes, ponies, ehcep, and other animnU are brought for 
sale, tbe articles sold at tbwo tiiarkvta aro braHH copper and iron 
tosmIs, millft, whuit, gtwn, pulsus, cotton, oiUeedH, oil, mrthnuts, 
ehilliM, turiuttric, raw suffar, tobacco, Kugliah and couutrr pieo6- 
floods, twista, turbana, wniEtclotba, women's robes or tugd*a. frnit, 
and vegutablM. Busiilos puUdlers and bawkors who Mtt up bootbii 
on tlio market dny» and sometimes Ituabandmeu offering thoir 
Sold produce, grain, pube, raw sugar, fruit, and vej^etablos, 
the sellers are shopkoopers and traders generally bclonginj* to the 
market t'>wn. Except wbcro fruit and vegetables are brought early 
in the ntoniing, tiiese marketa fill about two in tiie aftornooD 
and go on till six. Barter is almost uukuown ; all sates are by cash 
paymenta. Of Uit« ye«n there hai boon little change in tlie aombera 
who attend the markets. 

Fait«, bistinfl; one to thirty days, with an ntteudunco of 500 to 50,0tk) 
people and with a trade worth £t2 to f.'tOOO (lt».l2Q- Ufi.3O,O00), 
are neld at eighteen plocoa, two in WSi. two in Jivli, one in Biitira, 
two in Koregaon, two in Kardd, two in Putan, two in Vdlva, one in 
T&itgAon, one in Kh^iuipur, one in Khatiiv, and two in MAn. Of 
these eighteen fairs, two are attended by 50,000, two by 20,000, one 
by 15,000, eight by 5000 (o 8000, and five by 500 to *000 people. 
The details are : 

S-Vdra ¥^ir D/lniU, ISSi. 




















tanu>Ur( .„ 






Juiuujr . , , 
























r.ih ,,. 





Akilkhav ... 

Ftbrukry ... 



PhO -. ... 

rtbnurj .. 







Mirunrj ... 









PmUM ... 











Ptl , 

JiAuurr -, 









Kbniuy .. 




No^viDtwr .- 




These fairs differ little from tho weekly markets, except that 
they are attended by unnsually largo numbers. They are chiefly 
distribulinK centres. The Bcllcrs are generally sbopkeopcrs and 
tnidora of the town and neighbouring placos. mustty Mirwir 
Guiarit and Lingiyiit Vfinia, Halviin, Tfimbats, KSairs, Shimpis, 
Siue, Koahtis, Sangars, AttAr**, and MusalmJlns. Except at 
Hhaivad where tho chief trade consists in selling cows, bulls, 
buffaloes, ponioe, and sheep by HunJtba Kmibis, MhAr«, Mdnga, and 
MnsalnMloa, the articles sold at these fairs are : By the Vinis, dates. 




IBombaj' Qaiette«r> 



Chapter VI. 



cDConnat*, bpt*Inat», rftw Bngnr, Bugar, epiceii (intt groceriee; byJ 
tlie MArwir Viuin, Salia, Sliimpis »ud Koshtis, Knj;lish and country] 
piecegoods, vrompii's robes, colton sbeoM, wai^tcli'ihs sad bodica-J 
dotbs ; by the TAmbatii copper nnd brass pols ; by tlio K^&ra co[ 
and bra«s pots nnd ^lam bnngles ; by tbe HaWiis, Bweetnieat^'* 
P&rcb«H] rice, nnd nulse ; by the Attars, perfumes and tngnnt 
oaseiiceH ; and by the Sangare, blankets, coareo cloth or p^idam, 
sacking, and felt or humus. Tbc buyers are almoEt all couitumera 
who buy for imtrt<*di»t« ujw. M 

Rhopkeepera are fooad io almoat all villagea except in the BnialU«t>" 
Village ahopkeeporE aru gciivrally Gajarat or Lin^yat Viinis. Tber 
deal in nil kinds of grain, sidt, oil, sugar, raw sugar, Spices, and 
grocorivR, and buy tlieir alock at the nearest tmde centre. The 
shopkeeper is generally a distributer, except that being otUm k 
monrylonder ho gonornlly supplice his stock of grain uom the 
huxbiindnicn to whom ho has udTunocd money, Kxccpl laudholdera 
who, having their own eiock of grain, buy only sugar, opicee, 
grpceriea and oil, moat of the Tillagera depend npon the shopkciipcr 
lor almost all their supplies. A few buy on rash pnynient, bat 
moRt of the villagers have nn ni-cuunt with the shopkeeper. 
Barter is atciost unknown. 

Below thu village shopkeepers are the peddlers and hawkpni wli 
are generally Milrwiir and local Yfinix, Telia, Kite&rs, and Shiinpii 
Thette men travel from rilinge to Tilhigc during the six or eigl 
months of the fair eeason. Spices, groceriea, pearls, looking glaaMS, 
locks, and other articles nro sold by the Marw&r and local VAnia. who 
gftnernlly gn about with a [K>ny ; gln.iK biin^IcK, copper and braas potd 
are sold by Kdiitrs who travel with a bullock or a packman ; cloth by 
Shimpis who generally tbcmfielvea cariy the pack ; and oil by Telia 
Except tliO Teli.* who goucrally, and the MArwAris who rarely. 
Hell their articles to hn.ibaudmen in exchange for grain, almost ul_ 
these peddlers and hawkers sell on cash payment. I 

Tlie Lnmibui, a wandering tribe and the profcaaiona] carriers of 
the district, used tu curry on pack-bullocks to tbe coast and to 
I'oona and other centres, cotton, molusses, chillies, tolwcco, and 
other articles of export, and bring salt, grain, si>ices, and groceries, 
Hince tha opening of the cart roads to the Konkan by the 
KumbhArIi pass in 18G4 and the FitKGoralJ pass in 1876, the«o 
I-Hinilns have almost disappeared, and exports ere CJirncd to Oliiplon 
and Mahild by tniders in hired, and by huabamlmen in their own 
bullock carts. The Uedes, a class of VaniAris. bny cows, bulls, aud^ 
other live-Btock at .lath, BijApur, and BAlAgbAt, and sell them il ' 
the fair seitsoii from village to village for cash. 

Of Imports the chief articles are : Of building materials, Malat 
timber is imported from Pootin Bombay and Chiplun by Gujar 
and local vAnis, MarAtba Kunbis, and sometimes also directl 
by rich house^buildors. Timber generally paxM's through three 
hands and is used by h on so -builders carpenters and tamers fttr 
making beams, girders, planks, doors, sheWes, wheels, and chairs. 
Kalht/a or cocoa fibre rope is brought by GujarAt and local VAnis from 
Chiplun, UsbAd, Poena, and Bombay, and passes tbrovgh three 



bands. Iron bArs, sheeta, faingea, nnd scrawii are brouglit frooi 
Bombay Po- na and Chiplun by Gaiarit and local V^uis, Uarithft 
KtmbU anil Musalniaru, and pou through throu hanib. Iron bars 
are made into cnrt tirett, axe«, and batcbea. A.t tliu dumand for 
iit>D haa increased acd oa Che Dhairada of J^vli and Piitiiii iiaro 
oeaaed to amett iron th(> import of Jroa haa of late increased. 
Olus-pAnes aacil for windows, lnotcinu: gliwsvs, and lantoras ar& 
brnught from Foons and Bombay by Bohor^ and bought by the 

Eutilic worka department andtho rico. Of house furniture, copper 
raas and iron sbecl« are brought from Poonn and Bombay by Gujarat 
V&ais Rud MuH.'ttm^it!', from whom the local Ttirabiits and EfbAra 
buy and luakv thoui into ouokiiig and water pot<< tuprUii, ghiignra, 
j>afi!ftJ«,j;AaJiyd/«,frying-p»a8, and other vessels. Besides the raw metal 
sheets, Son&ra, 'I'timbiit^, KiUAnt, and Tul is bring from X^ik, Poona, 
Uiraj, and HAngli remly made cooking i)at»,piulc«t« or jugSj/ufjMfJnw 
or cnpA with a thick rim, pei*M or caps on a stand, di«bus or 
lahnht, and altarJdni* and gitldbttiinig or rose-Tessels, excellent 
articles bat costly and thuri^t'ore not in much demand. Carpets, 
watchos, clijt^kH, puiiiting^, cliaudelierx, and liaogin^ lamps are 
brought from Uombay and Poena by Bohor&a and M^rwdr VtiuU 
for the use of the rich and well-to-do. Of food drink and 
drugs, salt, oococuints, datm, groceries, and ipicoa are brought 
by local and Oujurdt Vduia from Bombay, Poona, Chiplun, and 
HahAd. Drugs are chie&y imported by Oovernment dispensaries 
at the expense of local fauda Of tools and appliancos, tho Bohor4s 
rmport hammers, nnvib, saws, filos, rasors, kuitrt^>M, scimon^, augi>rs, 
adxes, and chi^cU from Bombay and Poona. Of articles of drntut 
including oruaraeuta and toys, Kngliah and Bombay piecegooda, 
twi«t, sbawls, silk waistcloths and robes are brought from Bombay 
and Poonaby Mlirw&rand Gxjfirtit V&nis, BrahmanN,nud Mu»alnii&ns. 
Twist is bought by SAli» and Ko^hlis who weave it into band-made 

Eieougoods. Pearls are bi-ought by Paujttbis and IklJlrwrfir and 
iUJarAt Viiinis from Poona and Bombay, and sold to tbo rich. 
Kfitiria bring from Gokiik wooden toy, riovvrly coloured rep rpKcn- 
tatiouB of vi-gvlabl(M and fruit. Tlii^e loya are bought by the 
rich and woll-to-do to he laid before the goddess (jauri on a day 
mcrud to her in Chaitra or Karch-April. Gold and silver are 
brought by Miirwdr V^niH and sold to the rich to muke uniamout4 for, 
their wom<-n and children. 

Tbp chief ISxportaare molasses, grain, eartlmuts, turmeric, chillius, 
cotton, timber, and oloth. Since the opening of bridged and urvll mudo 
rriads mot»»«)», the chief oxpovt of the dinlrict, has of iatocome into 
inL-reasiny drmand.and the cult ivniion of siiearfanehus greatly Kpread. 
Millet, wht-at. chillies, turmeric, and tobacco are sent to Bombay by 
Chiplun, chiefly from SitHra, KnrM, a.nd ViUvn. by the local and 
Gujar VAnis who get thcwu articles from the Kunbi husbandmen 
either in payment of debts or on cash paymeot. Cotton is Kent 
from Vulva and Tfi^gaon in bullock carts to Chiplun by Bhdti^ 
and Gujardt Vanis who buy unginnod cotton from the husDandmen, 
have it cleared by band-machines, and pack it in bales, each weigh- 
iog about 250 pounds (10 man«). As there is less local domand 
owing to the growing import of European and Bombay piocegooda 




IBombAy Qtuett 



ChapUr VL 


Gold »xd 

CoPPitn *»» 


tbo growing of cotton has Iat«ly fallen off. Tenk is sent from 
Jivli and Pitan to Chipliin ami othor part* by liinber-dealops, who 
buy at dopnrlmontA) hiIim unA fvl) yearly a cortdin mitnbvr of tMk 
tnio» mostly in Govrnimuiit foresta^ Coarse cluth, cotton sheets 
pjmoilh, ruid blankets &re cliieflj seat to other districia. 

Tlie cliief Sfttdra crafta are the making of gold and eih 
ornanienta, coppor and brass pots and iron tooU, stono-cuttini 
potli-ry, oarpOHtry, cotton- wmriDg, dyeing, blankot-weaTing_ 
tanning, and !<b»e'inaking. Gold and silver workers or Sonifnt are 
found in almost all towns and large villagee. fieaides working 
in gold and silver, a fow Soniint in Siitira, Tiisgaon, and ullic 
)aT^ towns arc well known for Lhoir Hktll in Rton^seltiug. Kxc-tpf 
ft fow who out of their savings bny gold and silvei* in smaU 
quantities and keep a small stock of ornnmonts for sate in theii 
BtiopB and sometimes at fairs, gol<I»mi*.li)t uro not, as a rulo, met 
of oftpital. People who want ovnatnents geu<'raI1y buy their gold and 
silver and give it to the tionirs to work into ornaments, payinf 
them la. Ga. to in. [Ke. )-]) tbo tola for gold. & few Son&rs 
wllo have a largo iinmbor of enslomers cmplojf workmen. Th«^ 
tools used for heating melting and hammering the metal are tb^| 
blow-pipe, iron tonga for taming the coals, a hammer, an anvil^ 
and Uio draw-platos called -jiifi and juml'fuichi palli for making 
gtilil wiru and tbn^ad. t>onitrJ« miiko gold and ailvor bang^H, 
armlets, wri!illf<t<i, noeklncoM, rings. noHe<ringa, and anklets, anil 
articles for holding bctelniits betel leavoa and other dishea. 
8onilrs work from morning to crvning and keep twolvv holidayi 
during the year. Thoir work is utMMly throughonl tho vear aikI iq 
brisk during the marriage sea-ton. The women and children do no' 
help the men in their work. Sondrs oara £0 to JEIOO (Rs. 50- 1( 
n year. They urO' a fairly wolt-to-do class and Iulto no tr 

TiimbiitM and K4»^rs or coppor and brass smiths aro found UJB 
almost all towns. Copper ami bruBH piit-muking is on© of ihtf chieff 
local industries. The metal is brought from Bombay and Poona in 
shoets and cut into pieces of a suitable sixo. Except a few men of 
capital, oopperamiths geneniUy borrow money and invest it in 
their craft. Of the bran^^ware of the district the Ix-sl kiiowu aritelw 
' aro the bra?g lampa whifh are made at Sbirilla in Vdlva. TIi^ 
nrlicles aro sold in lihopB and at fairs, and are also sent to Bomba; 
and Foona. Conporsmiths also tin copper and brass poU at |(/. 1 
l^d. (t to| a.) tlie pot. Thoy make a stock of vessels dnring tl: 
mint;, and during the fair season move from place to placewith then 
Thoy work from nimning to evening and keep nil important Eiindi 
holidays. Their women help in blowing tht- bellows and tinnin 
pots, Thoir average yearly carningn aro £5 to £!M (Rs.SO- fiOO). 
ordinary years thoy are fairly off. They have no trade organi: 

Blacksmiths or hoh&tB, chieBy Hindns and a few Mnsalmina, aro 
Found in almost ai) towns and largo villages. The htisbandmen aro 
the Lobars' chief cuatomcnt. They g«noru)ly have capitiil enough 
to hy in the small atoro of iron they require to meet lh« wantA of 




ihfiip cn»ft. Tliey wldoni havo workman an<lep tlioui. Tbo 
bluckiitnittiii, who make uDcl rofxiir cookiag vessels and fii'M tooN, 
bavo CDongh work throughout the yoar. During the rnioB tboy 
make niiiU, \itm^, und buckets. Thi>ir buHioHt time ih i^t tho cloee of 
tbc fair MeciHtiii when Hw huKbiindincti nru tito&t io want nf Held tools. 
Loh&rs work t«ii to twelve houni a day. Miisnlmia Lohflra keep 
tbo iiEnal Musalmfin holidays and Hindu l^ahAn kwp tho chief 
Hinilu hoIi(liiy:<. Thi^tr women bulp in blowing the bellows und in 
the ligbltir parts of tho work. Their yearly rarnings vary from £6 
to £15 (Rs.6U- 150). Besides the Loh&rs, Ohi«&4iis or tinkorsare a 
cbiM of wiLnduring iron-workorH. Thoy are leas skilful, but nuicb 
oheapor workmen than thu Lolulrs. Except during the raina whoii 
they settle at one place, thev move from rillago to village biyiug 
old iron and tnakini^ and selling new article!). 

t»bonocnttarB cnllod PAtharrnts or BeldAra, Uindna and n fow 
^[»vala>litlll, work whororer they find uniptoymunt. They are paid 
1-kt. to 1()A. (Ka. 7-8) a mouth, to hew and r;bapo stones for boose 
bnitdiag. If pnblic works or other special doinand for miwonB 
aria's tho strength of tho local Bolditrs is increased by wandonng 
fatnilios from other parU of the country, EikCCpt during the niina 
when they are generally idle, stonecutler.H have constant and well* 
paid employment. The want of work during the rain«, and the 
neb (bat thdr wumon uiM nothing to tho family carninga keep thorn 
poor. Anoihorclaat of stoue masons are the Gavandi^. The Gavandi 
OOM fioer work than the Belddr, and often acta as an architect for 
houses and wells. Some aro so highly csteemod for their designing 
faciiltios that thoy aro sont for all over the di«trict. 

Pottery is made in all towns and largo vilbige^. Tho workers 
ore Kiimhhiint who are one of the twelve baluld* or villago ^tTvanta, 
I'he clay of which tdes, bricks, enrthon pot«, and humau and animal 
figures are made, is dug cithor from fii'ldn, from rivnr beds, or from 
old vitlitgo sitoM. It t« mixed with t.lal)Ie rufuse und ia trodden by 
men for five or six hours. The kneaded clay is then forinod into 
balls and turned on a wheel into pot« of vnnuiis shapes. The pota 
are laid in the sun. and whcu :<lightly dry aro Inkcn and gently 
bammerod with a Hmnli flat piece of wood. The pota uro then burnt 
in a kiln. \Vheu the asbes have cooled the pots arc takon out 
of the kiln and sold in markot towns and at the potterei' Itouaes 
at prices varying from id. to 1«. (1-8 '"■). Khiiinbbiirii require 
little capital. Thoy gonomlly work from moruiug to nvening 
throogliotit tbo year excejit when min stops them. They keep the 
loading lliudu holidays, and aro gri-atly nclpod by tbeir women. 
Of latu years tkoir craft has undergone little cluuige. 

SiitArs or carpenters, either Hindus or Muantmjns, are found in 
almost all towns ami largo villi^s. I'he carpontera are ohioRy 
employed from mommg to evening in making the woodwork of houses 
and in making carta and other field tonN. Thoy aro supultcd with 
tho raw iriaterial, cbietly htitihul and j/irnhhtt wood which grow all 
over the district', and ti'ak which is found in JUvli, Sat^ra. Fiitan, 
and Viilva. Their work is stea<Iy iu largo towns but dull in villages. 
They koop all important holidays, llioir yearly earnings vary 





(Bombay QutttMr. 



Of late yoan thoir craft 

ro ■ 

Chapter TI. , from £7 10*. (» US (B«. 75 - 120). 
Crafts- andcrgone little dumge. 

DM Wkaviiio. Cotton WeavinjT ia carried ob in almost all towna and lar^ vil 

by Kliatris, Koshtis, and SAIiti among Bioduti, and bjr Momlns 
ntnonK M usnl miiriK. 'Ilio cotton j'arii for tho rniighvr cloth is 
broagbt by M&rw(irta from T^^on, Jatb, and AttiDi ; the finer yann 
for women's robes or lugdia generally comes from Bombay. A" 
fow baro capital and employ laboiirors, but most borrow money 
from tiiijani and M&rwiiria to bny the yam and pay fur it by tfa» 
articles they weave. Khatris, Koshtis, and SAlia weave the <xMnt9 
cloth, waistdotha, women's robvs, and cotton sheets which are worn 
by all claesM, and Mominn weave the cheap tiirliHii:( which are 
worn by the poorer Kunbis, Thoagh tho wiMverit havo work 
throaghoat the year, their earnings hardly support them, so keeu 
i» tbe competition of stcain-made Bombay and English pieoogoods. 
Tbo woavora work from morning to evening, talcing aboat two 
boars' rest at noon. They koop twelve holidays in the year. Thoy 
are helped by their women in the lighter partd of their work, aa 
eura £0 to £li (Rs. 60- 1&0) a year. 

Uteino. Dyers or Rangitris, both Uindus and MasalmAns, aro found m 

SitlAra, KarAd, T&sgaon, W&i, Itahimatpur, and other birge towns. 
The craft is important as almoHt ntl classes of the people wear d,?ed 
httad-dresws. '1 h« chief coloum iire srarlct, criniiton.ana blue. Scarlet 
or ka*umtiit is made from mixing turmeric with jmjxidkh'ir or 
Boda lime and the powder of dried kar/ia! or safflower. All (he 
articles required for making scarlet arn found iu the district. Th« 
crimson is made from crimson jiowder brought from Europe. Dyers 
do nob require much capital. Their work varies with the goneral 
prosperity of the people. In ordinary years it ia briakent dnring 
the wedding season and aliout tho Dawtni and Div&li holidays in 
Septvmber-October, They work six to eight hnnrs a day. The 
Hindu workers keep the usual Hindu holidays and ih© AfusalmllQ 
workers the usual Alu:<^iltuiin holidays. Their women help them 
in drying the dyed clothes, 'i'hey cam liltio more than a 
BuHscTs. Blanket Weavers or Sangara are found all over the district* 

Blanket weaving is of mo»t im^iortanco to the poor as it supplies 
cheap and warm clothing. The Sangars arc poor and have no 
capital. To buy wool from the Dbangars they have to borrow. 
The whole work of blanket-weaving is done by the Sangar's family 
without employing outaide labour. Thu wool which is brought in 
bundles from the Dhangars is first soaked in ta m an nd-slione water, 
dried in the open air, and combed. After a second Hoaking drying 
and combing, the thread i* St to be taken to the loom. The tools 
need in weaving tho hiankitts are Iho tjav a piece of wood with a 
pointed end about tbioe feet long and six iuclKv round ; the oikvl 
a long piece of wood about four feet long and one inch brood ; and 
the iiiri a long piece of wood with an indented sid& The Sangars 
have Btoady work Uiroughout the year, and are busiest in October 
and November when the sheep are shiirn. They work eight to ton 
hours a day and keep twolvu hoUdajrs. Tbeir women help them in 




»(w)cing and drjiiig tlio tlirosd and in almost all other part* of tbo 
work except w«Hving. Siuif|;iirs, who carD £5 to £^0 (Ka. 50-200} 
B fear, sell their blaoket^ moati; to tlie lower clanties at home, in 
maricets and at fairs, at prices varjin^ from Is. 6d. to 6«. (Ra. j - 3} 
tke blankot. Tboy aro a poor vlau. 

Of tba two braiiohc!) of leather -working (anuing vaa formerly 
carried on by Dkors and shoo-niaking by Cbaiikbbara. Of late as 
tbe prim of tanned leatbvr hnH grcHtly rison, Chambhiirs have atao 
toktm tu l»nning. Dhont and Chiimhhiirs uro found iu alniOMt all 
towns uiid large villa^s. Tbe Dbor^, wbo Say the dead bodies 
of animals, dry and tan the hidvs and sell them to CbttmbhSrs or 
hid(>-dealere. In tniikinf! sho<.it, wntcr-bnckots, and wBt«r-l>ii)^, 
an employment to wbiHi they have only biUOy taken, Dborit show 
lesa skill lluiu ChAmbb^ra. CluinibltArs bay the bides from the 
Dhora and tan them at home. The tanning is done by steeping the 
hido two or three days in walor, by washing it, and soaking it in 
lime water for nenrly liftcen days. The hido is tnken out and lite 
h^r scraped with the mWo or iron knife. It ia xoaked in a liquid 
mixtare of liirda or myrobalan ami bdfJiul bark, and is then*fit 
for OMi. Tbe articles madu by Dliors and ChdmbiirH aro shoes, 
water- hock otM, water-bagK, leather thongs and nip<.-«, and chaplaa 
or sandals. These are itold in all markets and fairti, a pnir of shoes 
futching la. 5d, to 4a (Rs. } - S). Leather working reqoirea little 
capital, and labour is seldom employed. Tbe Dhortinnd Cbiinibh&ra 
bare steady employment throughout the year, except dnring the 
IWDS when work ia dull. They work eight to ten honra a day and 
keep the leading ilindn holidays. Their womt^n help in sowing 
8tlk borders to auoc-s and in othvr light work. Dhors »ud Ch£mbli/irs 
earn £7 I0«. to £10 {R». 75 • 100) a year. In ordinary years they are 
&irly off. Besides Uhora and Cb^mbb&rs, Mochis make English 
boots and shoes in Sdt<ira, Kanld, and other large towns. 



Chapter Til. 

]BEE inficnption» of Ahotil 200 B.t-., rccorfling g:ifts of pillar* bj* 
Kanid pilgrims at the Ulkarhut Stupa near Jabdpur iii tin- Central 
l^vinccA, diow that KarAd or as the inscriptions call tl Kai-ahakada 
about 6fteen milcn fK>utli-i>*»t of SiiUini, m proliKbty the oldrat plocu 
iu th« Sat&ra (Hstrict.' That the place named ia Ine S&tAru Kar&il 
IK eoiiiinnud by a group of sixty-throe early Bu<iflhi»t caves about 
three miliw south-west of Kuriicl one of which has an in»ci-iption of 
about the tirat ceiilurv ufttT Clirivt.' Cave!* itlso itt Shirval iu tlie 
extreme north-west of the Jintrict and at the holy town of W4i in 
J&vli show Uiatthey were old Buddhist settlements.* ■ 

From very uarly tiuios trade routes must have passed by the 
Varandha and Kumbh&rli naxn-n to the Konkan seaports of Mtthttd 
Piibhol and Chiplun. Muco holiness attaches to Mahaltutr.thvftr at 
tin; source of the Krishna river about thirty n>il(« north-west of 
S^tiira.* No early inscriptions giviitj; thv nnines of kin^ have been 
found in the district But it seeina probable that as in the n-^t of _ 
tbo Bombay Deccan and Konkau the Andhrabhritya or Bh^rakai-ni I 
kings <».C. BO-Jl.I>, 300) and probably it« Kolhiput branch held " 
64t6ra till the tliinl or fourth century «l't^>r Chruit. For the 900 
years ending early in the fourteenth ceiiturv with the &luKalin£n 
overthrow of the IJcvgiri Yidnvs no hisiiOrical inforniution regarding 
Gitdra is available and the Pvvnllgari and Kiinare^o inscriptions 
which have been found on old temples have not yet been translated. 
Still as inscribed stones and copperplates have been found in th« ■ 
neighbouring disti-icts of Rutniljpri and Belgaum and the Rtat« of * 
Kolhdpiu-, it is probable that tlio Early and Wentern Chalukyas 
hold tl)c Hiltdra distrtet from aliout SSO to 7G0 ; the Ra^htrakutos to 
978; tli« Wi^sUtii CiiAlukyas and under them to about 1180 by the 
Eolhdpur Siirthii,rd.-< (10'>0.1220); and the Dovgiri Y&davs till the ' 
Uusalmin conquest of the Deccan about 1300. 

The first MusalmAn invasion of the Deccan took place in 1294, 


fttnpu of Bharhat. 
till lor, 

13.\ \S6. 139. Earld givei its nune to the 
;cly fouiid ia Ihc SAbUk diitrict. 
tivc ToiDplcu, 211-217: Archirologiool l^iuvay of WMtent 

' Ciuinmgham'i 
KirliAila BrihmiUK itil 
' PWglUBUIl uidBuigcu'* 

India. IV. 60. 

' BMidea thuBuddhutenrMat Karhitdftnd n'lli,tkc««ar«gTDup(«lc»T«a and cell* 
BuddJiiil or BrthmmiMl at Bhoan in TiUgMon, at Mdlikvdi aud Knndil in ElUi)l|iur, 
at Mtan in Fttan.ond at Ntcuhviir in StMra. Dr. Barge**' Anllqiuuiaii Ltit<, 
W'fi9. Wii ia locnllv believed to b« VlrAtno^ntlicucDIicor tbotliirtt«uthf(W( 
Ot th« Ptndan. I*dy Folltlandl Chow Chow. I, l!Pl-lfl2 

* Jounul BoitiUy Branch Boj-ftl Afintic &ocUt>-, X. 1 ■ 18. 




it tlic power or the Dcvciri Yddavs waa not extiugtiwlitxl till 1318.* 
From i:J18 MahAnlshtrtt began to be ruled by govcmom appointed 
from i'Mh'i and §tatiiin(.-d uii Devgiri. In 133S the Delhi emperor 
Muhaimua<i Tughlik (132.'>- 1351) made Pwvgiri bis capital and 
changt.-d its naiiu- to Oaalata)uu) nr the Abode of Wealtb. In ISll 
MusalioAn exaction.s caused a general revolt in the D«!caii, which, 
according to Ferishta, wait so succe»Lsf iil tliut in 1 34i Muhammad bad 
no part of hi« Dcccaa ti/rribnrii.ut left him except Uanlatabad.* lu 
13-ii; thiire wast widespread dUorder, and the Delhi officer* plundered 
and waKt«d tlie country,* These cruelties led to the revolt of tbo 
I>cccan nohtis« under the able lciider«hip of an Afghan noldicr 
tuuned Haaan Oaiigu. The nobli,':< wen; .sucoessful. and frved the 
Deccan from depeudunce on Morthem India.* Hasan founded 

Chapter ' 

IMIii Ooverno 

S'^SP* i'erubU, I. 304. In 1294 RAmilar tlia mlinj kin* of Devijtri or Dcvgtd 
wufunriacd in hi* cftpiul by AUiia-ilin Kliliji th« nnphnw of the Delhi nnpvnir 
D ■ ^" ■''^ Khilji. luid forced to pay trib«t«. In 1-''J7, Uilmdov gave Bhelter to 
BAi Kana the rofif** king of fiiiJiirAl, mhI uei(l«ct«il lo |>»y trilmt* for thfr* jr^ja 
^n<\ 1.SUI. la ISM Malik Kaf>ir AlAud'iUii'a gsnanl mduiiml thugrMtci.p&rt 
M Mshijiahtnk dlatributod it luuuiig hu ofiicpni, and coulirtand lUmdat- ia his 
alioKiuiiM! (Ditto, I. xeO). In I30'J, MaUk KlFitr, oii hit in>y f.< T«Jliia>ii wu rccoivrd 
witJi gnat bMplUlitjr at Devipwl hj lUmdov (Ditto, 1. 371). laTSlO m Riindq* 
?|""'«5?™«1 '>y'iaK)aShttnIt»rdevirho WMBot woU ulTputtfd to tb« MnMinuliu, 
UMtik. KUat on hit way to thu K.irnAtAk Icit B force at the town ol I'aitltui an tho left 
taak olUie Ooittui to oronwv tho YttUvm (Ditto. 1. 373). Id 1312 Malik KUur 
■•MiMd ■ fowUi ttOM into the Deccaii, aoiiied and put SlinnkanUr to doatb, 
VMtod HaUriahtn, *nd lixsd hi* midence it Oovgail (Dilin, 1. 379), where bn 
nnaiiMdtillAli-tLd-diniahitlutillncwonUTcdhiinloDrUii. Uunii^Uallk Ktfur'a 
■bMBMUIMhi, UaqiiUttv tIisBon-in-I»wo(RAmdovitirT«llheD*Ki«au tOKrnia,dnivn 
Mb BMDT Uusalnubi jBurinoj, and wilh the iiid of the otbcr Dmubd uUafa racvrond 
luUttfahu*. loUISMnliink Khilji, Alrt-uddiui aon and luvuiwMr. tuat«b*il t« 
Uw Dceean to chaabM Hwiulldcv « bo fl,i,l at tho approach of the Uuialmina, and 
WM ponu*.). Kind, aad flayed olivo. MuUrilt appointed Malik B*g Laki, naaot bU 
ttUMra aUvM, to cMnauuid m the Itwiiaui, aii.t returned to Delhi (Ditto, L 389|, 

BHaga" Periabta, 1 . 436 ■ 427. Tbin Jlali'iii.iiit leixnii oiagjjenkled. In 1M6 Ihara 
wcK Uu«alai*ii nvamore at Rilohiir. .MiidiTiil. K«lbari{«, Dedar, BijApiu, Ganjauli, 
Biahj^ OUharI.Tluk»ri. and Berrtr. l)iH«, 437. 

< k dp' ^""^'^ "- 385-201. Hnaan 'ianjiu, thi< liret B&hmanl king, waaan Af^h&n 
™ '''•"■*rt rank and* naliToot Delhi. Hurann'.'daxriall plot of lindbcIoDeingto 
« Briboaa aatrolo^r DMnad Oan^pi who win in favour witJi lb* king of Delhi. Having 
•cditmuUyfeiDDdatTausreinhuiliuy, Hatan had th« hiinaaty tnclvo notice of itlo 
hM Uuilkird. Tliu aitroloKur wu so itruok with bit LUt»Knty that ha exerted bia 
faaflOBDca at ooart toadranca Haaan '■ fortunm. lluaii thn> roaa to a great •tolioa in tho 
Dmcui, wh«r« hi* merit markad hitu out imong bii equal> aa thsir looilor in their 
'■"^It. He aaiuni^ the nauni of Gangn in gratilude to his bensfantor. mid from a 
■juilar matin added that of B»tmi™ or Bnkhmaiii by whiub bin dynuty waa 
Mtowardi diitinj[uiihed. IClphinatoav'a UiKtonr of India, ('>B8. Th* halioani dyiiMty 
w«i»i»tcd of tlui follo«iiu[ eightMU kinaa. who were ■upromi! (ur nearly ISO yoaia 
(1347-1430) aad contiaaed La power for about thirty ycanmon) 1 






134? . isie 



HDhammad J, ., 





1176 -UTS 

MobMonud 11. 




Mihmiul a. 


Mihamd r 


abtii»ud.dia _ 


y'imanat Siiigt, 



AhTQjut ir, ... 4.. 


Firoa ,., 


Alt vd-din IIL 


Ahmad I, 




ua-iut din n. 




a 12SS-2)) 

IBonbfty Ouctt««r. 



Chapter VII- 


iurya Drvi 

130tl- Ji07. 

n dynasty, which in hononr of hia patron a BnUunon he called 
Babuiaiit, and which held tho coniintind of the Pi.-ccan for n<^rly 
150 years, llic Btihiiincu capital waa tin<t Gxcd at Rolbar^ alxnit 
ISOniilw* i-«»t of SiitAra and in 1 426 was reraovwl to B«dar ot 
Ahmadahad-Bedaraliout 100 miles fnrthcrcast. By 1351 Al^-ud-din 
Hasan Qanga Bahniani, tiy tri«tiug tlie local chiefs and aathorities 
in a liberal and frii'iuily spirit, ha<I hrongbt under his power every 
p«rt of the IKiccan which nad preWomly oeen subject to the thn>n« 
of Delhi.' In 1357. Alii-ud-din di^nued his kuifrdom into four 
provinces or taraf», over i>acJi of which he wit a provincial governor 
or taraftlaT. Siitfirn. f ornn-d pat-t of the provinces of Kulbarga which 
ext<-iided from Kulbarga as far west as Dilbliol and aontb as far as 
RAichur and Mud^al in the Nizam's territory. AlA-ud-din appnrentlv 
iiftil control over the whole of Siitnra, except the hilly weet whicn 
witl) the Konkan was not reduced till a century later. In tho later 

Eart of the fourteenth century, under the excellent rule of Muhammad 
h^i BaliiiuiTii (I3o8-]37o)thi> baudittl which for ages h»d hara.<8<^ 
the trade of the Dopcan were bi-okeu and sriittt^reii, and the people 
enjoj'ed peace and good government.^ Tliis period of prosperity, 
when the fort of SdUtra and many other forts were probably built, 
wiw followed by the awful CMiamity of the Durga Devi famine, when 
the country is said to have been reduced to a desert by twelve 
rainless years (1S!)6-1407). In the Srst years of the famine Mihinud 
Sliiih Bahinani (1378-1397) is said to have kept t«n ttiouMad 
bullocks to briiifr grain from GujarAt to the Deccan, and to have 
founded seven orphan schools in the leadins towns in his dominions.' 
No efforts of any rulers could preserve order or life through so loog 
A Rories of fatal y^'W!*- Wlicili; dustricts were left without people, 
and the strong places fell from the Musalmftns into the hands of local 
chiefs.* Beforu the country could recover it was acain waatvd by 
two rainless yeara in li21 tiiul 1422. Mult!tudo» of cattle died and 
the people broke into revolt.* Inl't29 Malik-ul-Tujdr the governor 
of Daulatabml, with tlic hereditary officers or deshmukh«, went 
through the country restoring order. Their first operntii'ti-s were 
against sonic Riuioshis in KhatAv ])e»h and a boily of Imniiitti that 
iuferstc'd thi; Malitidev hills. The aiiny next maixthed to WAi and 
refluced several forts. So cntu'ely had tho country fallen waste 
that the old villages had dtKfttipeared and frc.'di villages had to 
be fonned, which generally included the lands of two or three old 
villages. Lands were given to all who would till them, free of rent 
for the first year and for a horse-bag of grain for the secoml year. 
This .wttlement was entrusted ti> Diidu Narsu Kflle, an experienced 
Briilmiaii, and to a Turkish eunuch of the court," In 145a Malik- 
ul-TujAr, who was ordered to reduce the sea coast oi- Konkan forts, 
fixed bis hcad-quai-ters at Ch&kan, a small fort eighteen miles north 
of i*oona, and, after reducing several chiefs, laid siege to a fort 





' BrigB«" Fcri.hta. It. 291 -2B2 ; Grant Dnr. Mirdtlilt. 28. 

' UiWt' Feiiahta. II. 349- S.W. TIith? Hivcti louuRwi-iv Chi...!, lUbhol, Elichpir. 
0*ulntiiT»il, Bcdw, KnlbBrjin. uid KaudliU. 'titaut DuITb UwAthdiL 29. 

• Brigp- Foiiihla, U. 400 - -HW. • Crant Dufl". M»rtUia«. 26. 




rfaosi; chief was D&med Shitkc wlioiii he speedily oMigec] to stir- 
tmlfr and to deliver hini.Helf anil fouiily into bis hands. Mulik-ul- 
.-'ujdr insisted thai Shirke should embrace the MuhaimniHliui faith 
or be pat toduath. Shirkvoii this, assuuilng an nir of ^Teat humility, 
rairosented that there t^i>it«d l>etweeii him and Shankar lUy of 
Kbelnaor Vishlilgad in KolhSipiirafarailyjcalousy, tinil that slioold 
he become a Muhammadaii, his rival, on Malik-ul-l\ijAr'a reti'eat, 
would taunt liiin with i{{i:oiiiiuy and excit« hin own family and 
sabject^ to revolt lie further pTomineil to accept the Muhuinmadait 
faith it Malik-ul-Tujir would reduce hia rival, and atfret,*"! to ^uido 
him and his forcwt tlirouftli the woo"ly and very difficult country 
to Shankar*!^ doininionn. Maltk-nbTujifr marched against the chitn 
of Khelna but was treacherously »iiirrounded and killed in the 
woods by Shii-ke.' About this time (1+53-1480) no ref«r«nce» have 
U-t^^u tnVG«d to S4tini, places exct^pt tu Wiii and hl&a which ai-e 
mentioned aa military poHtH, wIkiso troops in IMii were orderi«d 
to join &Uhmad Q4wto in his Konkan expeditiuu.' In 1460, and 
twelve years lat^^r in 1472 and \i7i, failure of roiu so wa.tted the 
country that in U?! when rain fell »carcfly any one was left to 
till the land,* The power and turbulence of tboir provincial 
governors was a source of weakness and danger to Bahnmui rula 
To remove Uiis evil Mdlimud CWwj'm, the vi-ry learned and able 
minister of MnhAmmafl .Shiih Jialiiiniiii 11.(146:1-1482), framed a 
aebeme under which the Bahmani territories were divided 'into 
ciuht instead of into four proviocca SAtdra vnut incbided under 
Bijapur, one of the two diviifions into which Kulbarga was divided, 
and was placed under Khwija Giiw&n himself. In each province 
oaiy one fort was held in the governor's hands ; all othtir forta were 
cntni^t^-d to captains and gurrisoos appointed and paid from 
hcad-ttuarters; the pay of the cnptwns waH greatly increased and 
they were strictly compelled to keep their garrisons at their full 
stivngtli.* Tliis scheme for reducing their power broujjlit on the 
minister the hatred of the luulitifr iiohli-*. They brought fabMj 
cbargeaoE disloyally againstMiihmndG&w^. The King was weak 
enough to boiiove them and foolish enough to order the luininter's 
execution, a lows which Ituhmani jwwer never recovered. 

In 1431, on the dt'jxth of MfiliniuiKr&w^n, his estate of BijApur 
including Sitira was coiiferrt'd on Yu^iuf A-lil Khfin the futnrc 
fouu<]er uf Uie Adil Shiihi dynasty of Bijilpur'' who wait apiKiinted 

^VA««naiil. At tke ttaae Him tha Niabn Shikhi (tymiatj uixUir Ahmad NuAm wm 

> Briop' F^iriibU. III. 4S3-13g. 
* Bngp' FwUbU, II. 483, 403, 494. 

■ Britini' Fumlitii, II. 483. 

' Briggs' Furidlita. 11. MH, «M. 

*yiiM( AM »hAh of BiUpur was a Turk, a noii of AmiirAtli Sult<in|l«S> 1*311 
CoMUfiUnopU, ije (ouncfoJ the family of ()ia Ailil SliAl^i niluni of liijtpur cuiuiitinK 
_f r — _. ... ^ Bttu-ly 200 yuare. Sue BijApur SUtiBlio*! 

wteliUitiBd at AhmadMgar 1lt90-la.1S). tho Kotl* SUhi .lyiiitity uDdor Suttdn 
Kntb-tl-Unlkat GtikaiiaB<iai2-IU(KI), BndthoBvry I<lid1ii under KA>im Berid 
at Badar (N93*I6W|. Though kiagu, nominally «iiptuniii, ooullnucd to ruJc m 
IbI« u 1526, tiio (npreinacy at thu lUhiiianii tnay be mlIiI to bavo oimii«>I whuii 
tb* Bijiixnr (1IS9> and Ahmadna«ar (I4W)) Bovvrnon tlirair olf thoir nllxg-iftitvo 
and MUblialieil thonunlvM lu bduiiandent rulari. Actiordinji to Cotniict M<>fldim'it 
Taylor, oxofit HnmiyDn Shtb (I4S7-I461I. tho lUinuuii kiii^ protwUil tlicir 
pMph) ud govemod tli«ui jtwl^ o-ai ndl. Among tb« Uvocaii Uiiidua »ll 

Cbapt«r Vn. 





cii«pt«T vn. 


Adil Slilhln, 


[Boiub*y Gtuttav. 



/rti-dW/ir or provincial govcnior, while Darin KMn Fukr-ul-Molk, 
Slallii KhAn, aiid most of thu M'lf^hal offiocrs atUcIied to him oUuned 
CHtatcs in tile province. In 14Si) Yumif Adil Kbin assei-ted his 
iiutopciKluiioo and proclaimcl himself king. He «T<«t«d ninny forts 
from the coremoTB of M«ltiuud ShiUt Balimani 11. (14S2>1618) and 
aabdued idthe conntry from the river llhima to Uijfinnr.' In lS5i Sail ■ 
Ain-ut-Mulk, tnU: commander, in -chief of the Ahmadnacar armj' who I 
hod taken refuge in !i.;rAr and who at the rwim^st of thi? BtjApnr " 
kine had come to BijApur wa.s jpven cioiMidi-ral>l<; testates in S&tira. 
In uie hnttle of Shul^pur against Ahmadoagar in the same year 
Ibrihim-Adil-Shdh Muspccled Saif Ain-uI-Mnlk of treacherj", Biid he, 
ill coii.<«ei}uence, i-cUred to MHn in mat SiiUtru, collected the revenues, 
and divided them among his ti-oopA.* Ibrilhitn Adil Sh(h sent one 
of his officers with 5000 horae to expel Ain-ul-Mulk, but the Bijiipor 
troop» vfvrv defeated. Saif Aia-uI-Mulk. growinjj )wldur by tmoeeaa, 

fathered the revenues of many distt-tctn including V4lva in sooth 
litara. IbriUiim next sent a^'aini^t him 10,000 horse and foot oiuJcr 
Nid;; Kuli Hog and Diliivar Khan iiab»hi. These troops were also 
def^f t«d and so many elepliants and horses and m> gtt>al a store of 
valuable.' baggage fell into the hand.^ of Ain-n]-Mulk that be levied 
fresh troop.^ ana determined to establi&h himself oa on indepcndeut 

ttemaata of MCikl nnloiiand local guTFrninQit trero pntrrti uid ttmiglbcDaJ Wj 
th* MBUhnlaM^ whu, without intntfcring with or remodclliDa local iiwlitutioat aail \ 
htrvdittTy Mom, (umcd Ifaon to tbcir oim luc. Paraiui mud Arabic «lu<atKui wia 
«stMuI«l by vtllAKS aahooU atteehod to tnoMinoi and endowed «iUi landa. Tliii 
t*iid»d to thsaprnd of the liloraturc and faith ol tho nilara, and the cflbota ol tills 
«d«aatiaiic»i atill lie tfaotd through thcBahmajaidmnJoioDa AlaimforeigaooBWMra 
CMitnul iu Itnlur, tlio cnpitAl ol tha IJocctn, wbiah «u i l*it«d bf mmlwiili and 
tiavallvra Irc'iit all ouuntnos. Tho llolunaiii kiii|^ mad* t*w pnbbe wodu. Him 
WMV nu watur «L>ik), no roudii or )>r>di[(i«,ui(I no public ino* ar porta. Tlwir Mat 
workt vara huiuu oalUa which aftiir AOO yran arv aj pnffot a* whoi ^07 mci 
built. Th*M torta have glacU and cvaaLentiurt-a, civvtvil way*, ttavotwa. flanliinc 
bMtianti with curtain* and intannvtliatv luwvn, bnnd wvt and itry ditdica, and in 
all yUia lurtnoeca n fauawlinij'a ur mBpart-moand with baction* and toa-vrt in 
aiUlitiiiii to iiisiu tnm|iHTt. No roroilils Donvemco of niwiii of Hindu •««■» to 
h»vu taken \>)aw. A ti.ii-tinit itrtaiii vf foreigners poured iu (mm t«rMa, Ambiik 
Tartary, Afjjliauintnii, uid Alnoainin. Thi-M kitignprs. who Bcired eWaflj aa toldiBTi, 
matruul Hiudun and vrvalvd the new Wuhamniftdan popnlntion o( tho DKcan. 
Ar«bil«etur«uf ItiJ&fmr, 12-13. Tbc oamci uiit ilntaof the Ahmndnapr and BijilpM 
king* aro i 






Ahniul I. 



»url)0 1. ... 
Minn HuMln... 

Buihln IL ... 
Hiiahliu ... _ 
Ahnwd IL ... 
BthliilDP _ 
Uuibua D. _ 







iBBta ... „ 


IlirltiUn 1. ... 

All 1. 

Ibrttalm n. ._ 

KUmcid ... _ 










> Brign'KoiahU. III.II. 
■ I>«Uil« of tti* battle an s' 

iven in th« SboUpurStaltetical Account. 




chief. Ibrdhim Adil Sh4h took the field in peracm at the head of 6000 
cluK«vn hon«.', 8000 foot, and a tntin of artiliery. Ain-ul-Mulk 
enc&niped on the river Milii, ami the king arrivix) and halted sonio 
days on the opposite bank witliout attacking hiiii. 8aif Ain-ul-Mulk 
rvsolvwt Dot Co <iuit the country without fitting. For three days 
he advaneed towai-dxUiti Icings csiup as if to vnf^agc hut as oftea 
retired, the royal anny remaining under arnin on each occasion 
from <luu*n till suuHut expecting tlio attack. On the fourth day 
Aiii'ul-Mulk put hi-t troops again in mutton ; but thu king, supposing 
tlmt his design van only to |>arade nn on the preceding dttys, 
neglected to make preparations for his reception, the conimoQ 
gvnrthi of tlic cump only getting under arms. At lengtli, when 
Urn enemy'rt standard appi-arvd in sight, Ihr&liini Adil Sli&li 
inanthalled hia troops in great haiiite and moved out of the cainp 
to give battle. Ain-ul-Mulk averse from engaging the king in 
ptrson consult4.-d with his frionds. obser\'ing that it was treason to 
ti<:ht agaiiut f.\w royal ^tfuxlard. To this all agreed except 
liurtAza Kh^ Anju wlio remarkinl that the standards did not fignt, 
and there was no danger of shedding roval hlood. Ain-uI-MulJt 
satisfied with his casuistry and dndmg it too lato to hesitate, 
charged thv royalists, and attniiking the centre where Ihrtlhini Adil 
ShAlt was posted, pressed on it so fiercely that it was thrown 
into disorder and the king Bed. On this his whole line broke 
and victory diflari-<l in favour of Ain-uI-Mulk, who wiwd the royal 
canopv.«leiiliant!t, and artillery, i*sides all tbe tents and baj^age, 
Ain-ul-!kfulk pursued the king towards Bijilpur, but was arterwnrds 
obliged to ily by tlie route of MAn I)esn to the Ahnitulnaj^ar 
dominioiui where he vraa a.wa.-«itnHte(I.' In 1579, the Bijipur minister 
K.i«d)var Kh&a falsely accused CMnd llibi the dowager queen of 
in.stigatJng her brother, Murta/Ji Nizi'im Sh&h king of Alimadnagar, 
to invade TSiJBpnr, and sent her a prisotii-r to Siiliira iifter subjecting 
her to many indignities.* On Ki.snw«.r Khitn'.t fall in the same year 
Chlind Bihi was released from prison and conducted to Bijdpur.* In 
1592 DilAMir Khan the Bijdpur regent wsa sent a pri»ouur to Sat&ra 
where he shortly after died.* 

Under the Bijiipur kings, though perhaps less n--giilarly than 
aftcrwariLi under the Moghals, the country was divided into districts 
or tarkdra. The district wa.s distributed among sub-divisions which 
weregenondly known by the Persian names pari/ann, karytU, Mummat, 
mahai, and tdUtka, and sometimes by the Hindu names of urdnf and 
dt«h. TTie hilly west, which was generally managed by Hindu officers, 
continued to be arranged by valleys with their Hindu naincit of 
khora, mnra, kbA maval. The collection of tbe revenue was generally 
entruat«d to farmers, the farms aometimea including only one villaga 
Where the revenue was not farmed, its collection was gcoeraUy 
entrusted to Hindu olIic«rs. Over the revenue-farmers was a 
government agent or amit, who, besides collecting the revenue, 
uumoged the police and settled civil suits, Ci\*il suita relating to 

■fidaa'r»iibt*,UI. 100. *BrM»' FnUhta, IIL Its. 'l)iii(i{f«'K«rikbto.m. ISO. 

Chapter VII, 

ileSALMitlS. , 

Adil ShAliio, 

Thnr iMlStutions. 

'BriB8a-Tari«liU,UL 172-173. 

tBombaj Guct 



Chapter VII. 

1489' 1680. 



land were gcnorftlly rcforrod U> juries or paiKhdyala. In money acdta 
the amilf or Koveminciit agvot^probalily pas^-d dociMons. Quo of tlw 
amii'ftini, who HUperin tended a contiideriiblB division and to whom 
all other amildars wore sabordinate, was termed mokd»iddr, an<l it 
is conjecturi'd that hu hml sonic percoDt>^;o on thu roviinuos. The 
mok'in'iiUir'n otlict- thou^'h .totiictiiiit^N continuo^l from father to fton ' 
not hvreditaiy. Freriuentty l>ut not always over the wwAowiiin 
a sniika who. althougn ho took no share in ibo revenue manaa^ne 
and did not live in thu district, executed deeds and formal writings i 
importance. TlioughthechiefpowerinthecoaotrywasMuhainnuidan, 
HindoH were largely employed in the service of tlie state. Ths 
garrisons of hill f orbs sccin i^t-ucrally to have been Hindtis, Jiarith^ 
Kolis, lUiuonhb, and I)liAfijjar«, n few pluce.s of -•"p^-cial strou^ 
being retterved for Mu»alnii(n commandant.^ or kilUd-ir*. BamcIw 
the hill forts some parts of the open country were left under 
loyal Marittha and Brfihmiui oflict-rs with the titles of estate-holder or 
jiigirilfir aiuf of dintHct h«ad ordi/skmukh. Estatca were genorally 
granted on military tenure, the value of the grant being in propor- 
tipn to the number of troops which the grant-holder maintained. 
Phaltan, from which in the time of the Pcshwis 350 horse were 
required, funiishci only fifty to the Bijilpur govemment at a very 
late period of that dyuaaty, but the Mardtha chiefs could procure 
horsemen at short notice and they were entertained or discharged 
at pleotiure. Family tuxnh or p«.!rsonal hatv, and, in the caw of 
thoxe whose lands lay near the borders of other kingfloms, an 
intelligent regard for tlie chances of war, often divided Mardtha 
faiiiilics and led members of one family to take service under 
rival Musalui&nstate-i. I^umbo.nt of Hindus were employed in the 
Bij&pur armies and those of distinguished service were rewardafl 
witli the Himlu titles of nija.nnVh, and rav.' V 

The principal Mardtha chiefs in Stit((ra tmdcr the Bij^pur 
government were CliandrarAv More of .TiSvli, abnnt thirty-five mile 
north-west of SStdra, RAv NAik NimhAlkar of Phaltan al>out thirt] 
flvfc milfts of SiitiJni, Juiijliiirriiv Ghdtge of Malavdi at 
twenty-seven miles east of S^tdra, IMphle of Jnth about niuety mila 
south-cast of SAtfira, Mane of Klhasviid alK>ut sixty miles east of 
SAtlira, and tliu Uhurpiulu of K^pshi on the Vdma about thirty Riiln 
iKHith of Karhdd- A person lUtiiKHl More, originally a Kamdtak 
chief was appointed in the reign of Yusuf Adil SliAh (1+90-1510) 
to the command of a body of 12,000 Hindu infantry sent to 
nxluce the Htrong tract Itetweon the Nira and the Virna. Mot6 
was successful. He diRpa^'^eK.sed the Sliirkvs and completely 
suppressed the depredations of their abettors the chief of whom 
were Gtijiir, Milmiilkur, Mohite. and Mahadik. Mor& was dignille<t 
with the title of Chandrarav and his son Tashvantriv, Having 
distinguished himself in a battle fought with the troops oi 
Burhdn Nizilra Sh&h (1508-1653), in which he captured agn>en ting, 
wa-s confirmed in the rtucct^on to his father as R&ja ofJdvU . 

t Orut i}ttS'( U*rtUtA«, aG-37. 







hftd permission to uag Uic banner he hail woo. Thoir deAcendimts 
nilwi in th* .name ti-iict of coiintrr for wven goncmtions and under 
thi-tr miJd and ju8t mnnac^meQt that liarren iraci became pcmttloas. 
All iho aoccemora ot the lirat More a.-o<umod tlii? title of Cbandrariiv. 
Tile an»w«rringloyalty of this fiuiuly indnwi tlnjBijApargovemment 
to exfurt liltli^ iiioro than a noiniual tribute fi-oiii diHtricLi proflacing 
■o little, aiid which had always been in disorder under MutuLiniiiadari 
govumors. R&v N&ik Nimlwllnr or PItaltanrAv was the N^k of 
Phaltaii. His orEj<;iniil Htimaine wa.<< Povilr; he hod taken tlie name 
ot Nimkdikar from Ninibitlik or Nimlak where the fir»t NimbAtkar 
lived. The fiuiiily is considercid one of the moat ancient in 
Hahirixhtra a«f tlie NiniI;<Alkar wa^ niAdctwrt/cuiAmtiM of i'holtan 
'ore the mid<ile of the sevi^nteenth century by oiio of the Bijipur 
The deshiHuiih of Phaltan is said to have become a polygar 
or indeiK-ndvnt chief au<l to have repeatedly withlield the revenuea 
of tbv district. Vaiigoji or Jogpi'tlrtiv N&ik Niinb^kar who lived in 
the early part of the seventeenth century was notorious for Ida 
.ess and predatory liabitH. Dipiibti the sister of Jagp&Ir&v 
married to MAluji Bhonftla Shiv^ji'sgrwidrathor who was one 
nf the principal chiels under the Alimaonagar kingdom. Ja^dlnlv 
NSik seeros to have been a man of ^reiit influence. Itwa« tlinmtjh 
his exertioikK t)int the miirrin^ nf M/doji's Mon Sh^hfEji and JijibSi 
Lakhilevjdilhavriiv'.t daughter was brought about ajraJni*ttho wishes 
of tha girl'a parents. One of the Phaltan Niiks was killed in 1620 
in a battle )>etwcen Malik Aml>ar and tlic Moghals. Nimbdlkar never 
exchangvil his ancient title of ntitk for that of Rdja. Junjh&rriiv 
(ihitge the (Utkmukh of Malavdi was the head of a powerful family 
^lose foonder Kam RJije Ghiltge had a small command under the 
oui kin^^s. HisnaUvc country KhnLav was sepaTated from 
of the Ninilxilkar by the Mahddev hill.s. The dhiU^es were 
d^hnuk-ltn and tardtthmukhs of the pargana of Mftn. In 1626 
NigojiGli^^wasgiventhu title of tardethmukli as an unconditional 
favoar by Ibrahim Adil 8h^ 1 1. togeUier with the title of JunjhArr&v. 
The head of the Mine family was dc*hmukh of Mhasv£d, ndjoiuing the 
district of the Ghiit^cs. Tlic MAnus were distinguishea ahiUdirt 
or sclf-horsLi! cavali.jrs under llijipur, but werv nearly as notoriotu 
for their revi>ngefnl character a^ the Shirkea The Ohorpadeat 
who were originally Bhonsles, according to thoir family legend 
acquired tlicir prem-nt sunnune diinng the Bahmnni tinies from 
having been the tirst to acate a fort in the Konkan which was 
deemed impregnable by fastening a cord round the body of a 
'jhorpad or iguana. They wore de^hmukhs under the Bijdpur 

Bvemment and were divided into two di^itinct families, one of 
Ipehi near the V(uraa river and the other of Mudhol near Uio 
Ghatpmbhn in the Karndtak. Under BijSpur the Etipshikar 
Gboipado-'« were known as the naritev or nine-touch (.ihoi-pade^ and 
le Mudholkai-sastho M(Aaa or seven-touch Ghorpadea, a (li»tinction 
'hich the two families niaiutaiu. The head ot the Mudholkar 
Ohorpades is the p&iil of a village near Siitiira. The Ghorpodos seem 
io have signalized themselves at a very early period. The high 
Httaalw&n titlcof JmiV uf-OmraorChief of the Nobles was conterml 
00 one ot the members ot Uie Ki^pshi family by the Bij&pnr kings. 



A<U1 Shihii) 


(Bomber OMetteeT. 


Chaptw VU. 

Mil 8ti!lhi>, 




Thv itnt Ohnrpiule thnt join«(l ShtvAjt war one of the K^pahikt 
while the Muaholkara were his bitter enemiea. The Daphlea wer 
dethmiiklis of the pargntia uf Jath. Their orij^itial tiumo was Chftvh&n 
anil tJn.'y took the ^rurnaiMo of i>«iih1e from thi;ir village of Daphliipur 
of whie!) they werehereditaiy jtdftl^. They held a oonuuand from 
the Bij&pur kinga.' 

In IG^Q the NizJm ShSbi dynasty came to an end and in 16S 
Sh&hitji Bhonslo thn son of Miiloji Bhoatlo, who had takon 
considerable part in Nizfim Shihi aflain during the last yi'ars 
the dvoasty, was allow<^-d to rotirc into the service of M&hiDud 
Adil ^hfih oi BijApur ( 1 620 - 16M). In 1637 bcsidpsgivinf: ShAhfiji 
his jiigir iHttricti in Foona, MiUimud Adil ShjUi cotiferrvl oi^ 
SliAliiiji a royal grant for the dahmukhi of twenty-two villages id 
the district of Kai'hiUJ, the right to which had by some mean? 
devolved on government.* Before the nwldlc of the 17th century, 
•Sh&bf^i's aon 8hivj&ji, the founder of the Mar^tha einnirc, had begun 
to establiab himself in the hilly parts of Poona in the north where 
by 1648 he had mtec^edeil in training pos^i-ssion of his father's 
estate of Poona and Snpa and of the sti-ony fortj* of Toma in Blior 
ahont tliirty-live mil^a and Kondbina or Sinhgad about t«n miles 
south-west of Poona, of Purandhar about twenty miles southof Poona. 
and of im^atl in Bhor al»ut tive milmeaitt of Toma. At thia time 
the soviUi of the Nira. as far east as Shirval and as far 8oatli as 
the range of hills north of the Krishna, was fanne<) by tl>e hereditary 
denhmukh uf HunloH Mflval, a Manltha named Bjludal, and the 
fort of Rohii-a wivs committed to hU care. He early entertained a 
jcatoiLsy of Shivdji and kept a strong garrison and car«fnlly 
watched the country round Purandhar. The ds»hpdnde of the place 
was a Prabhu a caiste to whom Sbivfiji was always partial. WAi 
was the station of a UijSpur mokMiiddr or manager who liad 
cliarce of PAndugad. Kamalgad. and several other forts in the 
neigiil>onilioij<l. ChatidrarAv More, RAja of Jdvli, was in possesion 
of the (Jh/ituiitha from thfi Krishna to th« Vftma.* Tlie BijApur 

f:>vemnient being impressed with the idea that it was incit««l by 
hihSji, over whom tlioy had complete cwitrol, took no active 
meamireii to supprewt BhivAji's rebellion. In 1649 6b&hiiji was 
imprisoned at Bij&pur and in 1651-rj2 a feeble attempt to seize 
Shiviji wa'! mode by a Hindu named Biji ShilmrAj, Shiviji 
frcqnontly llvi,-d at the town of Milhlid in Koliiba and tJic party 
of ShdmrAj, passing through the territory of Chaiidrardv More, 
lurked about ttic Pdr piLss until an opportunity should offer. Shiv&Ji 
anticipnttMl thu .lurpriNe, attitcked tnc party nc«r the bottom of the 
pass and drove them in great panic to the forest*. In. 1658, ShiOiAji 
waa released from confinement at BJJ&pur and was boond by a 
aolcmn engagement to refrain from molesting the Muiihol chief who 
h«<l been instrumental in his capture. To induce both parties to 
forget what had passed, Mihmud Adil Shih made them exchange 
their hereditary right.'* and indms as dMhtmUch*. B4ji Gliorpade thus 
obtained from Sliahdji the deshmuki rights of twen^-two '" 

CTftntDufl*«Hai4t1i«M.3S.'I0. 'C.nal Doff*! Mvithia. 83 

' Gnnl DuETi MartVliita. 62. ' " 

ia ICarliii) which Rtulhdji bad acquired in 1607 Crom Dijftpur.' 
IJistturbaDcea in the Kanuitek prevented the Bijfipur govoyniD«ni 
takin^ active stcpN a^iii.'tt Shivi^i, aiul no siXHii^r wu8 ShlLhaji 
relcAS*!') thaii Shiv^Ji lif^raa to devise new ndieraes for jmvti^s.tiiig 
himself of the whole Oh^ltiu&tha or Itilly Weat Deocan. lie ha<l in 
vain attempted to induce the KAjn of Jrivli to nnJtt^ with hini 
■gainst Bijdpiir. Chnnrlrariiv More, although Im carriH on no war 
against HhivAji and i-eceived bis messengers with civility, refused 
to join in i-cbellioa a^^nst B\jAplir. The pertDLssion {panted to 
ShAmiAj't party to pu^s through hi.i country, uri<l tho aid which ha 
was iuutl to have given hiui atforiled Shivflji an excuse for boiitUity ; 
bot the IWja was too powerful to bo opeuly attackcid with any 
certain prospect of succe«:«. Uv had a titron^ body uf infantry' of 
nearly tncMunw do-scription a» Hhiv&ji'x UivAli.t ; bit two .400.1, bi.s 
1>roiliiu', and bis minister Uimmatrdv were all good aoldiera ; nor did 
there appear any means by which HhivAji oould create a division 
amonj; them, nnv'ing hcl<] hiH troopx in a tdatc of preparation for 
somo time, 8hi\fLji (tent two agents a Urdhman named KA^ho Balliil 
and a Mar^tba named Sambb^ji K&vji for the nurpo«ie of gaininc 
correct intclUgcnou of titi:- situation and strength of the principal 
plow-H, but ofttftiwiWy with tlie dftiij^n of coutructing a ntnrrto^e 
U^twmu Shiviji and the daughter of Cl^amlraMv. lUgtio BalliU and 
Saiiibhdjt Kivji proceeded to J^vli uttenddl by twenty-five M&valia. 
Tht-y were courUruanly n-ci^ivi.-'i and iiint iw^nral interviews with 
Cbaiidrar^v, and K^igno BallfU seeing the B^ja totally off his guard 
formed the plan of assassinating him and bis brother to which 
Sambbfiji iCiivji readily agrix-d. Ue wrote to Shi\'Aji communicating 
I1U intention which was approved, am), to support it, tnx)p'< were 
aecretly sent up the Sahy)idrL<i from the Konkan. where Sbi\':Sii, 
besidea the dt'^triH of Kulyiin, held the foi-ta of Tala, Uho>iAla, 
and K/iiri in Koliilm. Hbiv'^iji to avoid isii.'^ipiciun marched from 
tUlgOfl )iis capital to Purandliar and from Purandhai- be maile a 
night march to MaliAbalesbvar at the source of the Krishna where 
lie joined hut truogu which ba<l a.-(Mumblvd in the Dvi^jhlxmring forests. 
Biigbo BalUl, on timliug that the preparatiouH witc ouiiipb'^t'id, 
took an opportunity of dcmandiii<; a privatL- conference with the 
Kl^a and liis, when In- stnbU-d the RAja to the heart and 
his brotiier Wikt despatched i>y SMnilili.^Ji Kdvji. Tiieir atlcndantM 
being previously ready the assassins inatantly ttad and darUii^ into 
tJie thick forest whicn everywhere surrounded the place they soon 
let Hhiv&ji who according to appointinont was advancing to tln^ir 
B|>port. Before the cousternation cau.^<ed by the double murder 
' subsided, Jdvli waH attacked on all sides, but the trnops, headed 
__^ the RiiJA's sons and Hiintnutiiiv, notwtthstanduii; the surpriae, 
^ade a brave resistance until Hiniiimtr&v fell and the .sons were 
m^e prisoner). ShivAji lost no time in securing the poaaessions of 
Cbandruniv More. Tlie capture of the strong fori of ViL^ota, about 
iiftt^on mil«« west of SAUra called Vajragml by fjhivitji, and the 
submission of the Sevtor valley completed the conquest of JAvli. 
ae sons of Cbondrar&r who remained prisoners were subsequently 




Jdrii M/a'B 

■ isas-90 

1 Oniit Dnir* MM^thAa, GS. 

[Bombay Oni«tt«er., 



Cbapter VII. 

iAil >iliilii>, 





condemned to dpaih for maiataioitig a secret correspondence wiUij 
Bijjiiiiir. SlilvAji followf*! up )iis conqudtt liy «Urprlsing Rohii 
wiiich \i<: ^ati!il at niglit at the heaa of hiA M&valJB. BtLndal. 
the <ieshtnukh who VAf in the foi-t at the time stood to liis arms on 
t)ic dnl moment of alarm; and uttliuii^h ^^atlj outnuii>lM>red 
hU men did not Mihmit until hi- wa^ killed. At il» hojid of them was 
Bdji I'rabhn the dathpiinde ; Sliivtiji tnated him with (.[enerooity, 
received hint with great kindni»;s, and conliruied hiiu in uU ht9 
hcrixlilJLry poeft^CHsioii.s. Hi) hail ndationif wiUi BhivUji, and 
afterwards a^ced to follow the fortune^) of hia conqueror ; the 
command of a con»i<lera\ile body of infantry was conferred upon 
him snd )u; mnintuttied his clianicter fur l>rwvery ainl tt<l<?lity to tb« 
In-^t. In 16r>(), to Kircure acet-sa to IiiR poiuessioiui on the bonks of 
the Nira and the Koj-na and to strengthen the defences of lh« 
P&r pwsi 8hiv(tji pitolied upon u high rock near Uic «otirce of the 
Kriidinuon which li« i-t.-Holvt-d to build another fort. The execatioo 
of the design was entnistod to a De&hastha Bnihman named 
Moro Trimal Pingle. who sliortly before bad Wt-n apiwintwi to 
cominaiiil tilt: fort of Pnrnndhar in Foona. TIiIh man, when rcry 
younji, hail accompanied bis father, then in the serviee of Sh&haji to M 
the Kamdtak and returned to tlio i^Iartitha country about the \\-Ar 1 
I^S3 and shortly after joined SldvAji, The able nianni-r in which 
h« «jcocntt!<l every thing entrusted to him soon gained him the 
confidence of his nia^tor and the erection of Prattipgad, the nam« 
given to the new fort, confirmed the favourable opinion entertained 
of him.' Ill the xtimc year (Ifi'iR) the AloghaU invaded the Bijfipur 
ten-itorie« and SarjeMv Ohitge, NinilKiltar, and other UarfUhs 
estate -holders promptly joined Khiin Muliamniad the ByApiir 
prime minister with their troops.* 

About the vear l(Si>8 Bijdpur was dii«tracted by factions amongl 
its nobles ana the youth of its sovereign Ali Adil Shah II. At . 
last they iM^ciimo senisible of the necesdty of making an octiva 
etl'ort to sulxlue Sbiviiji. For thin purpn»e an army was aasembied^ 
consisting of oUOO horse and 7000 elioice infantry, a good train of 
artillery or what was considered as sueh, besides u large supply of 
rockets, a number of itwivcls mounted on camels, and abundance otM 
etores. Afzul Khfin, an officer of hich rank, volimtoered to ■ 
command the expedition, and in his public leavi- -taking, in the 
vaunting maimer particularly common to Dcccan Muhammadans, 
pompously declared that he should bring back the insignificant rebel 
and ca;<it bini in cliaiiiH under the foot'^ol of the throne. To avoid 
imped i me nt.-> wliich pri-nt-iiteil themsi'lve^ on the straight roiito 
from Hijitpur and the hea^•y rains which seldom subsided in the 
neighbom-hood of the hills tiU the end of October, the army proceeded 
in September 1659 fi-om Bijil])ur to Paudharpur and thcnce marched 
towards Wiii. Shi\'4jif on ita approach, took up his residence in 
Prattipgad and sent the most humble messages to Afzul Khan. He 
proteDoetl to Imve no thought of opposing no grwit a personage, and 
seemed only anxiou» to make his peace with the Uij^pur government 

< Cntnt Dnr» Marithfa, 67 - 68. 

* Gnnt Duir* Klnritbte. 70. 



throogb tb« Kh^o's mediation ; li« nff^ctiKl the utmost sorrov for 
his conduct, which be could hardly persuade hiini^-If would be 
forgiven by tliu king, wi-n if the Kliin aliouM n>a^ivo him under 
the shadow of his prntecliow ; and ho would snm-n'lcr the whole of hix 
countrj- to tbeKh^n were it poeaible toaasm-e hiniwlf of his favour. 
Afxul KhiUi, who had all thi- \'anity of a. Muhammadau noble, had 
aiw a thorough oonU^ni[it for his enemv. At the same time as be 
had formerlv oeen in cbai-ge of the Wdi district ho was nwar« of the 
exocvdiu^ difficulty of ati advance through the wild country which 
he mn»t jw^nitniU- With ttuch cuii-sidi-ratioD;« aud mollitict) by 
Shix-ijissubyiisiiion. Afziil Kh&n in an.twer to rcp.-ati-d applications 
de-<pBtche<l a Brdhmau in hiu owu service named Uopinatb|m.nt with 
aroitAble att<.-nilanb4 to PratApgad. On his arrival at Ptir a vitla^ 
below the fort, Khiv&ji oanio down to meet him. The Br&hman 
stated that the Kbiln bis master and Sh&b^ji were inticiatv friends^ 
that tlie Kluin bore no cnmitv towards bi« son, but on the contrary 
would prove his ilcmre to aid him by intcra^dinfj for his pardon, 
and even endeavouring to get bira contlrnietl an jii^irJar in part 
of the territory ho had usurped. Shiviji ocknowledgieil his 
obligation altbuiigh bis n;ply at the public iui;uting was not couched 
in the Eame huiulile^tnun bebod used in hi^t nio.-<.s»gos. Ho said 
that if he could obtain a part of the country in jdgir it would be 
al! lie could expect, ttuit he was the kin^s servant and that he bad 
been of considerable use to hLs government in reducing several chiefs 
whose territory would now come under the royal authority. This 
was the substance of what passed at thuir first interview. Shiv^ji 
provided accoirunmlation for the envoy and bis suite, butassigncda 
place for the Ur&hinan at some distance from tlie rest. In the 
mMdIe of the night Shivdji secretly introtliiced himself to Gopindth* 
pant. He aildreNsud bini an a. Br^bman his stinerior. He 
represented that aJ) he bad done was for the sake of Hindus and 
the Hindu faith, that be was called on by tlm goddess Bhavfdit 
herself to prot^-ct BMliinuiis and cows, to punish the violaters of 
their temples and tln^ir gods, and to resist the enemies of their 
religion, tliat it became Oopinittlipaut n.s a Britlintan to aid a course 
which Bhaviini had sauctioneil, and that if he did, he should ever 
after live among his caste and countrymen in comfort and wealtli. 
Shi viji seconded his argumeuts with presents, and the solemn promise 
to bestow the vitlJ^;o of Hevra on him and bis posterity for ever. 
The Br^man envoy could not resist such an appeal seconded by 
Kiieh an inducement and swore fidelity to ShivAji, dcclarcKl ho was 
his for ever, and called on the go<ldess to punish bini if he sw<Tvcd 
from any task ShivAji might impose. They consulted on the 
Sttcat means for averting the prcit^nt flangcr. Tin: BrAhinim, fully 
aequainted with Af/.iil KbAii'.s character, suggested tempting him 
to a conference and Shiv^ji at once approved of the scheme. He 
aent for Krtsbo^ji Bhdskar, a couHduntial Bntbman, informed hiiu 
of what liail parsed, and of the resolution which lie had adopted. 
After fully consulting on the subject thoy separatt-Kl as secretly as 
they hod met. After holding some interviews and discussions for 
the purpase of masking their design. Krishniiji Bhiskaras Sbivfiji's 
agent was despatched with Oopm^thpant to the camp of Afzul 

Cliapter VIl 



JfiMt KMn"* 

[Bomhty OaietWr, 









Khfln. GopinAthpant' reprvxcotcd Shivi^i w in gnat alftmi ; Imf 
if hilt ivATit ci>ul(l bb ovorcointt by the pvna^nal Aasuraucen of the 
KlilUi, lie was convinced that he might easily be prevailed on to pivi _ 
himself up. Witlinbliud confidence Afzul Knin trustt-tl hiiii.ti.-If 
to GopiuAthpftiilK L^uidtmci.-. An int<.'tvi>^w wtts agn-n) on. aud the 
Bijiipur ti"Oop» witn great laliour moved to J4vU. ShivAji prcparvd 
a place for this ini'cting below the fort of Prattlpgad ; be cut douii 
the junnic, and cloai-ed a road for the Khin's Kpproacb bat eve 
other avcniift to the nl&ee was carefully cK»fled. He orde 
Moropant and Netiji PAlkar from the Konkan with many thousand _ 
of the MAvali iiiiVuitry. He comiuunicated hu whole jplfiii to ihta^ 
two uml to Tdiiiiji M&liLHi-e. NeUiJi wmt stationed in the thicket* 
n little to the east of the fort, whci-e it waa eipected thnt part of 
the Khfin's rotiuue would all^'ancl(^ and Moro Trimnl with a bod/ 
of old and trieil ition wa^ nent to hide hitni«eif in the neighbourhood 
of tlie uun body of the Bijiipur troops which as had been agreed 
remained near Jtivli. The preconcerted signal for Netiiji was lh« 
bl(U)t of n honi, and tbo dLitant attack by Moro IViuial woa to 
Vi«^» on hearing the fire of five guns from Pratllf^^ad which wer* 
also to announce Shivitji's safctj-. Fifteen hundred of Afml 
Khdn's troojxs accompant(^1 him to within a fow hundred yards of 
t'rntdpgad, where, for fear of alarming Shivfiji, at Qtmio^lhpant'a 
suggestion tlioy were desired to halt. Afzol Khi(n, dressed in a 
tliiii mu»liu guriueDt, arniud only with his »word, and attended, as 
had l»ecn agreed, by a single ai-ni(%l follower advanced in his 

Ea1an(|uin to an open building prepared for the occasion. ShivAji 
8(1 mo'le pi\-par«tioDK for this purpOKC, not as if eoDKcioiM that h« 
meditated a criminal aud treacherous deed but as if resolved on 
some meritorious thougli desperate action. After bathing, he laid 
his heail at hi» niotlu'rti fet-t niid asked licr ble!«'iiifr. He took a 
hasty but ati'ectiouate farewell of his friends committing his bod 
Samohtyi to their cure. Ho rose, put OD a steel chain cap under his 
turlion and chain armour under iiis cotton gowu, bid a crooked 
dagger or Wc/rn in his right sleeve, and on the 6nger8 ofhib left 
hand he Bxed riiglinakht or steel tiger's claw a treacherous weapon 
well known among Mar.itl.rts.' Thus armed hu uiowly desccmird 
from the fort. The Klutii had arrived at the place of meeting before 
him, and was expressing bis impatience at the delay, when iShiv^ji 
was seen advancing, apparently unarmed and liketht^Kh^i attended, 
by only one armed follower, his tried friend Tinilii M^lusre. Shivid 
in view of Afxul Khtin. frequently stopped, wluch was represent 
as tlie effects of alarm, a supposition more likely to be ailniilt«!d froc 
his diminutive size. Under pretence of a-tturing ShivAji. the arme 
attendant by the contrivance of the Jliithman stow) at a few paces 
distance. Afr-ul Kh^ii iiitlde no objection to 81iiv^ji'>i followec 
although ho carried two swords in his waihtband, a circumstone 
which might pastt unnoticed, being common amongst Uar£tii^. 

1 Xa t83S KIJB Frattittlii)) wluoi chiof of SAUnt <1S10-IS.1!>) jtarc the nfy. 
to Ml'. Kl|>liiii»Uiuv, Tlity wore most lotiiililablB Meal I'tiiin, vcrj tkup> 
■ttAchuJ lo tHci riiige Uttiiis the flnaan an<I lay cnncMlod iii the tiuide ol tM 
Colsbrookt'a Etpliiii*t««K, II. 1S& Sec ilw Scott Wuintc'* UaMtliU, «l. 


•, and 




advanced two or three piwea to meet ShivAji ; they were intrcluccd. 
and in Uic mkUt of thu cuMtoinnni- oitibraoo Hliivitji struck the 
rrighnakhii inU> the bowe1i4 of Afzul Kh^, who quickly dUengftjjtd 
himaelf, clapped his hsiid on his sword, oxclaimiiig treachery wid 
mnrder, but tihivitji ii)>.tAiitly followed up the blow with hU daggt>r. 
The Kbdn h«il drawn hb* swonl mid iiiaae a cut at Kliivitji, but the 
concealed anuoui- wajs proof againnt the blow ; the whole wait the 
work of a momvUt. aud Shiv&ji was wrvsiting tlie weapon fi-om the 
hand of his victim btiforo their attondnnt^ could nm towards them. 
Syt^l itundo the K]iflii*» follower refuaed his life on condition of 
snrreoder, and against two auch swordsmen as Shivftji and his 
companion, nuiiriiutned an unequal combat for NonR' time before 
h« fell The War^rs had tift*-d the KhAn into IiLt palanquin during 
the scuffle, but l>y the time it was ovor, Khandu Mile and nome 
other fol)ow«nt of Sliivi^i had come up, cut off the head of 
tlie dying man, and carrtod it to Prat^pgad. The signals agreed 
on were made ; the M^valis mshed from their conoealmcnt and 
beset the nearest part of tlii^ Bljipur troopa on all sides, few 
of whom had tiiuv to nioimt their horsea or stand to their arms. 
Netriji Pilkar gave no quarter ; hut orders were sent to Moropant 
to Sparc all who submitted. 8liiviiji's humanity to hL§ priaonera wam 
oonitpicuous on thit as on iiio«t ooca-sionn. Many of those that had 
attempted to escape were brought in several days afturwards in 
A state of great wretchedness. Their reception and treatmo-nl 
induced many of tiw. ^tal1itha i>ri.sonpr3 to unter Sliiviiji's service 
T!»e most dbitinguished MarAtha taken was JunjhirrAv GhStge 
whoi5« father had been the intimate IVitjnd of Shihfkji, but Shivftji 
could not induo'.i him to depart from hi.s alkifjiaiice to BijApar. At 
kit own request he was allowed to return, and wot honourably 
dismissed with valuable presents. Tlw son and family of Afzul 
KhAo wcri; taken by Kliandtt.ji Kikde one of Shivi^i'x omcers, but 
on being otfered a targe bribe he agreed to euide them to a place 
of safety, and led them by unfrcquontod putTis across the mountains 
and along the banks of the Koyna, until hv siifely lodged them in 
KarhJid. When this treachery came to Shiv^ji's knowlvdgt^ Kakde 
was oondemned to death and at once executed.' 

This succcsa greatly raised the reputation of Shiviji. The 
tmme«]iat« fniiti were four thousand honte, several elephants, a 
□amber of camels, a considerable treasure, and the whole train of 

lOrMtDulTa MarttbA*, Tli-TS. AMulla Aftul KUn who wu & mao of grcAt 
portotttl prancau mkur.! ^hivijl witli no* til lii* huiilH muI uiideavuiiml to itnbliim. 
Shivijt VM inilabtoil for hU lifa to tli* prauaiiliciii ha liail uii«d iif wmriii); nrinciiir. 
Dismi)[a|am(( hlmutll Irnia hi> snwp, ha itliiiived nl-j/iKaUi» inUt iii* Htomnoli and 
tnl bindiMm iiiUi liuiirord. KU tmr^taij dniilii:ithpitnt uiKletvnnreil to araunt 
UiH mA irhon ^iviji iMule him fly a* ho ihoulil alviay* IiqM aacred (fas life oia 
Wi Ihman The troona nairriuheil^ontanil out ■ niui. cici-p( the tnrtunaUi BnthnuHi 
Mca|>*d 10 folate the horrid lunrder. Scott WariuK" Mar.ithAi. i;t -{i9. Suutt Waring 
Id m Bote *dd*: Thii aooiaiit rcirta Mitiroly upon the nuthority of th« Uatlthft 
in>niMcri|iita, aod I think them cutltleilto cmlit. ITad not Abilullit Khfai iotended 
tha Uko troachcty I •honld doaht hi* cnnnoutiog to lui intorricw with (ach a mas aa 
Skiri^ aod npoD micb biirah couditlonjL For what more could ho aipwul tu offtwt 
at an iatorrlew tb«Q could have boon cfTectcdbj hi* ■cerotarv T Thl» intvutiuu of 
Abdnila dooi not extnniiitte ^hlvlji'a ooaduct, tor ithivilji had nuule iiii hii inind 
(rom the fint to muidcr tbo Muaalmin gcneml. Dittu, 2W. 

Chapter VII. 

A>I>1 SUhl^ 

4fiaU A'&<l>i'« 


IBombfty Oautt 



Chapter Vll. 



c<({uipmeiii which had been sent sgaiiLit him. Suchofhix 
an were wounded, ShivAji on thiKOCcasiondi&tiuf^islied by pr«<«eniB 
of hntculets, aecklaci's. chiiiii« uf ^ok) utid filvcr, and clothes. 
Theae were pr(Mfi.iot*d with iimoh ceremonv.and servtnl to stimulate 
future exertion among hia sotiliem as well as to cive CT«atvr fame 
to hU exploit. The sword of Afxiil Khiiii and Sliivtiji'fi favourite 
awcHrd Bharfini pus-wil to th« Moghals on tlie capture of Hombh^ji 
in 1690, 'rh«y were restored by Anr&ngzeb to ShJhu in I7fl7 tuid 
till 1827 remained a valued trophy in the armoury of Sbiv^ji's 
dcsceniiants. GopinSlIijitiiit rt-eeivi^i th<' prombt^l grant in reward 
for hbi ti^'Achftry, aud was afterwards promoted to considerable rank 
in the service.' 

In 1659, Shi\-)^i HUrprincd the fort of Va.santgs<l about seveJ 
m'lltn nortii-wcst of Karbid, le^-ied contrihationa alone th^ 
Krishna, and left a thdna or garrison witli a revenae oollector 
in the t/adhi or mud fori of BattU ShirAla. In Janaary 1061, All 
Adil Hhilb II. <li.iap]>ointed in his hopes of cnishins SliivAii, took 
the field in person and marched to Karbitd. All the district 
aathoi-ities, sotnv of wboin hod submittt^d to Shivitji, aUcnded the 
royal camp to tender their allegiance. AH .\ilil ShAli n-corered 
PanhAla and lUngna in Kolbipur which had fallen to ShivJiji in tt 
previous year.* 

In 1661, as Shi%-i(ji vn» unable to visit tbe famoiu temple 
Hbavdni at TuljApnr during the rains, ho with great soh'iniiit] 
detlicated a temple to her in the fort of PratJi|>^'ad. His religioc 
observaiioe^s from tins time became exceediiijjiy Hffid ; he chose tl 
celi.'brnted RAni<litH Sv^nii as his mahdpurvtA or spiritual gutdti 
and aspirt'il to a hij;h cliuract<^r for sanctity* In 1662 wha 
Shivdji thought of iimktiig KiSygad in KoUI>a liLs capital he held 
tbv Konkau Ghitnultha that is the hilly W'est Ueccan fn>m tho 
Uhima to tlie VAma,' In ICflS, in accordance with the temta of 
the treaty of Purandh».r hy which Shivdji eolod to the Mogbala 
the forts which he had taken from them and twenty otht-n* takeo 
or built by him in the territory of the late Niz^m Shdfii govenuuent 
and obtained the right of lev-ying the chaulh and mrdedtfauMki 
over the BijAjiur <lominions ajid to co-operate with the' Moghals 
to fiubdtm BijApur. ShivAji witb a bo-ly of 2O0O horse and 
8U0O infantry joined Jaysin^ ami Hw combined army 
iiiiirched about Norember, Their first operatioiu were against 
BajAii NAik Nimbdlkar a relation of Shiviyi and a ja^inldr of 
Bijftjnir Phaltan wo-h reduced and the fort of TAthvoid scaled by 
Sbiv'Aji's Mllvalia. All the fortified place.^ in their rout« were taken. 
A!i Adil Shih had prepared his troops, but endeavoured to nrereot 
the itivaflion by promises of settling the demamU of the Moghala. 
Rut Jaysiii^ i-ontiuued his advance and met witJi little oppoaition 
ontil near Mangalvedha in ShoUpur.* In 1668 Shiviji obtainetL 
a yearly payment of money from the Bij4pur govern iiient in lie 
of a levy oi tlie chaulh and sardethmvkKi over the Bij&pardoiuinioti 

I Gnat l>»(ri Muittbda. 79. * Cnat DnlT* Mkrttbia. B2, 

* Ufsut Ihid'a ftlnrllluis, 83. • Gnnt Dnff* UuMUa, S& 

* GTMit l>nir> Mvlthii, M-W. 



and in spite of tliv nftrron-infr of his hirritor^' by the Puraodhar 
treaty hv still mtainwi thv wisstt-m ^itiira liills. 

Hie ywin* 1668 anil 16fi9 were of gre&tisd leianre in SWvaji's 
life. i5onie of his contemporaries, speculating on the fatiire. 
5iippci&ed from his apparvrut innvtivity that hv woultl Hnk into 
iii.ti^iiidcttucv, but hf. fiiiployi^l tliLt intrm'nl in revising and com- 
pleting the internal management of his government, which with his 
Tarioua inatitu^ons are tlif key to the fonn.t of ^juvt-mmcnt 
aFt«rwar(ls adoptcl hy i-wry Manilha ntHtc. Sliiviji's. legnlationH 
were gradually fontieil and enlai^ed, but after a certain period 
underwent no change by the exteasion of Iiik ti*rriU>ry until h« 
assumed the eD;signs of royalty. Even then the alteratJoiiN were 
rather in itiAtient of form than iti rule:*. The plans of Marfttha 
i^nc roach men t which were afterwai-ds pursued bo successfully by hia 
nation may be traced from a vcrj- early period and notliiii^r i!* more 
PL' II lark able in rcganl to yhivnji tlinn tlur foresight with which 
Miiiii! of hut itchemeii were laid and the fitnetitA of Ins arrangements 
for the g«mas of his countrymen. 

The foundation of his power was his infantry ; his occupation of 
the forts gave bim u Imlif on the country and a place of deposit for 
bin plunder. His cavalry had not yt-t .spn-aii the tttrrorof ine MarfL- 
tJia name ; but the rules of formation and discipline for his troops, 
the iiitcriori'conomy of bi.-s iiifmitry igid cavalry, the rwgulatioiis tor 
hi» fortj*, hU revenue and judicial arratifji*nient*, and the chief officea 
through which hisgoverument was administered were fully developed. 
ShivJiji's infaiitrj- was raised in the West Deccau and Konkan ; the 
men of tln' Went I)«ocan tract wurc calKii MitvaiiH or westerners, 
Uio»e of the Konkan Iletkaris or southerners. These men brought 
their own arms and required nothing but ammunitlou. Their dreao, 
though not uniform, was generally a pair of short drawers coming 
half-way down thethigh, astrong narrow hand of conaidcrable length 
tightly girt about the loins, a turban, and sometimes a cotton frock. 
itiyit of thciu wore a cloth round the %vaist, which likewise answered 
th«! pnrposes of a Mhawl. Their common arnia consUted of a sword 
shield and matchlock. Some of the Hetkaris, especially the infantrv 
of Savantvtuli. used a species of firelock, the invention of the locK 
for the flint Imvingbfen early rcceivt^d from the Portuguese. Every 
tenth man, instead of firearms, carrii?d a bow and arrows which 
were useful in night attacks and surprises when firearms were kept 
in rewrve or forbidden. 'Ilie Hotkaris excelled a.-* maiksmen but 
they could sehlom be brought to the de.'^po^nt<^ sword-in-hand attacks 
for which the M^valis were famous. Both of them had unusual 
fikill in climbing, and coutd mount a precipice or scale a rock with 
eafte, where men of other countries have run great ri.<<k of 
being dashe-1 to pieces. Every ten men had an officer called a ndik 
and evirry fifty a haviHiir. TTio otEcer over a huiHlred was termed 
yuni/ddtir and the coinmander of a thoiLiand wa« styled fk-kazdri. 
There were also officers of five thousand, between whom and 
the Bamobal or chief commander there was no intermediate step. 
The cavalrj- were of two kinds btirgirg literally hridlemen or riders 
who were aupplied with horses and akHcMrg who were self -horsed ; 

Chnpter VU. 
History. J 


[Bombar Oaxettter. 


Chapter Til. 


AdU SbAfM, 



Shivfiji's bdrtfirn were generally mouiitf^ on hones, thv prapc. 
of thv state. A body of this d«acri{)tioi) was tcrnn-'l pdyah or 
household troopB, buJ Shivdji always placed more dop^ndenec on 
tliem than on ihv nhilniart or any hor^Mi furtuHhi-d on coiitrsct by 
indtviduaLt : with Itoth \u: had a pniportion of Lis piij/ijh iiiix«m], to 
ovArawe the dieobedieot and to perfect bia x^itteni of intellig<enoo 
whidb abroad and at lioiiii: p<;nvtrat«d into a knowledge of th« mottt 
private cirvuiii>tanceM, prvventvd embezzlement, and fnt^tnted 
treucluT}'. Till- JlarJltha horHcmen were coiiiinoiily dressed in • 
pair of tight breceht-s ewvering the kn«e, a turlwi which man; o! 
tiiem fasti'iiud by iia.t«iiig a fold of it under the chin, a frock 
quilto<) cotton, and a cloth round the waint, with winch th 
conctally giixled on their swords in preference to securing them wi 
iheir belts- The horKviiian was amied with a sword and shield ; 
proportion in eacli boily carried nuttchlochs, but the gn.>4it nati' 
weapon woh the spear, in the use of which and the management 
their horses they showed Ixrth ftraco and skill. The Hpearmen hmi 
generally a swonl and rioiiK'tinies a ahicUl ; but the shield wnd 
unwieldy, and was carried only in caw the Hjiear ^liould \>v broki-ji, 
Over ever)' tweuty-fiv*! horsonicn Shivflji had a /mriVJar. 
To one hundred and twenty-live then? was a jufoliiitdr. and 
to «vcry five jumhit or tax hundred and twenty-five waa a 
tuhheddr. Every tubha had an accountant and auditor of 
acoountA appointed by Shiviyl, who were liable to be changed and 
wore invariably BrtUunans or Prubhus. To tJie cotuinand of every 
ten »ulli(iji or six thousand two hundred ami fifty hort>o, which 
were rated at only five thousand, there was a commander styled 
panch-haxari will) whom were alito atationcd a muzHmJilr or 
BcAhman auditor of accounts and a Prabliu icf;ist«r uid 
aceoontant who wa» called amin. Tliese were government ageiii 
Besides these every officer, from tiKjumladdr upwai'ds, had one 
more l-drk-una or writers paid by himself ait well as others in tl 
pay of government. Except the aarnobat or chief no ofliocr w 
HUperior to the cointnancler of fivo thousand. There was 
aaniobat for tlie cavalry and one for the Infantry. Every jtimh _ 
mbha, and pniieh-hastir had an establiihment of Qews-writciit and 
spied bcoidcs secret intelligencers. Shivtlji'a head spy waa a Mnritl 
named Bahirji Njiik, to whom, some of tho Brithiuaus readil 
admit, he owed many of the discoveries imputed to the godd< 
Bhavani. Tlie MarAtfiils are poculiarlv roused from indolence ai 
ftpaUiy when diarget^l with responsibility. Shiv^jiat the beginui. 
of liiM career personally inspected every man who offered Einisel 
and obtained security from some pei-sons alremty in hi^ scrvieu fi 
the fidelity and good condact of those with whom he was 
acquainted, lliis systenj of security must soon have made al 
every man answerable for some of hiscomrades ;and although itcou 
bare been iu most iiigtaoees but a form, owing to the ease with which 
thu responsibility could be evaded, the demand of security wa« 
always a pait of 8hivdji's instructions to hi» officers. The M&valia 
Honietimes enlisted, merely on condition of getting a sulwiste 
in grain ; but the regular pay of thv infautrj- was Qs. to £1 it. 

DeccMi ) 


frajrotliif) mnontli'; tliAt of tho hiryir» or rider* wiu Ms. U> £2 
(2- a pa^o^dt) ; and that of the tAiUddn or Aclf-horsttd cavalien 
£1 ICm. to £4 I6a. (Q-12 pa()odu«) & month. All plunder as well aa 
prizes wiis th« property of Kovfrnincnt. It was brought at 
Mtjitiil liiiii-» to Sliiviji's drirldr or nliwf of public miiiionce and 
iiiiliviilunl.i fomiatly displayed and delivered their capture.i. Thoy 
alwAVf) received sonie srimll proportionate coin pen sation ; they 
were praise], distiu|;uuthi'd, and pmiiiotc<) Aocordinfi; to thi-ir sticccss ; 
and to plundi^r the enemy is to tl]iaday(1dS7)aHeahy th<: Manlthda 
to nxpresA a victory, of which in their estimation tt \a the onlv 
real proof. The horso, espwnally at anodvancodjwriod of Shiv&jis 
history, were mib«i»t*'d during tlio fair sca.-«oii in Ihociieiiiy'scoutitrj' ; 
during tho raiat they were generally allowi-d to rceX, and were 
cantoned in ditierent placca near kuians or pasture lands, under the 
protection of some fort, where tW- grass of the preceding season 
was Fitackcd and grain pr<.'puri.-<l liy the time they i-otunUKl. For 
this purpone p«rM>na were appointed to whom ntnt-froo landx were 
hereditarily assigned. This Hyst«m was preserved when many of 
Shivtlji's institutions w«r« neglected, and it proved a great aii to 
the success of hisoountryineo. 

Shiviiji kept the llinau festival of the Da-taro with groat pomp. 
It falls iu October at the end of the rains, and waa 
paxticularly convenient for a general muster and review of his troops 
previous to their taking the fleld. At thiit time each horso was 
cxaminod and an inventory and valuation of each soldier's etfecta 
were taken to be compared with what he brought back or eventually 
to be made goo)l. If a horseman's eJfvctM were unavoidably lost, his 
horse killi«d. miiinxyl. or destroyetl in goverimi(;nt wrvice they wcr« 
on duo proof replaced. On the other nand all plunder or articles 
diACOvered, of which no satisfactory account could bo given, were 
carried to th« credit of govvrnmvnt, either by confificating the articlo 
or deducting the amount from the sohlier'n arrcara. It wa» at the 
option of the captors to keep almost any articles if fairly brought 
forward, valued, and paid for. The accounts were closed every 
year^ and balances due by government wein; paid either in ready 
money or hy bills on the collectors of revenue in favour of the 
ofBc«n, but never by separate orders on villages. 1'he only 
exceptions to plunder made hy Shiv&ji were in favour of cows, 
cnltivaborfi, and women ; tlie-^e were never to be molested nor 
were any but rich Muliammo'lani^ or Hindus in their service who 
could ]>av a ransom to be made priaoners. Xo soldier in the 
service of 8hivfLJi was permitted tocarry any female followers with 
him to thu field on pam of dcuth. His itystom of intelligence waa 
the greatest check on every abuse, and his punishments wore 
rigorons. Officers and men who haddiatinguisli«l thcni.wlvoM, who 
were wounded, or who had suffered in any way, were alwaya 
gratifie') by promotion, honour, or compensation. SbivAji did not 
approve of tlie jii'jir or estate system ; ho confirmed many, but, 
with the <>xi.-»?ption of the establishment for his forts, ho seldom 
bestowed new military c«t«t«s and gave away very few m personal 


Adil :^liAliu. 
1489 -lOW. 


I A fut^a wMcqnal Mfrcm Bl3 to IU.4. 

• IStt-91 

[Bembar OuettMr. 



Chftptar VII. 

Adil HhihiM. 

1409- lesa. 




assigninents. /nam lartda were graiit«() by him as well in 
reward of merit a« in conformity witb the tenets of hia faith ; 
gift of tund, espociAlly to Brilimuiit. hti'ma of nil chsriti^D thu most 
Acceptable to the divinity. .Shiviiji'A (liwriplitte, wliich required 
prompt obedience to saperiors in ever>' situation, was particulaxly 
strict in his forta. lliu cliiof person or kiiMat in thu M 
eommand of n fortreHS wm Kmiic^l haviltUr luid uttdtir liiul 
there woh one or more MmobaU. In larger forto there was • soraobtft 
to each face. Eveiy fort bad a head clerk and a conuDissaiy of 
grain and Ktoros ; the hejid clork a BrAhman was termed vaonU ; 
the commiasarr was comiiionly uf the Prabhu cmU: ikiid wan called 
icdrkbdnti*. llie orden reganling ingrcAS and ^rea(i.roundR. watches, 
and patrols, care of water, grain, stores, and ammunition wore mort 
minute, and the tii-iwl of each department was furtiiMhc-d with 
distinct ruK-n fur hU guidance fi-oni which no deviatJoti wan allowed 
A ri^id econoniy charactciised all Shiv^ji'ei instructions regardin^^ 
expenditure. The garriwn waa sometimes partly composed of tlia 
common infantry. ImlojiuDdoiit of tliem each fort had a aeparat* 
anck compbtt.! trMtaMi^imfnt It cousisbed of BrAhman», Marvtfais, 
lUmoshis, Mhiirs, and M&n^ ; the whole were termed gadkari* or 
fort-men. Tliey were maintained by permanent Mricnments of 
rent-free Innd.'f in the neighbourhood of each fort, whit-h with the 
care of the fort*d from fatlier to KOii. The iUmflMhi.i and 
Mhara were employed on outpost duty. They brought intelligeuee, 
watched all the paths, misled inquiries, or cut off hoxtile strap^fflcrtL 
Tliia cjitablishnient while new and vigorous waa adiDirnbly ituitedj 
to &bivilj)'H purpate a.t well as to the genius of the neople. 1 
gadkarit de.icnl>ed the fort as the mother that fed them, a 
amoog other advantages, no plan could better provide for old 
d«Mrving soldiers. 

Shiviji's revenue arraiig^iments were founilivlon those of D^iji 
Kondadev, SbfthAji's Brdhman nma^r, to whom Sbiviji's educati' 
in Poena was entrusted (lti45). The asiwssmcnta wore made oi 
the actual state of the crop, the proportionate division of which 
stated to have been three-fifths to the hiu>bandmen and two-fift 
to govrmment. As soon aa Shiviji got permanent possession 
any territory, OTery spocies of military contribution waa stop|: 
all fai-ming of revenue ceased, anil the collections were made by 
agents appointed by himself. Evvry two or three villages were 
superintended by n karknn under the larafddr or tdhikdar who 
had charge of a small diKtrict, and wa.<t either a BrAliman or a 
Prabhu. A Maritha havtltidr wan stationed witli each of tliem. 
Over a considerable tract there was a imf'heildr or mumlalddr who 
had charge of one or more forts in which his collectiuus both of 

5 rain and money were secured. Shiv^i never permitted tlw 
e»hv>ulih» and a«ihpdidet to interfere in the manageDient of th» 
country ; nor did he allow them to collect their dues until their 
amount had been ascertained, when ao order was annually given 
for the amount. The pdlilt, khotji, and kttikarni» were strictJy 
superintended, and Shiviji's government though |>opular with the 
common cultivators, would have been unpopular with Wllage and 
district officers, of wbont Sliiviji was always jealous, had it not bwB 
for the resource which all had of entering 1ii.'< military 3i*r\-icc. 



The metliod which the BrAlnnsn Inini!lt<^^.■l of the Muitha 
gorenimeiit afterwania a^o|)ted, of pa^Hng the roilitary and <avil 
taranls by permanent assi;;i)meDt« on portions of the revenue of 
rilligts. is said to hav« Ix-cn early propos<^ to Shivt^i. He 
«bj«l«)l to it, uot only from F««r of imine<liAt« opprcssioa to 
the kiBtbuidmen, but from apprehendiog that it would in Ow. Knd 
mm socb a division of povrcr as must weaken his government and 
etUMinee the villit^- and di'strivt uiithorilius to rcsixt it as they 
frB)ii«otly dill tliHt of Bij^ptir. Wit}i the same view he doatroycd 
ftll village walls and allowed no fortiticatioQ in his territory which 
WM oot occupied by his troops. Religious cittablishmenta were 
carefully prcMurvMl, and t«inpl<nt for whicli no provision exist«d 
had Mini; ailfHiuatvawiignnK'nt'i granttni to them, but the Brihmans 
in charge were obliged to account for the cxpenditare. ShivAji never 
wquestrated any allowance tixod by the Muhanimadan government 
tot the mippori of tomlw, luowjuw, or KaiiitV shrints. The revenue 
rr^l&tioiiH of ShivAji wert? luinplt^ and in some respect* judictoua ;. 
Uit during hU life it is impossible thev could have been attended 
wiihcucb improvements and increa»e of population as arc aacijbed 
to then by hu countrymen. His district.'* vrero fn'quentl}' expo«ed 
to great mvag«8, and he never had HufRciont leisure to complete 
hi> arrangements by that persevering superintendence which alone 
can perfect such institutions. The Uuhammadau writers, and Fryer 
& toiiti-mpijrary English travulk-r dcjtcnbit his country a.s in the 
"orst [Hi!L'<il)l>; ((tate, ami the fonin'r only mention him aa a depre- 
dit(i7 and destroyer. Still those districts taken by him from Bijftpur 
^iiicii liad be«n under the management of farmers or dirvct agenta- 
^^Iforenitawnt probably exfwriciioud great benefit by the change, 
■^ejudicial 4yi«tem of ShivAji in civil rases was that of ^arieAdyai 
weoundl which had invariably obtained in the conatn*. Diaputea 
Mioog his soldiers were settle'! I>y thvir otfiocrt;. He drew hia. 
^minal law from the Hindu wicn-il works or fc^A/infra* ; but as tliti 
winei rulers wera MiualniinH they had naturally introduced 
chaiiges which custom bad sanctioned and perpetuated. Thia 
■raoonts for the difference tliat may be Ktill found between Hindu 
kw and Manitha usage. 

To aid in the conduct of hi.s government, ShivAji established 
tight principal offices : 1st the Fe»hwa or head manager 
VMM office was held by Moro Pant or Moreahvar Trimal 
Pingle; 2nd Un' Muiuinttdr or genera! superintendent of finance 
oad auditor general of acoounthi, who^e othce wa» held by Ab&ji 
Soodev, subhed&r of the province of Kaly^n ; 3rd the Sutnia or 
geaerml record-keeper, superintendent of correspondence, cxainiucr 
of letters : thu ofucc was held by AntiAji Datto ; 4th the VdiiknU 
or private record-keeper and supi-rintendent of the household 
troops and establishment : the office waa held by Datt&jipant; 5th 
the Sarnobat or chief captain of whom there woi-e two Pratilprilv 
Gujar over the cavalry and Ycsiji Kank over the infantry ; 6th the 
Dabir or minister for foreign aliaira, an office held by Somnath- 
paat; 7th the yi/dyadkish or supcrintondcnt of justice, »n office 
iaaaiig«d by Nir.iit U&vji and Gonidii Nitik ; and 8th the Nydya 
SKditri or expounder of Hindu law an office held first by Bhambnu 
Up^dhya ancl aft^inards by Ksghuuithpant 







IBonbar Ouetteer.1 



Chapter VII. 

Adil SbUhli. 


\tBafi Utiet 


The officers at the head of theiw ci\'il nituAtioius except the 
Kyay&dkUk and Nydya Hhanlri, held military ooiiitiiaiHU, aod 
frt-qucutly had not leisure to auperinterwi their duties. All there- 
for<- wore aidrd by di-putun* cullctl kiirhkarU. who often had power 
to Ss the Aeal or mark of their nriruripal.t on {iiiblic docaments. 
Wien BO empowered they were styled mtit4lika, Kach departnicnt 
and every district establish to ent bati eight subordinate officers 
undor vrlioiii were on tt<icqiiat« stafT of assistants. These officers were. 
Ist the Kdrhhdri. Matdiik, or Uirdn; 2tid thi; Mui'iT/ui4r or 
auditor and accountant ; ^rd the Fadnit or F^itnavU deputy auditor 
and accountant ; 4th ihe Sahnis or clerk Hometimes stvleo da/t-trddr; 
Sth thi) Kdrkhdnn U or commissary; 6tl> the OAI/rm or correspon- 
dence clerk ; 7th t)i<% Jdmitur or trv&ini«r in charge of all valuables 
except cash ; and 8th the I'otnit or ca&hkeept-r. Attached to him- 
wlf , ShivAJi had a treasurer, a correspondence clerk, and an accountant 
bcsid'-.s (L F'lrinn'g or I'cri^ian sccretarv. Hi» clerk vtan a Prabha 
named UAIdJi Avji, whoxe acutene^a ami intelligence were remarked 
by the Englisli at Bombay on an occasion when he wan sent tltcn 
on business. Bitlkrisliniipuiit Hnuvantc, a near relation of Shilhfiji's 
hea^ inaiio^-i- was Hhiviiji'it account^uL On Shivjji's enlhroaement 
at Itfiygail in 1674 the naine^ of such offices an were formerly 
expressed in Persian were changed to Sanskrit and some were marked 
by higher sounding titles. Tliere was only one comniander-in- 
chief for tJic infantry and cavalry anil one Nydy&dhuh or judge.' 

In M^y 1G7') a detachment of Shiviji'a Miivalis surjiri.'^^ Parii 
about Courmilea south-west of ^tars. Itscapture puttheMu^nlinin 
carrisoos Cn the alert, and Satdra. a fort that ha<l always been kept 
in good order by the BijApur governineiit, which was next invested, 
sustained a aiege of several months and did not sum-nder till the 
beginning of September. It is remarkable that this fort which hail 
long, perhaps before the Adil Shdhi dynasty, been usod as a state 
prison, in time became the prison of Shivaji's dt-sccuilants. The forta 
of Chandan, Vandan, P^ndugad, Niindgiri, and T^tlivad all fcU 
into Shivdji's hnjids before the ffur season,' In 1C75 Shivaji again 
possessed htin-«t'K of all thu jHMts between Panh&la in Kollidput and 
Tdthvad. As hoou oh he waH occiipie<l in the Konkan and had 
carried down all the infantry tliat could lie spared, Nimluilkar and 
Ghitgo, the dc'mtikht of Phaltan and Malavdi, attacked ShivJji's 
garrisons, drove out tlic po.-)bs and r««overed mw>t of Uic opeo 
country for Bij^pui-.^ In 1Q76 Shivilji for the third time took 

1 Orant DuCTi Manlthii. 100 - lOIl. Tiie following itatenwat givM tlia aimm 
tli*«1d Mid oew tiUei oi Shiviiji's iiiinittora in Kiil : 




Himinnl PliiElt 


MaV> I'ndMn. 

K&DitftiAD'Intii&nt Bivdeiktr- 


ninl AuUltf (. 

AniilJI B»Uo 






lUnil-lrrlv HohlM 



JiiiArdkjiittTiL Hai»ui(v 






lu^hmi&Uipwi t. r. 




*Oruit Dafa MarUhdia, Ite. 

' Grant UuQ'a Muilhibv 1 I9l 




poswBSCOi of the open countrj* between TfithvafI aiid PanhAla. To 
prtreut future inroads by neigbboaring proprietors Sliivaji gave 
otitn to connwt tlio two pluoes by a cbaiu of fort«, which b(^ nutncd 
Vsrdhangad, Bhushanga^, Siullbhivgail, and Machhimlr^ad. 
Altkmgh of no great stivngth they woi*e well chosen to etipport his 
iiib:nnodialc posts and to protect tb« highly prodoctivc tract within 
ttiefruiilJiT which tht-y i-mbracc. Wbil« engaged in thi:) urriLDgc- 
mcQl 8hiv^ji watt ov<;rtAk«ti l>y a Mivoro illne-t!« which ooaficed him 
&t Sitira for sevei-al months. During this period he became extra- 
Tajuliy rigid in the observance of religiouii foruis, but ho was at 
the uiiio tiuK! pinnniug the most iuiportant L-xp(Hlitioi> of hU lifv, 
(iie invasion of thi; Mudriut Kai'n4utk.' The di.scufution of hia i^al 
duni to share in haJf hia father's Kamiitak possessions and the 
pcanbiltty of making this a cloak for more extensive acquisitions iu 
tbeaciiith was a constant subject of ooimnit«lion.' While Shiv^i 
vnin tht> K»rtiiit4ik a buiIy of lior^ti Ixi-loiiging to Uhittge and 
Ninhilkar laid waste Panh^a in the »outh and retired plundering 
tovknU Ksrh4d. A detachment from Shivdji's anny under Nil&ji 
Kitkar overtook them at Kurli, attacked and dispersed them, rc- 
*Cfmi^ much valuabh? property, whicli, as it belonged to his (flita 
•ntjectfl, ShivAji scrupulou!dy restored.* 

In 1679, Shiviiji's son .Sambh&jl joined the Moghala. Diler Kh^n 

fie MoglinJ general, intent ou making Sambhiiji the head of a party 

5" opposition to hia father, s<-nt a detachment of liis army from 

°*fore Bijapur which they had invested, accompanied by Sambh&ji 

*^ Riijn of Uic Mhr4thiis. and took Bbopdigad in the Khan^pur 

jUb-divLtion Bhiv&ji'it eaateruniu-tt* At the time of his 

jfJAth in 16S0, Shivdji, who duriiig the last two years of his 

jijis hod become an ally of JiijApnr against the Moghals, ptisaeased 

*^ part of SStSra of which the line of forts built frrjm Tathvad to 

•«rihiila diMiixrtly mnrked the eastern boundary. Shingndpur in 

|^« Min sub-diviidou in the east wit)) the temple of Mahuduv was 

*••» hereditary indm village given by one of the Qh^tges to his 

'MKer ShAliiiji.* Rdnidas Svfimi, Shiv&ji's friend and spiritual guide, 

*'>o»e life an<l comluet seem to have <ieserv()'l the universal praise 

?f bis oountrjinen, a ffw days befoi-e Shiviiis death wroti^ Sambhiji 

^J** chJer son from Parli an excellent and judicious letter, advising 

'*i3 for the future rather than upbraiding him for the past, and 

^^nting out Uio exainplv of his fatlicr yvt carefully abstaiuiug from 

P^tsonal oomparUon.^ 

AfttT SIiivAji's death, Rajiritm his younger son being placed 
"*» the .Manitliii throne at Itiygad in Koliba, SambhSji the elder 
'^•«a made his e«!iipe from Panhrlla, and, having nmdc himself 
^^*ter of his fatiicr's dominions, ninong others, put to death 
"oyaiAlrii KAjAr&ni's mother, and imprisoned R&jir&m. A con- 
^imcy in favour of lUjarim was detected and it was discovered that 
It "WM supported by the whole of the Shirke family whose motive 

ChaptOT Til. 


1630 -less. 

■Gmit i)urr« Multhl), 130. 
*Qnat 0«r« MartthA*. 123. 
•OniBt Dur« M»nlthA», 127. 

•Gruit Dii(r< MftrithiU. ISIX 
* Gnat Dull'* M^tftthfti. 133. 
■Unwt DulTa MsnllhA*, 131. 

Chapter TII- 


Pitll of Bijdpur. 


wd.? rcvonfff for the death of Soynnihiii who WlongwJ to tht- ir family. 
Such of the .Shirkes as (xmlj be foiiml were executed and the riMt 
fled and several of them entered into the Moghul sernce. f^&inbhttji 
ffavehimsolfuptoidk-ues» »ud plrssun; and th« fivstem whkli Shivdji 
bad iDtroducivl soon fel! into decay. D«eay hrst appctirctl in tlie 
army where 8hiviiji'!i diacipline and strict orders were neglected. 
^Vhen the horse took the field, stragglers were allowed to join, plunder 
was secreted, women followci's who hffl tK-en forbidden on pain of 
death wen; not only nllowwl hnt women wcrr hronght off from the 
enemy's countiy as an eatabtished article of plunder and either kept 
as concubines or sold a& slaves. The booty brought back by the 
oommandera of the tiorau was too mnall foe the pay of the troops. 
TTiey took the field in arrears and leave to keep i>art of the plunder 
was « natural compensation for the regular pay allowetl by Shiviji. 
SanibliAji was prodigal in his espenses and his niinixter and favourite, 
Kalu^iaaXortli Indian Br4hmaii,rul»i-d the land-rent by the addition 
of variou* cv^'^es. When he came to collrct the revenue he found 
the reeeipbs much less than they had been in the time of ShivAji 
as the assessments were nominally greater. ITie managers oi 
dislrictti were in consequence removed for what seemed to him 
evident peculation. The revenue wat farmed, many of the husband- 
men ited from their villages, and the approach of a vast army of 
Moghals under Aurangzeb helped to complete the prospect of ruin 
to ShivAji's territory,' In 1685 during this campatjfn Sultan 
iAuay./Aim \n.y at V)ilva,andiii the em|)eror\ name took poc«#c«Non of 
such parts of the country as he could overrun. Deeds still reniun 
in which Mua;u!:ani confirmed in his own name grants of lands origin- 
ally given by BijApur general.-). In October a pestilence broke 
out in hiM camp, swept off many of hi^ men, and greatly diniinished 
hus foi-ee. Still on receiving the emperor's orders to redoce.tbe 
south-west districts alx)vc the yabyiidris. formerly taken by Sbivdji 
from Bijdpur, he advanced without hi-sitation for that purpose.' 

In October ICSf} Bijipiir fell to Anrangxeb, the Bijitpur govent' 
ment came to an end. and Us territories passed to the Moghala.* 
the same year Shii-ze KhAn of Bijapur, who was sent to inv. 
Snmbhiiji's districts, marched towartlsS^itilrxu* TheMaratha MnDsab- 
dirs or men of title who liad been in tlic service of Bijapur, sen! 




'Grant Pur* MnrlthAi, 142. * Gnuit DntTn M*ntt)iA«, I4T. 

■ raiit Dii II '* Mar4Ibti. ini. In tnkiui: t>ot«nuioiii>f *ilii>tni:t th"M<)(h>It*P|ioi>' 
lyro ofAvvn t)ia /aiaddr > luilituy uid th« JbA<fJ<ia (Jtxiin » civil otRcrt. 'thvjiil^dr, 
wlio WM in o'imiiianil <■( > bixly nf tioops wM cliar)^ wStb th« <mr« u[ tlia patkn uiil flip 

iiToteotioD of hindivlciotl, Baualil. or. MiciiTiliui; tu Direiiiiiatitncr* aMuniBU, ■ cruatcror 
SH (l<?grp<:> of powar. The rsgnUr Amount allowtid hini Fi.rth« miunteaanciiof th" diitrict 
oit&bUihnicatwu kbuut 33 |wr aeat of thagovemiDBntoolleotioiii. Tliediitii-suftlMiUada 
nerc cntir* !)■ eiWl and he u-u cntrotttd withtli* ooUvotion of the reTcnuv wh«tll«r for 
tbc cidicqucr or oa acaoaat of njOgirddr. The MoghiJ oommajidcr irho re«ti<r*i land 
grantii or jttgin from the newlr aequini] torritorie* wldom bxJ tonJi jmrtautnaOf 
■nuUovcr ta thom nmiUc to the tenuto bf which tho MarAth* marua&o'iln bold tbair 
poMwioni. Tho uauil practico wm to grant nHi^ni«iU for a term of yean oa 
nM0UI«d dUtricti for the mipport of thnir tnxmi. Thua tht /aui'tdrt were mora on 
the (ootntf a( feDdatoriei than tha j'rlptnfdn. Tho/iiuuidi'4 in ounjunction with iIm 
(JtMiu farmed oul ihc liiitrict* to th« drtkmuilu or dudit anil Iha Jiudnt raaliMd 
tba MDOUDt Ironi them. Ditto, IM. • Ortst OotTs MwMhi*, 101. 




afdhiMOM of dut^ to the emperor, but showed no readiueu to join 
bis atiuid&rd. Shirje Kh^n paa»ed aa far west as Vr'di nhore lie wus 
attacked and defi-atcd by SambhAji's chief capt-ain UambirriT, a 
victory dciirly bought by the dt-ath of Hiiiiibirr4v who fell mortflJly 
woiui'ltjil. The odvanta^ which tho MaratliAa had ^uini-'l was not 
neglected ; several detacbnienUi pushed forward and occupied a great 
part of the open country' towarda Bijipur.' 

SamUviji bccBino cari.<k-ss of all general business and spent hia 
timt! lii-tw(-en I'anhiila and VishAl^jai! in Kolhuptir at a favourit« 
tiouita and garden in Saiiganift.Hh\'ar in Katnigiri. The whole power 
was in the nands of his favourite Kaluaha wh<»e time seems to have 
been moro occupied in managing his master's hiuuours than io 
atteoding to t^ie busiuem of Die st«t«. Tlie discipline of the 
JJar^ha army became loottor. Though mi nous to Sambb^ji's 
resonroes as bead of an organized state, this increased looseneaa had 
B wondi.-rful effect in spreading predatory power. Every lawlesH 
uian and wvry disbandH solilicr, Mubuinmnilnn or Mardltha, who 
couhl Domman*! a horse and a sp<-ar, joint-d th« Uarilthii parties, and 
snch adventurers were often enriched by the pluiKler of n day. 
Independent of other causes, a warlike spirit was thus excited among 
• p<-ople fond of money and dUpoSMi to predatory habits. The 
inultittide of hontciiien nurtured by former wars was already too 
hea^-j- for the resourcefl of the Mar£tha state. Hie piv>jK)rt:oii of 
the best troops which was kept in the Imperial service would pro- 
bably have «:>on enabli'd Aurattgzeb to suppress the ilisordor com- 
monly atU-iiiluiit on Indian conquest had not the love of war and 
pillage he<tn kindled among the Alarfith^ A pride in the conquests 
of Shivdji. tlieir confidence in the strength of the forts, the skill 
»nd braverj' of many of the Mar&tha leaders, the ability and 
influence of many nf the Biiihman.-*, luul the unj:jer raided amonj; 
Hindutt by the odious poll-tax, excited a fernwnt which required 
not only vast meana but an entire change of measures to allay. 

Aurangseb had gnai military and fluaucial strength ; he had 
considerable local knowledge, and in the first int«tance the same 
power of cunfirining or withholding hereditary right as his predt- 
cessora in conquest. Titles, mansahs. and Jdyir* were bestowed, 
and »till more frequently promise<l witli a lilH.'rulity greater than 
that of anj- former conqueror. Still pii-^u nipt ion, jealousy, and 
bigotry deprived him of many of those ailvantages. He was not 
folly aware of the strength of prudator}' power, and instead of 
eruabingitbr the aid of the establisliod grtvenimont«, he pulled down 
the two leading states of Ooikonda and Bijiipnr and raised nothing 
in their place. He involved himself with enemies on every side ; 
ho discliarged the soldiery, whom, in addition to his own troopK, ho 
conld not maintain, and thii4 sent unnie-t into the field against 
himself- Ho supposed that he was not only acquainted with the 
details of the arrangements necessary inanewlycouquervd territory, 
but capikble of superintending them. He placed little confidence in 
Ilia Agents, while at the same time he employed Muhammadans tu 

Chapter VII. 


15S«- nao. 

■ Gnnt Dar> iUrAtliA*, IM. 



tfdn^.awl in I 


tnftnd V £vnd taoo. 
p*! {MrtMsoraf 
Ab M ^t^ fmiirt tnopa vat 
WUfe Ikir eDv«7» 

to ikV X KOp A , 

whov WUoT bad MGBna 
■M il alM Ib^d cMct -WM raady tol 
mgdv eoate* «f Uk BHlcr'i foOoweK 
loU to ^kmt tlM lUiitln diieb on 
A»7 agrMd to Mm tlw )lc|$)ulfi. Tlie eUcb 
BtgtWwiing mtb tbe fmmaiir ; tlidr ■^.■■lii wrc mlrigunig 
ii eeoft; tbdr owB liUage* wen Menn: and tlidr (oUomfs, 
lid BwW tbe VWM BOM of Myrftfi^^ «Tt« nvwioc tbe eoantnr. 
na MmM oAena wlw iMd kod ■■miiwiiiiIi ■■ llii Hmcu mo 
Cosad tfeMTthqr onU twt Buk nrnM. TWtr eom^ptiaB ww 

rfaroriom— tifce 

\ftmmm\A hf j wa ty, aad the oAadHS vho is tbe fin4~ toatum 
bod plosdena their diitnelB bjr |iiiiihoiiii|, the coniuvaiice of tki 
fatadin, bribed tine j^firddn ot ooort vith a part of tb« ptlblga. 
Tb« hcfWiUiT rigiiU umI the Camilj (ead> wlucfa bad befora oae-j 
folly aerr«d u aa iMtnUDcnt of gatvnnmA, in tbe oaneral coofQ' 
■bo oC the period became a eanae of inrtraning diaowr. Tbv i 
eate aatoio of some of tbe beivditary daitna in dtquitc and 
ingirntiitT of BcAmans wbo wen always tbe awmeen inada «nrf 
CSMC M p>&asihb that tbe offieen of govemnuat fboM Uttle difficnl^ 
is excuflin;; or at least in palliatiiiK many aet» of gross injnstieo to 
which timy scanilaloosly lent thenuelvea, Tbe ricbtfiu owQ' 
bad often rt^MOii for compUint ; th«y absented tbemsuvea with tli 
tfoopa, joined the plunderers, and wbvn induced or oompelled 
eorae in they boldly jofittfied tbetr bebax'ioDt by tbe uqjoaaoe 
bad aofferetl. 

When an hereditary office was forfeited or became ^-acant in any 
way the Mogbal aovenunent Helectt^ a candidate on whom it was 
Oouerred ; but tbe established premium of the exdiequer wi 
upwards of six and a half year's purchase or precisely 651 per C4 

00 one year's cmolnmentM, one- fourth of which was nude i>n}-til^« 
tbe time of delivoriiig the deedn ami the n;uiainder V>y iiistBlineni 
Baiidoa this tax the derka exacted an infinite number of fi-e 

01 perqtuaitea all of which lent encouracement to confiscation. 
and new appointment*. The emperor, weighed down by years, wa« 

) oae-^ 


m to 






BMd overwhelractl with pre«aing carwt ; hia minlstei-a and Iboir uminr- 
tbgt trure aliku Dt^Ugciit and cumipl ; even sftoi* dcLxi^ and pa|>oi'H 
•MB »n!p*r«<i yoniv pikS:«i-J before thv orders Uwy omtaincJ wcro 
nttuaoat.* Auran^zeb Atx^nt ftl>ont tlii-ee years at Uijiipur (1<>8(>> 
1(39). During this time his arina were ovcrj-whurc sncoeacful. Id 
fSmbluiji'it Ducean district)) nolJiiii)^ htit the strong furt^ nemaim-d 
uiuabiiued (li369). Thv Mi^^hHl imopti had posae-SHcd iln.-mm^lvi.'n 
dTithvod and the raogo of forUt built by Sliiv^ji between that 
fine nnd Paiibiila, uid AiirHQg».-b wtw now |tri^|)aring to enter on a 
ro^dlu plan for r«t!ucin^ the wliolu of the forts, aa, in hiti opiniMi, 
tm was all that reuiaiuetl to complete the conquest he had so long 
OKclitatod. Uis plans wcro IhwartL-d by the terriblu outbrx.-uk of 
pliffne which forceil hiiu to t«avu Bijiipnr and pam uorth to 
BruiBBpari in SholfLpur.* 

In l<>S9 Sambhfiji was surprised at Ssngamc^livnr in Ratnit^rt He 
wascarn«<l in triuiuph to Auraiif^^b's caiitp at Akhii iu Sitolitpur, 
Ml] SB he refused to necome a UiiralmAn and inniltud the Proplict 
Hiharuinad and Aumn^eb, he was execntol at Tul^ptir in Poona on 
t)it' Irxlnlyniii. So unpopular hatJ Sambhiiji bi^rome that no sttampt 
WWmade to reftca<^himor to AVi-n^iOiiH di'Mth. At Riygii'l.on the news 
of SMnbbAji'a death, hia yonnyor iit-otht-r lUjitrilin waa d<^-lared 
"^ent. during thv niiiioritv of Sambhuiji'a son ^hivitji afterwanis 
jnKnrn &.« ShAliu. In 1690 Ktly^^ad the IkfaMtha capitMl f<ai lo the 
glials and young ShivAji and his mother YeflnuLi were niMlu 
priaooera and taken to the Moghal camp. ShivAji's sword Bhavant 
■id lhe.tword uf Afxul KhAn were tnl<cri by the Motjhais. Yv«ubili 
*n(| her son found a frienil in Brgatn SAhi-b tne daughter of 
Aiirajijoteb, and the emperor hiniaelf became partial to the boy 
»iom ne naiii(.r(J SliAhu. ItAj&r&m moved from place to place uiid 
*&erwarda maile Qinji al>out vighty mileif :<outh-we8t of Madnu 
B biMd-<^aartera. In a fr&^h arrangement of state offices made at 
ia time t^antiiji Ghorp«do the oldest reprcsentativu of the KApi^bi 
rimily waa made itnn'ipati or chief captain and ilignitied with tho 
title of Hindu Sao Siamtakal Hadilr. He waa also entrusted with 
a new ntaudan:! called the jaripathx or Golden Strcuiner, aikI in 
iiaitatJon of the impiTiiU oflicert of thtt highest rank he was 
aotficnixed to beat the nitl>at or large drum and assume various other 
sign.4 of rank. Riijitnim at this time created a new otiice called 
Pratinidhi or the kind's likeness and conferred it on Pralh^d Nii-dji 
who at thi)! time was the .soul of the Mai-Atha cause. 

While Riijltrdm was at Oinji. Rdmchandrapsnt BAvdokar one of 
the principal nn'n of the time was left with the title of Hukmat i'anAa 
in cnor^o of all the forts a'ld pn-wi-tiiiiL'" all the powers of govera- 
ment, and un'lor him waa placed Farasnunlm Trimlmk who from 
the hamhie situation of hereditary kvU-imi of Kinhiu had brought 
bimtclf into notice an<I ba<l gi^'en pi-oufa of intelligence and spirit. 
These officer* used great exertions in restoring forts and giving 
spirit and seal to the garrisons. RiimchHiidrapant moved from place 
topIacD,but fixed his principal residt.nce at Stltdra, where, by the aid of 

Chapter m. 



'Oniat l>nr» UiMUiA*, 166)58. 

' Ontnt Itari Marlthli, tSS. 

rBombay Omtettfler 



Chapter Ttl. 



liishcad writtr Shankrdji NfiKlynn tlaiKlekar, ht not only altendietl 
to evciy Diilitary (li^po^iitioD, but regulated the revenue and estub* 
lUht^d onlur. lie tuul ralxuii troous of his owu and hoi] cut otf 
Hovcral .ttraggtinK parties of Mognals before Saiimi *nd Dhaa&ji 
returned £roHi (jinji. When they joined him RjiuKhandrapant 
proposed A plan for surprisiTig the /atadiir at WiU to whivh Ssiib^i 
gn:atiy pleased immediatolv agr^etl, took the /auztjdr with all hia 
troops prisoners, and in their sU'ad e.stalili^ihed a Manttha post. The 
preiivnce of 8antAjiaud Dhniiiiji iii;^pirit4>d Rfiuich&ndnipant't iiiCD 
and heMirred hiit captaiuH to follow their exainulti. He -icnt them 
to make their establUhod collections the rJtantk and tardeihmuJthi, 
an they were tcrmud, from the Uoghal territory, and under Ute 
«ncourAg«;m(.^nt of success hti« ofrici^rH n>lde<l a third coutrihution for 
themHi-lves under the head of ghdsdiitia or fora^ inon^y. In this 
manner a new army was raised whose leaders were Povlir, Tlionit, 
and Atlmvle. EUjAritin gave thum lioiioruri' presents and rx^wantt ; 
the title of Vithvii-irdv was conferred on Povdr, of Diukarriv on 
Thordt. and of tihamsher BahAdui- on Athavle, lUiuchandrapunt was 
particularly partial to thu Dliaiigars or sliophcrtls a ^;^ut number of 
whom served among his troops ; and many of the anceflCors of those 
who afterwanU became great chiefs in tlie empire began their can-cr 
uudor lUmchundrapant. HliankrAji NAriiy&u, known as ail able 
officer, received diargu of W:'ii.> (jinjiin wliieb KAji&r^m was besieged 
felltotheMoghalsin January 1098. But a few days before the Tall 
Bfijitr&m was allowed to e.scape and came in safety to Vishilgad in 
KolhApur." In I G90 Riijiinlni n-maincd for a short time at SAlAra 
which at the recontmendation of Kimchandrapant he made the stut 
of government and then passed north with his army plundering/ On 
hearing of liiijArAm's r<'turn Aiirangzeb marched west from Brahma- 
pnri in SholApur and encaiiipod under the fort of Vasantgad aluub 
eeven miles north-west of KarhSd. Batteries were prep«r(rd and in 
thre« dajis tlic garrisi^n surnjinlered. The emperor named the fort 
Kalid-i-fateh or the Key of Victory and was mucli pleased with his 
Buoceaa. Aurangzeb marched for ^itdra, a movement wholly aoex- 
pcctcd by thu \mrAtliAs, who. filled with the idea that Panh&la in 
Kolhdpur waaal»)ut to )>e K-Hieged, had directed all their prepare* 
tions towards its defenee. Tlie pi-ovisioiis in SdtAra fort wei'v not 
enough to stand murk,- lliiui n two tnonthii' siege. This nogli«t ronsod 
the Musiiicion that ilfimchandiapant had purposely left it unprovided. 
Of this suspicion AurangKcb took advantage, and when ilxiring the 
st^e, in consequence oi Rdj-^nim's illness, Rdmcliandrapant was 
colled to Sinbgad in Pi>ona, AiirangKob wrotu a letter which fell into 
th« hand.s of Paraaburdm Trimltak and widened the breach which 
had for some time existed between him and Rdmch&uilrapant. On 
arriving before 86Ub-a Auraiig^tel) pitched bis tent-s to the north of 
U»e fort on the site of the present village of Karinja. A'raim Shih 
was stationed at a village on the west side which hn.s since home the 
nauMj of Shihiipur. Shirjie Kh/ln inv<>sl«'il the south side and Tarhiyat 
Kbin oceupiea tlie eastern quarter; and cliains of posts between 





> Gnunt Du a'> MnntthiU. 1fi& * Gruit Onfni UArtUiAa, 171. 

' rtntnt Dor* Jlnnth^, ITS. 





the ditferent camps etTectniUly secured the blockade. The fort which 
occopiea tliQ suniiait uf u xcry steep liil) of moderate height, uud 
wiiotsc dcfuUCCM consist of A ihwr scarp of ov«r forty feet topped by 
a atone wall, wa-l defended by Fryitgji i*i-abhu Hiivildiir, who had 
beeti reared in the sen-iwi of tihivSji, lie vigorously op[>o«L-d the 
Mo^rhals, itutl dijiputvd ewry foot of ip^UDd us they pushed forwmixl 
their advoactsl posts. An soon ori tn<.-y began to gain any part of 
the hill he withdrew his troops into the fort and rolled huge stones 
from the rock above, whitli did gr«at execution, and, until thej* thrvw 
up cover, wurw ua dcstruetivo a-i artillery. In spit« of fty^i's 
effortu the blockade was cnmpletctL All communicalioii with the 
country round was cut off; and as the small stock of grain was 
soon exhausted, tlu' Uv^ic^p^d mii-it havu Iweii forCud to surrender 
had not Para.'ihunini Trimliak, who had tlirowu himM-Jf into the 
fort of Parli, Ijouth: tlie connivance of A'zam ShAh and brouglit 
pro\'iaions to the be-sit-ged. Tlie divisions un the west and .south 
taem nixtui batterii.-s, but the grand attack was diructo<l aeainst the 
north-east angle, one of the strongeitt points with a total Iieiglit of 
sixty -seven feet of which forty-two wi-re rock and twenty-live^ were 

Tarbiyat Klutn nnderlook to mine tJkis angle, and at the end of 
four months and a half (1700) completed two mineo. So coti- 
6dent of success were the Moghuls, that thi? stonniug party wa.s 
ready formed, but concealed an much as pos-sible under the brow of 
the hilt from the view of the garrison. Aurongzcb was invited to 
view the spectacle, and to draw the gurrLton towards the bastion 
the emperor moved oil' from that sifie in grand procettwon. so that 
when the matcli was ready, hundreds of the UardthAs, drawn by 
his splendid retinue crowded to the rampart. Among them was 
Frj-Ajyi the eu m mail d ant. Ilie tirsft mine was fired. It burst 
several tissares in the rock, and caused so violent a ahock that tt 
great part of the masonry was thrown inwards and crushed many 
of the gKrrisou in it«i ruins. The stonning party in their eagcruvsa 
advance*] nearer ; the matcl) was applied to the train of the .second 
and larger mine, but it was wrongly hiid and burst out with adread> 
fol explijsion, dMtroyin<;, it is sfliil. upwardsof 2000 Moglials on the 
vtpot. Prjiigji till! Uariltha commandant was buried in the ruins 
caused by tne first explosion dose to a temple dedicated to 
the goddes;; BhavAru, but nns utU^rwarils dug out alive. His 
escape woa considered a lucky omen, and under otiier circuuistances 
might have done much to inspirit the garrison to prolong the 
defiance. But as A'zum ShSh could no longer l)c persuaded to allow 
grain to into tin; fort, pri>iio.sal« of surrender were made 
through him, and the honour of the capture wliich ho so ill-ile.-KTVcd 
wa« not rjidy ossigiK-d to him, but the pliice rt'Ceivud his name and 
wa-s calli-it by the emperor Jixaui TAra. Sdti'ira surrendered about 
the middle of April 170U. Immediatciv on the fall of SiU^ru, Parli 
was invested. The siege lasted till tlie beginning of June, when, 
after a gooi! defence, the garrison left the fort. The fort was called 

Iby the emperor Nauras Tara. As the south-west monsoon burst 
with great violence, the Moghal army, which was unprt^pared; 
Kutfcred much iltstrus-s and hanlship before the camp could bo 

Chapter 71 



mstf- naa 

rBomb*7 Oatettoer- 



ChaptM VU 









iiioV(!'l li-om tliv hilK AtU>r iiiiicti iww t)OUi of luif^Of^ nnd of 
life, the axniy loachetl Khav^ur on th« banks t>F uio Milu in 
Sholiipur, wliiiro the rains are comparatively liKhi,' 

A rail! of fUjitMiii's s^ainnl JilltiN almnt fifty miles east of 
Aiiraii^lxiil waxiiietito vigoroualy liy Zulfikilr KliiUi, tlic only Medial 
gcneriU of whom tho Marath^s then stood in fear, that RJjirtm 
wan forced to Sy. So hot was the piiniuit that though he managed 
to (v«a»|K! he died of exhaiwtion at Sinhgail in Poona in the miditic 
of Mareh 1700, a month before the fafi of aitAra.* The news of 
Bfij&rim's death was received in the. emperor's camp at Sitira with 
great rejoieins- TArAltii, Riijiiram's doer widow, who, with the 
aid of lliliiieiiaudmpaiit Anifltya had immediately OKininii-al the 
m>vemnient for her son Shiv.-iji a t-oy of ten, raiswl Paraahnrlin 
Trimbak to the rank of PratitiidKi. an'f placed him in general charge 
of nil th« foHs. TirtiMi hod no Rxcd ri.u4idunoc.* The BUnknriu 
iM-gan to profess obedience to tho dencendont of Sliivfiji and 
Honietimes joined his standard, but they always plundered on their 
own Recount when opjwrtunity ollered.* 

Ad)rang;;eb, who^e n-ign wiw prolongixl beyond all expeetation, 
persevei-cd to tho last in his fruitless endeavours to stJDe Jlaritha 
independence. In 1701 btuttdes several other fort« in Foona and 
Kiilhiipur, Ohandan Vandon and PiUidiigad .surrenderee] to hi« 
officei-s,' But tlieso apnaniiitly vigorous efforts were nnsulitdantjal ; 
there was motion luid buutle w^itliotit zeal or efficiency. The empire 
wn.1 unwieldy, its system rcluxed, anil lUs olTicers corrupt Iwyoml all 
example. It vitm inwardly ducayi'd.and reaiiy to fall to pioeein as iniidi 
by its inherent woaknesg as by tho corroding power of the >lar<ithi!s 
whom the Mnlmininmlait war.-s had trained to oruiH. Though th<; 
weakness of the govei-inneiit tempted them to plunder, the Marithis 
hiul not yet the feeling of conquerors There was a common ^rm- ■ 
|uLthy but no cnnunon eflort ; their military spirit vinn exciteJ by I 
phuider, not by patriotism. Many enjoyed groaUir advantogett auder 
the weak Mofjhal.s than they were likely to enjoy nnder a atoing 
Uariithn govennm'nt,andthc^ewereeaj;er thut war idioulil notecase. 
Many Moghal officers in charge of ilistrlcUi were in the pay of 
iKjth [Hirtie.s, iut'l tliey also hod no wish that the confusion should 
end. Partici of Mar^tha^in thoser\4ce of tho Moglialsmot, rioted, 
uid feasted with their coutitrynien, and at pArting or when passing 
witJtin hearing of each other utied to mock the Muhaninutdons by 
uttering an •ilhiimiiniiUh Praise bo to AJlah, and praying fur IoU}» 
life to uie glorious AJanigir wlioae mudu of worfatx; made their Um 
HO easy. 

Some of the Moghal officers were anxious to negotiate a peace and 
Kiini Hakbsha the favourite son of the emperor, who«% early plans 
were directed to the e.-^t^iblishment of an independent kingilom at 
Bij&pur, contrived to obtain the ernperoi'a consent to open a 

> Ontat l>uir> Miirathl*, 17t-17S. SoolUidltKhMt'aHanUkluibit-l-LnbAbiaEllM 
•nil DowMni, VII. 3(i9-aa8. 'CnuttDnfTB Miu-Athte, 17A. 

• Giaiil VufTa MwAtliiU. 173. • Onuit DufTn MarAUiA*, IJft. 

> Gnat Dura Mantthla, 177 : Elliot and Dowwm. V. 370. 




MgOtiation wtUi Ohandji J&lhav. Overtures were bcp^un by 
prapuaU for relt^ivting Sli^iliu tliu »on of 8«ia)ihiiji The ni>goliaUoii8 
pQceeded and for a few tlaya Aiirangmb haU been brought to agree to 
fiy ten per cent of tht- wlioli; rvveriiii- uf thu six tuhlidt of the Deccaii 
nianlwAmuitAt for which thu MuiilthuH wrc to enf;a(*c to maintain 
mder witJi a body of horse. On the nen-a of thU couee-ssion the 
KirUIUs, who, nutwithiitantiing their predatory character were at 
■II tiiiie.i exc^^^iiiifily cagur to luwe aiiy rij;ht fwriually rcoognixed, 
flixkedto UhaiuiJi'H cainp. With their increasing numbers their 
txpoctstiotu and their Inaolence ro§i<. Their tone changed from 
piaytt to dumand, thoy oowdcil near the eiinip, and wn«u thoy 
mjoireil Iionomry (iremes for seventy ofiicers, Aiirangzeb mLspccted 
inaebary, broke off the negotiation, and recalled hia ambassador. 
Soon after ho left tho Manltha camp tho Mo^hal ambassador was 
UUcki-il, and om thi^i contirmed the etnporor's suspicion of tri.-«<!liury 
he vitbdrew to the ea^t.' 

In I70fi T&r^b&i went to live at Panh£la in Kolhipur and 
fclinittcd R.-Snichainlmpant to ft very large share of power. In tho 
NWin'; your VMimtgad aii<i H&tArs weit> taken bv th« Pratinidhi 
Pimhurlni Trimlwk. Slit4ra was siirprise<l by trie artitice of a 
Brahmaa namc<l Ann^jipaat. This man had escaped from pri.son at 
Ginji and afwumud the omuraeter of a mcndrcant dcvuteu. He fell 
i'> with a party of Mogh&l infantry marching to relieve the Siitira 
[arriaou. amosed them with stories and songs, obtained alms from 
m, and ao ingtaUatv<i himself with nil that they brou^'lit him 
b them, admitted him into the fori and in reward for his wit 
lUored him to live there. Ann^Jipaat. who hail been a writer 
Mttchcl to a botly of Mnvali infantry, ^>aw thtit with the aid uf a few 
nfhi^ old frionds the place mieht bo anrprLiod. He watched his 
chtuod, bold raraaliunlm Trimbak of his design, and having intro- 
dooK) a body of Miivalts into tlicfortthc en tvrprisini;! and remorseless 
Bttitman put every man of the garrison to the .iwnr'l.'' 

AurmngzebdiedinlTO?. Bytbe advice of ZulKkArKhdnAuranffJtcVa 
noaad son, prince A'zam Shdh, 'letcrmini.'d to release SMhn 
tnd promise J that if he sucoecdwl in e--stahl!.shiiig his authority and 
wntinnwi stea^lfaat in his allegiance he should receive the tract con- 
ymed from UijApnrby h is prand father Shiviji.* On Slifthu's approach 
urtbili. unwiliinjj to lose the powi-r she hno so lon;(hi)Id, prt-tendwl 
t" Micve him an impostor and dotemiined to oppose rum, and 
'^t»e Shankt&ji Niriyan to defend the western hill country. But and the Pratinidhi finding 
wan not supported fieri to S^titra. tiliAhu, joined by Dhanfiji 
Ihav, advanced and took Chandan Vandan. He seized the 
nilies of all who were acting against him and sent an order to 
ranflhurtun Trimtink to surrender Sitt^-a. Parashnr&m <lid not 
b^y, but Shaikh Mir&b a Muhammadan officer who commanded 


Chapter TIL 




> Oiant DqETi UarltluU. 179. ' (ir^iit DulTs Mikciith&«, ISO. 

* Gnat DuSTk Uir&thia, 1S£. 

IBombay Gnuttecr. 



Chapter VII. 



under him confined him autl mve 0]> the tart.^ Uu ga __ 
possossioQ of SAtdra fonimlly stak-il hiiitHclf on the throne" 
in March 170^. Uail^tluir Pi-Hlhilil wils ni){iAiiit<:<l FmUuidlii aiul 
BahtTopant Pingle wa.s made I'eshwa, Dhaitilji JSJhav was couHmieJ 
in hU rank of Scni^pati or chief captain ao'i the right of making 
colluc-tiuiu in ftevuml districts was eiitniistuil to liim. In Ui* prnvuiiing 
confuHiou the revenue was ivaliKeil on no flxeii principle, but wbs 
levied as opportunity prcsciittHl itsolf in the manner of coutrihutioo. 
Tluiprincipnl writiT.s iiniployvd l>y DhKnAji in nn'cnue affairs were 
A'Uiji Piitaiidhaie accountant of SiUvatl in Poona, and another 
Brahman accountant of Shrivaj-dhan in Janjira, a village claimed 
by the Sidi, from which, in cou.t«i|ueiicc of some intri^iiv connected 
Willi the Hidi'n enemy, A'ntrria, hi; luul tlnl to SaKvail and had been 
recommended to Uhan^ji Ey AbAji PurandhaK and Paxashartm 
Trimhak. The itume uf the Shnvardhan acoount^iiit', afterwanla 
famous at this foun<l.!r uf the Pwaliwa's powt'r, was B^Uiji Vishvanith 
Bhatt. I>uring the rwns of I7u8, Shihu'a army waa cantoned at 
Chaudan Vaiidan and he neglected no preparations to enable him to 
n^Itice his rival. Anionj^ oilier expedient* he madv an unKUCCVKtfuI 
application to Sir Nicholaii Wiiit<^ the Covemor of Bombay for iJ 
supply of guns, ammunition, Em-opean soldiers, and money.* 1 

Attheopuiiiugof thufairDoason. after holding the Dusam holiday, 
preparations were inadts t» renew the war against Tdribdi (1709). 
rath&laandV ish^lgad, two of Tftr&biU'a forts, were taken, and Shaho. 
on the approach of the next rains, retired to Kolhiipur wh<;r>! he 
cantoned his tioop.K. In (Jt-tobcr 1709, on tin; ojnining of the fai 
season, Sh4hu intended to renew the war, but about that ti 
an agreement with the Moghals waived the question of hen-nli 
claim und made the reduction of Titr^ltfU less impfirtaitt to Sh&h 
Ddnd KhAn Panni, whom Znllikdr KhAn left as his deputy ia 
Deccan, settled with such Martlthu chiefs as acknowledged Sbfth 
authority, with certain i-cservatioii'*, to allow thvm one-fourth of t 
revenue, at the same time reserving the right of collecting ai 
paying it tlirongh his own agents. Dtlud Khtin's intimacy witl) 
matt of the Mariitha chief)*, his coniiuctiuii with Zullikftr Kh&n, and 
the terms of friendship between ZiiI6kAr and Shdhu. not only 
prciMtrvod Shiihu's ascendancy, hut, except in instancox whvrc indc 
pendent plundering bawls occiwionnlly appeared, secured a fair! 
correct observance of tlie terms of the agreement. At the close of 1 7 
ShAhu returned to Sdtiirn and married two wives, ouo from tl 
Mohtteand the other from the Shirke family. His other two wiv< 
who were mai'ried to him while in Auraiigxeb's camp were wi 
hbi mother at Delhi, where one of them the daughter of Siridia shortly 
nftvrwariLi Dhandji JAdbav, after a long illnea-s died on 1 "" 
way from Kolh^pur on Uie banks of the Vitma. Ilis writer Bdl 
Vishvouitth had accompanied him on that sen'ice, and during his 1 
sicknes.^ ha<l the luaut^^eincut of all his affairs. This brought 
BfkUJi the keen jealousy of I)handji'.i son Ohandrasen J&dhav, 

' Gmnt Dnff** MuaUtOa, 183 - 180. 
' Bntot't Aanali ui Grout DqS'b MuithAs. 187. * Gnwt Duff** M»r«tbda, 187. ! 




of KOvurvl Briilimanit in his service. In 1710, th« army had wjirocly 
n^ttimcil to S^iUd'u, wlicii Tidiiluii, ciioouru;^il by the coiiiiiimiilant 
of PaiiliAla, niarc:)ie<) I'rotn Mjilvnii in Riitnri^in ivinforcf^d l>y tlii- 
troopH of I'hond Sjivant, ami iimiin fanhiila aiui tint iK'i(,'!il>oiirin|i 
town of KolhApur her rt-fiiilfiicc. ShaiikrAji Nftrrtyan the Faiit Sacliiv 
mainlaini-il TAMIiili*» oiuno ami ShAliu dctL-rniiiiL-<l to roiluco hiiii 
inxtead of rent-wing hia attack on Panlidta. About Uiim tinio 8]ifUm 
thoui'lit of moving his capital to jVhmatlnagar, but as this gavu 
oflenw- to Zultikiir Khnii, ShAliu fit his ilesim ni»vc up tin- iilea. In 
1711 an anny niMutiinfj towtmls I'uniui succiwh-ii in ^aiiiili^ i{iij;;iMl, 
but ft* moflt of tho Sachiv's forU were stored with provisiimM and 
gat'ri.ioned Sh&hu was relieved from the risk of n defuat in rcducinj^ 
tliem hy the Paut Sacliiv's di'wth. who ilrownwl hin)Ne)f, it was 
mid, from grief that tho oath he had taken to T£r^bdi forced him 
to light ogaiiut his lawful prinov.' 

In January 1"12 Shiviiji the son of TdrAiall who was an idiot 
dic!.l of .ininU'iiox. lUiiiciinnili-apnnt Hcized tho opjwi-turity to 
r«tnovo T&rAMi from the administration and to place Sainhhuji 
the sou of RAja^fi^i the younger wife of KAJMrdm in her steati, 
and exerted himself with rcnewcil ^i^oiir. Still ko long as DAud 
Khiin'sgoveniiiifnt coiitiimcit Shdhn woa secured in tho anceudtmcy. 
Ho was m)rroun<]ed by most of thu experienced ministers aiid 
was entirely free from the cruelty and love of excess which hia 
eni-niii-.i guve out he inherit>'d fixtm hi» father Satnbhtfjj. The 
loss of SliaiikMji Ntintyan the Pant Sachiv was a severe blow to tho 
opposite party, and Shiihu. with the tact an<I temper for wliieh ho 
was dewrvwlly applauded, di'sprvtcheil clotiics of investiture to 
6haukntji';4 Mon N&ro Sliankar then a babe of two years. At the 
mtue time he confirmed in his situation ShonkrSji's mut'Uik or chief 
agent. T!ii-i me^LHure .secunil to ShAbu the stippoii of the Pant 
Siicbiv's ]>iilty. whn n(?ver afterwards departed from their altegianca 
8h&liu was not ctjually tuccessfid in binding to his interest all the 
tiietnhers of the Pratinidhin family. In 1713 Shuhu released 
Farashunim Triiiibak, restored his honoui-s by tlie removal of Oadit- 
dlMir Pralliiid, and contivmcd him in his formal chnrgu of VisliAlgad 
and it<t clependencies. Tlio Pmtinidlii .tent hia cldeiit son Krislniilji 
BliAskar to assume the miuiagenient of the fort and district, but lia 
bail no w>ouer otftainod iKissession than he revolted, tendered his 
services to Sanihlitiii and was niftile Fmtinidhi at KolbSpur. On 
this defection ParasbutJini Triml>ak was again thrown into 
contineoiont, and Shiiliu, under tho bilief that the revolt had been 
encouraged by him, intended to have put him to <U-ath but was 
dissuaded from his design.' In consequence of cliaiigcs at the 
Imperial court, DAud Eh&n was removed from the government of tho 
DuGcan and the agreement between tho Moghala and the Manlth&a 

> Gnu>t Duir* MarvlthAa, IfiS. Ho performed thoinrMudin or watcr-ilwrtli * 

torn of dt»»h W which Hindu di^otcot ware pnrtiaL Tho riotiin iMlcd lunwcU on h 
wocxlan plaUonn tniii-onod in d«er valor hy mrtbcn pota with their months tnniod 
dowv. BmO] h«to won bond in Um ««rUiiU> pot» Mid the plntfonn tank, 

* Onuit DnO** MarAtliia, ISO. 

Clmpter VII. 

(Bombay Oauttm, 


Chapter Vn. 



. StuM 

was ilUiwlred. ChAndraaen J&dhav, who on t]ie dnath of lii« 
Dhaii&Ji Jiidhavliail Ixwn »ppoiiit*.->Jchiff captain, woskviiI froui I 
wit)iut?oi)KiiK-m)ilouriiiy uiiililinTU.Hl tolvvytlR-rAitiitA,«aMl««AiRHiAt, 
anil {/hanbina innn tlie U<^hal districts, ilo watt tUMlided by lua 
fatlivr'!! wriU'r IMIdji Vishvanith who waa now chargod with 
culli^ctiiiKandappropriivtiii}; a Avt of the ri'vviiiiu fur SMhUi n 
liitutttion of (X)iitrol whicli, underDocirciiiii.nUuM.vJt, wmt likely to W 
favoura)>ly viewed hy ChaodrBAcn. The old jealousy wna incn'a' 
tenfold, and in u disputti aV>out a duer ruu down by one ot UnMji'a 
honwmtMi, thu suimruMod hatrvd ltur»t forth. Bdli^i wbh furnKlto 
flw for hln liff. He tied tii-st to SAavad in Pooua tmt thu i^liiv* 
agent at Si§vad did not think it prudent to proti.-ct him. With a 
few CoIluwurH, lunun^t whom wcrt- hi.-< sons Biijiriiv and Chinuutii, 
Bill^i altcnipti^l to cross to I'undugad a fort ia tlie oppotnto 
vidlvT, batChandrasen's horsi-nion were already on histracksi-arvliitig 
for him evorywhoru. In tliis extremity he coutririHl to hiile for ay 
fow dayR until two Afar&thiia, PiiAji J&lhav and Uhunial. tli«9 
common cavaliei-a in his service, by their influence with UtofaH 
r«lationa, gathered a small troop of liorttc, and promised at the risk o( 
their liviw to caiTy him luul ]m m>hh to the mdchi ut village attachci) 
to the hill fort of F^ndugai). BdUJi was so little of a honu-maii 
that he required a man on luich lude bo )iuld liim on. In 
spite of tliis i^lisudvantage thu iioni«m«n fought their way to die 
fori aihl BitUji was pi-oiected by 8hlllm*a ordeni. Chandmvti 
ddinanded that lUIiji aJiould bo given up, and in case of rvfaid 
threataned to renounce his oUcj^anco. SliiUiu, tlioiigh not pTei<Bn«J 
to punish this innolenl demand, refu.-ie<) to give up BfUiiii lunI Mnl 
onlerHtoHubatr^v NimMlksr, Sai Loshkar, then near Ahmaduii^r 
at once to march on StUAra. Meanwhile Bdliji Tislivanilth was is 
Ptodugad surroundi-^t by the SenApati's troop*. HaihatiAv, who 
was annoyed that ho had not been made Senijmti and wu 
inoensod at Chandrasen's behaviour, cagvrtr obuj-cd the orrler to 
march against him. Hearing of HaibairAv's arrival at I*haltu 
Chondroficnquitted PAndugaa and marched to Devur aliout tifl-vn 
inileti to the south-east. The armies met, Chandraiwn wat 
defeated, retired to Kollnipnr, and from Kolluipur went to mert 
ChinKilidi Kluin Ni/.iiiii-ul-Mulk the Moghal viceroy of thu Dcocu. 
b]r whom he was wt^ll receivoJ and rewarded.* ChandrAaeD (or 
revenge and ^izlim-ul-Mulk who wa.s di»po9cd to favour the cause of 
Samhhiji and deaiioua of supprvaaing the ravages of ShAhu'a offiocn 
sent an army against Haibatriv. To support him ShjQni 
6ent forward a body of troojw under BitUji Visnvanfith wltom h» 
now dignifiiTd with tile title of «onA iturf or army agent. A baltk 
wu fought near Purandhar in Poono, in wmch the adToiilag* 
claimed by tlie Iklanlthds is contradicted by their subsequent retnat 
to the Stipa pass twenU- milw »outh of Purandhar. A detachment of 
Ittardthit^ from tlte Ho^jhal arniy took poetsciviion of the Poooi 
diotriet. At length an aocommoil^ou was made, hostilitius coaMil. 
and the Moghols returned to AurangalMU.!. When tlie war wae ort> 

> Graat DuVt MuithAs. ie9-l»t. 




ttn emperor Peroksher appointc<l Shilhu to tbo command of 10,000 
borM. But for tMivout«en months th« policy atid vigotir of NiMlia> 
iil-Miilk grvatty con troll l-i1 tlin MiinUluUc* During the rains of 
171i thu oianilh^ resutiu-i thoir depriMlatioDs. All tlic dfJikmitkh* 
tuui d'ifh[niivi'-a in tbo SIoi;hal Jistricti of Alaliiti^-ilitriL fortif1<!it 
their villiij.'i>s on pn-ti-iici- of tl'-fi-ii'ltii^' tliemselves, but tliey 
frequently ,joine<l or ai<lt;>l their countrjinuo of whatever [wrty in 
tMCitpu, licfviict;, uni) ooncealuiont.' 

Am Niaiui-ul-Muik fuvour<-il the Ko1h/!pur party SambhSji'a 
influence rose and ShAIm'fi fell, llie Ghorpa<le.s, both of Kdpshi 
and Muilliol, jiiini'HJ the KolhJipur party. Sidoji GhoqHwh', thtt .ion 
of Huhirji and nopllu^r of thi; famous tijaiit^iji al.-<o declared for 
tianil)h<iji, but, along with his ally the NawAb of SAvmiur was too 
inU-nt on bis »chvui«» of conquest aitd plunder to ipiit the Kanuttak.' 
Kriiihnaniv KbatAvkar, a RrMiiiian, raused to power by the Mogliala, 
took po^it about the Mahildev hills within S^tlraliiniH audwitlioufe 
joining filhi-r SriWra or Kolli^pur plundered the country on bjtt own 
accoant. IJiuniiji TliorAt, a lawle.-<s ruinoii of the Kolh^pur party 
who acknowledged no chief but hiaold pat roDBAD]cbaudmpant,lBv)fd 
eontj-ibutioni* in Pooiio. dLijiCbavIiSn, another of EUnK'handnt'H 
officers took the mud fort of Hntti.-s Shirilla al>out twenty miles 
south of Karli^, and in a short time becamo ho fonuidaUo that 
Sti^iu wai^ gW) to enter into u comproniLtu by conceding the cJUufA 
of Sbir^lnaiid Karhiiil, which UdAji long continued to receive as a 
personal allowance. Several other petty waatora declared for Simiblidji. 
Among these the mo!>t formidaUe was K&ihoji Angria who 
then held theooa«t from SAvantviiili to Bombay, and waa spreading 
liifi power over the province of Kalydn in TliAna. So grt-at was the 
anarchy that, without a sudden change of fortune and greater 
efficiency in ShAhu's govorntncnt. his authority over the Mar^thia 
must soon have ceased. B&Uji V'inhvan^th iuntilled some vigour 
into hix councils and began tolcad in public affairs, H<^ f<et out to 
reduw DaiiiAji Thonit; but, together witli his friend AUji l*urandhare, 
and hia two M>na Htijii-ttv and Cbiumilji, ho waa treacherously 
seized by Thonit and thrown into confinement. Aft^T many 
indigniti<-.H their ransom was settled and paid by Kh4hu who now 
applied to the Saehiv to Hupprea-i llior^lt. The Sachiv and his 
iiii»nft;;.-r advanced against Thonit, but they too were defeat<'<l and 
thrown into coDfincment. At thu same time two other expedi- 
tions wore prepared at Sittltra, one under tlie Peshwa Bahiropanfc 
laughs which went to guard the Konkau and repel Angria and 
the other coninianded by BAlAji VishvanAth wait orifored to suppress 
Krishnariv Khatiivkar. Krishnariiv hatl lieoome so IwM that he 
niorclieil to Aun<l)i about ten miles south of KJiaUiv, to meet Sluihu's 
troops. He wiw totally defeated principally tlirough tJio brovery of 

< Or«nt Ddri Mftrithto, 1)6. 

* Orut Itara M«nlUiliv 101. KlutmleriT IMbUdo who uikna«talg«d SbUa U 
Vim AM Biui had lutahlUhMl hiinMrlf alxint Ndaaod tn BijpiiiU cammttted Mvnal 
(otibKiM kC Uiu tima la iiujtril. 

* About this ttOMt Si'loji icftliud a mti amultitlon in tbe fort of Sondnr a pbcw 
(if vingular itmiiKth wlUiiii tvanly-flvw nilM of BelAii Oruit DnCi HarMhd*. 1P3. 

a IS8;-»3 

Chapter 1 


tBombar Oazett 



Chapter VIL 

Bdtdji FU\navUh 
appOlMrd Peiliwo, 


Shripatriv, the soconil son of ParftNlmritm Triinbak Uie PmtJnid 
whoMii father had urged him to perform some action whi' 
might wipi' iivray the mi^coaduci of bis elder brother ftnd procu: 
his futhcr's relt*-*"'. BhAho Bcoonliiifjly once more restored the 
PratinitUii to libortv and ratdc. Krishnardv mibmitted, was pardoned, 
and rcd'ived the villHgu of Khntdv. Thii> »i]ccl'«s yrttK of considerable 
iiupoi'tuiiC'.'. hut a likb good fortune did not attend the Peahwa'a 
expedition. Bahiropant was defeated and made prisoner by Aj]giu 
who took Lubogud and Rijinliclu in Wuat Poonn, and wiw ri.'port«(l 
to bf niardiiug on Siitim. All the force that could be spared was 
gathered to oppose him. It was pUifed under B&IAji Vishvan^h 
whose former cQtmcctiou with Ant;rta wouhl, it was hop«d, Ivmi to 
some »cttlemi>nt. IMliiji'.s ncLrottnlion8 were Huc«es.iful, and Angrta, 
on condition of lar^ cessions' in the Konkan, gave up bis Decc&u 
conquests oxcopt Riijmiidii, ri.-nouiicitl SamUiiii, roleosod thd 
Peithwo, and agi-eed to maintain the cause of ShAhn. Aji 
Baliji performed this Bcr%'ice entirely to Shithu'a wishes, on hia 
return to BAt^ra h» wn» rucuvcil with great distinction, and ilk 
consequence of the failure of Bahiropant Hngle, that minister wafl 
removed from the dignity of Mukhya Pradhan and BalAji appoint«d 
Fwhwa in hi.s ttt^M (171*). Hin friend Alx^i PHtaniUinrij was 
confiimed as Ills chief agent or mutdl^ and Bim^jipant Bhtoa an 
ancestor of thu celebrated Ndna Fodunvis as his fadnavU? 
After the dejiertion of Chandra-icn J&dhiiv, Min^ji Mor^ had 
received clothe-i of investiture as chief captain or Stttapdti, but 
failed to perform the sen-ices whicli were expected oS httn. 
He was now onltred, with Uaibutrdv NimbiUkar, to accompany 
Il&I^ji into the Pooiia district to reduce Darodji ThorlU. As 
it was fetircd that the Sachiv, who was still TborJit's prisoner at 
HJrigtui^tion in Pi^>na, niight bu killed if the place were attockt-il, 
Teaubiii the Pant 8achiv's mother prevailed on U^Aji to endeavoar 
to obtain hiH release before Iiostilitics bc^;an. In this B&ld" 
BOCeeedvd, and Ytwu)4i !n gratitude made over to the Pesliwa 
Sachiv's rights in the Pooua district and gave biin the fort 
Pliraixlhar u» a place of refuge for his family who then lived 
S>isvad. B&Iiiii nhtuined a confiriiiation of the grant of Purandhat 
from Sh(ihu wno thus unconwiioiiHly forged the first link in the 
chain wliich fettereil his own power and reduci'd his successors to 
pageants and pri.ionerH. The force'nibIo(i wa!< too powerful 
for Thor^ ms fort was stormed and destroyed and himself ma ' ^ 

In 1715 Haibatr£v <|uarrollo(] n-ith Shibu for not appointir 
him Bvtidpati, retired to the tioiliivari, and was never reconcile 
The Pcshwa induced the Moghal agent in the Foona district, 
Mardtha named Bi^i Kadani, to make over the superior authorit 

' Gnat DuffV M^rittli.'t*, 163. Aiisria ivcmvinI ten forla and *ixtaen (orU6«d pla 
^f lu« itrcngth with tbcir J«psn(tunt ritlaguBaKil «>u ooulhnicit Id comnand M 
Bunt anil in hiB title '•( mrlM. 

* Onut Uuir* MATltliiji, 192 -IPS. > Grant Puff** M^ritluU, IKt-lM. 



to him, on the prombte that KomMit^i NimbAlkiu-'a j<i^r ithoald be 

In aQ qoartera Maritha aflain began to improve. Still &tift a 
period of -^iicti cunfuitiun, wcakucsn, and anarch y, the rapid I'XpanatoD 
of their power in iu any viow very reoiiarkahle and at tinst .sight 8coms 
incredible. ThcinHucnoeof lUUji Vishvanath oontinued to iiKruatv 
aud no atl'uir ur itiipurtnnce was nadcrtakon without his advice. A 
conciliatory policy waa agreeable to Shi&liu and dictuted all Bdl&ji'a 
moaanrcs. The system of Shiviji was the groundwork of thuir 
arrangements; but ftincu tho timu of SaniUuiji (I080-Iu89), the 
neceiMity of preserving the R^j'^'* KUpremacy by profu.'tiily i^mtuing 
dwds conttnning to every successful Hariitha leader the poast-s.sion 
of all thi; territory' in which he could vestublish bim^'lf, was niiuons 
both to tht-'ir union and their r^sourcea a.i a imtioii. Ktill Lhi- tuiturc 
of the tribute which Shivitji's geoios had instituted suggested a 
Tvmody for tlio endless divi.'noiis which every additional acqui&i> 
tion of t«rritor)' waa likely to create^ The cxpt^lii'nt adopted, 
which is given below, although it insured its end only for a time, \a 
the tnOMt ingcniou.4 wi well as thvdevpt-jtt scheme of Brahuiau policy 
which in t<) Im foum! unoonnectAd with their religious Kj-ntcni. 

The minittry as far as practicable was composed of Iho old 

nrtaiuers, and the posts of those who adhered to the Kolhftpar 

]>arty were conferred on thuir rulutious. The detail.^ of the Qiiui»ti-y 

in 171S were: 

AktAu'j Minitlm. 1715. 






PMl»««f MoUin 
TndMa .^ ... 

■»A1< ~ 

ruadiarliii Trliutoli 
BUip VWivuUb. 
IttTB Shuifcw. 


ftxilliUl ... 


t^idkiMi ... 

Nin Rim Shenil . 
Mlnilnc Hart. 

Ilnnitjl Ananl. 
Uudl^ Dbut Vtlr 

About this liiui^ both Parsoji Bhonslu and Hiubatrfiv Nimb^kar 
dti-<). Parsoji's son Kanhoji wait uontirmed by Sh&hu in all his 
father's posaesstons and succeeded to his title of Sifna Siihi-b Subha, 
but the rank of Sar La»likar was coiifcrivd on UhAval.-thi Soinavtihi 
together with the right and lionours of the post. Ilaibatrfiv's son, 
annoyed at being set aside, quitted Bh^bu's standard and joiued 
,uUm-ul-Hulk. Shdhu was not without ability. Ho was naturally 
lerous, liberal ^) all religioa'4 eatablialimi;iit<, observant of the 
^itins enjoino) bv the Hindu faitli, and particularly charitable to 
Bribmans. Thc^illy west Deccan and tbc rii^geil Konkau were 
his birthrit;ht. butashiachikihiM).! wa.t plea.'iantly spent in the pontp 
and luxury of th.s Moghal caiup hi.>* habits wei-e tliosc of a Matalniiiu. 
He occasionally showed the violence uf the Mariliha character, and 
for the time anger overcame his indolence. In general he was 
satufi«d with the rcstpect and homage paid to his peraon and the 


ChapUr ' 

> OntBt DnflT* Marlthila. ISM. The Pah** lappreiaad some Itttiiiitti whioh 
tiiJaM«J tha Poouk ilMtrkt. rnVtyrtd order in tbo vilUgoi. stupi'ud rcvuiiiif-rarminiji 
«■! ■oeoimifid tUUf* by low aoil griuliudlf iacroonng aucumeata. l>itbu. 

rBombay Oaxettmrv 


Chapter VII. 


obedience wliich hvt misiHtcn iiivanably profvAsvd to his commitiiiis. j 
ilo was pk-a-v^il at being free £1*0111 the <lnidg«ry of buxiucss and* 
ID (giving himself up to his foudnras for h»n'bing. buntinj;. and 
lislting. lie did not foru.-wv that hv WM dulugntin^ u powt^r which ■ 
might »ui>i;i'sedt! hit^ own. Aa legitimate bead of tb<: MaMthfift,^ 
tJii! iiiinortauce of that nation was iticreased by the niannpr in 
which ho was courtvd by thu Moghul^ ; aii<l the digiiitit-a oimI 
rights conferred upon him in conseijuence of hitt ^tuation gave 
uii influence and respect to the name of Shihu, which under 
other ctrcumstancvs he could uvvcr have nttjiim-d. Both the Kons 
of Shivilji, SambhAji and fUjardm, followed the eiianiple of their 
fatlier from the period when he mounted the throne and alwa^'a 
declared their indnpirncK'Hce. Bhihu ucknowK-d^l hitiiAdf a vaasial 
of the throne of Delhi, and while styling himself king of tho 
Hindus, affected, in his transaetiomi with the Mot:hals,toconj)idcr J 
himself merely as a zamindiir or howl drjihinutili of tin; tmpinv* 1 

la 1711) Fcriik.iher, the emperor of Delhi, becoming jealoaa 
of the Syed brothors to whom ho owed his elevation, appointed 
the younger Syud tlttitaio All Khjln to tho viceroyalty of tlte 
Decf^an, in the bopea that by separating the brothem he should 
weaken their power and compass their destruction. In 1710, 
Khundcrilv IMhhidc, who hail cjttahlishrd u line of posts along 
tlie 8urat-BurhAtipur routt? and defeatt-d two large Moghal 
armka, went to SSWira, paid his respects to 8hShu, and was 
riuiied to the rank of 8eii:ipati of the empire, Manaji More being 
removed for inability and miaconduct. The Mar^tha ofGccrs 
encouraged by their success and by tlie secret overtures of KeroksJier 
now extended their encroachments, and in addition to the ekatith 
which they had agreed toreceivefi-oniDnml Kbitnin licu of all claims, 
they everywhere levied the iardegkmnkhi. Under ibestt eirt:inu- 
HtancvH tho Deccan goveriniient of Syed Hu!^ain jVli Kh^n. distracted 
by MarAtba depredations on one »<id« nn<l com-t intrif^iies on the other, 
had recourse to negotiution^ with Shdhu. S^nkr^ji MaJlUbr 
originally a writer under Shivaji and appointed Sachiv by RtjArfan 
at Uinji. had retired during the tiiege of that place to Benares. 
Tired of a life so little in accord with his former ttahit«, 
although a very old man, Slmnkritji took service with Uusain Ali 
Khiin when he was appointed to the Doccan. He soon gaini-d the 
coafidouco of his master, and at an early period vntennl into a 
correspondence with his friends at 8dt(ira. He represented to the 
viceroy that if the MaMtha claims were recognized, they would — 
have an interest in the prosperity of the country ; that this was thfla 
only way to restore tran(|uillity, and a certain means of gaining" 
powerful allies by whose aid he miglit rest secure from preaeut 
intrigues, and eventually defy the avowed hostility of the emperor. 
Himain Ali approving of thi^sc \-iews sent ShankrAji AlalbAr to 
Sdtflra to arrange an Alliance between the Moghals and the 
MariithAs. This mission opened a great pro«>p«ct to tho aspiring 
mind of tidhiji Vishvauilth. Besides the ekaiilk and rardeshmitkhi 




of ihc six suWtat of th« Deccan iacluding thu BijS[pur and 
H«idi(rvWl K&rii^tAks, with the trilmtaiy .stftUvt of Mui»ur 
TrifihinopoU and 'I'anjor. 8h^u demanded the whole of the 
t«mtoty in MftltdntslitrK wliich hmJ 1>eloug<-(l bo Sliiv&ji with the 
(;xoi.-ptiuii of htn |>aK)it-Ju(ionti in KhiUxItish, and iu liou ot KhiUidi«h 
territorj- near t lie old districts as far east as Pandharnnr w&.i to Ixj 
siibstitut4.^1. llut forte of iSliivn^T i« Pooiia utid of Trimbak in 
Niitik were al»o to \k: ^iven up. The old districts in the Knrnstak 
were also demanded, and a conBrmatiou of some con'^uesi^ l.iliily 
made by Kinlioji Ithonsla the Sena Sahtb Subha iu Oondavan and 
Ber£r. Lastly tlie uioUier and family of Shilhu wctv to W xoni 
from Delhi as soon as praoticable. On these conditions Shftha 
promised to pay to tlir itiipcrial tr«i*nry, for Uio old territory a 
yearly pe»hka»h or tril>ut<: of £100,000 (Rn. 10 Mkhd); fur thv 
tardeshoittkhi or ten per cent of the whole revenue he honnd himself 
to pn>t<.'Ct thv oountrv, to put down t-vi-ry form of disorder, to 
lifin^ thieves t^i ptiiiisliineut or restore t hi- ntoltui property, and to 
pay the usual fee of 661 per cent on the annual income for the 
li('n-«)itary right of fardtahmuXlU ; for the grant of eJiaulh no fee was 
to !)e jjaid, but he ngrecil to niaintain a iKidy of 1 3,000 horse in th« 
emperor's service, to he placed at the disposal of the nuhh-dtira 
favxdarg and officers iu ditforent dbttrtcts. The Karnfitak ami the 
gubhiu of Bijipiir and Haidanilwl whicli witrt> then ovi-rrun by the 
portizans of SambhJiji lUja of Kolh^pur. tihfihu proiuiAed to clear 
of plunderers, and to make good every loss eii.stuincd by the people 
of thoM! provinces after the finnl xi^tllement of tli« tri'aty. 
Shankritji Malhir had already hU^icieutly proved his dasire to 
forward the interests of hi^ countrymeu, and Shiihu appointed him 
( 17 17) to concltidv tin; teniw, which, accor-linjj to the nltove proposals, 
were with some exreplion conceded bv Husain Ali Khiu. 

The territory and forts not under tlic viceroy's control were to bo 
rcooviirwi at some .st-wson of K-imiri? or in any nianiu'r which Shiihu 
might think fit. Meanwhile a body of lO.UOO horse wei-e sent to 
join the viceroy. Santftji and Fareoji Bhuusla relations of the Sena 
Sakeb Suliha. IJiJkii Poviir Vi.slivjinriv and several Other commanders 
were detached in cliar^e of the Afarittlia troops for this duty. At tho 
Kime time agents were sent to inquire into the state of the disti-icta 
and colled tJic extensive shares of revenue now a.-i-«igned to them, 
while the Bi^&huiaii ministers were dtivi-sing a .ly.ttt-ni for realizing 
their intricate claimti which it was by no means their object or 
iut«ret«t to simplify. 

The emperor refused (1718^ to ratify the treaty. An unworthy 
favourite encouraged him in nia intrigues for the destruction of the 
Sycd.s, he became iasn guarded in his measures, lunl an nn open 
rupture seemed inevitahle, Hnniun Ali Khiin prepared to march 
for the capital and solicited aid from Sh^hu. He also pretended to 
receive from SbUhu a son of Sultfiii Mubninnmd Akbar then residing 
at the SJanltha court. Such nn oppottunity was not neglectt^d. 
P.'ilAji ViHhvaniith and Khandei'dv Diibhade proceeded to join the 
vio-roy with u large l)ody of troops, for which lie iigreeil to pay 
them a certain sum daily fixmi the date of their crossing the 
Narbada until their return. Uusain Ali Khin further ptomLted 



(Bombay i 


Chapter Til- 

1686- 1;». 

' Oratxl 0/ 
iulS nnd 


that tlio treaty should bo ratitied and thv family of SluUm releaaed 
and di^ilivort'ii to his o(lic(^r». On liiit dcpftrturo Shihu instructed 
BlUAji Vit4hviui&th to endeavour to obtaiu the ce»uon of the fortK of 
t)aulstabad aad Chdnda' and authority to lovy the tribute, whiiji 
had For noniu tiuic been by the MaMtliite in GuJAr&t aad 
MtUwa. The plea on which these extraordinary pretenaions to 
tribute were made was that tho chief who had ah-eody levied 
contributions in those proviaous woulil l)ri.-ak in and [iluiidcr, uulees 
Sh&hu oould receive such an authority as moat oblige them 
to look to him only for what tlii-y termed their established 
contributious, and that ittulor thi^t circuniHtauc<>M Shilha would be 
rettponsiblo for the protection and improrentent of their territori«& 
The combined army marched to Delhi where the wrotchixl emperor 
ForokhslicT uftvr noma tumult wim confin«d by the 8yed« and 
put to death. Two princi';^ of the line succeeded and died within 
seven months. Iloohaii Ikhtiar the ){randson of >Sultdn Uuozzam 
wa« then rused (1719) to the iiiipertal dignity with the title 
<rf Mahamioad Sh&h, hut Die two Syeda held all the power. 
BtUl^i Vishv&nilth and his Manith^s remained at Delhi until the 
accAdion of Muhammad Sh&Ii (1720). During Uie t^imult which 
preceded the confinement of Ferokhaher, SantAji Bhonale and ISOO 
of his men were killed by the populace in the strwts of Delhi. The 
ariuv was tMud by tho Syods, occordiiiK to agreement, au<l Shjihu's 
mothiT iinil fitiiiiiv wvrt- j^iveii over to B&l^ji Viabvanith. As botli 
the !'e»hwa anil the Sen^pali were anxious to return to the Deccan 
thoy were allowed to leave, and in act-'orilancv with Uie tn«ty with 
Uusmin AU Kh^n, they riKseived three Imperial grantit for th« 
ehauth, sarde»hmukhi, and avari^ya? The chaulh or one-fourth of 
tliu whole rovenuB of tho six mbhaa of tlio Deocan including tho 
Huiihiralitul aiul BiJ'ipur Kam^ttnk.'i and the tributary states of 
Taiijor, Trichinopoli, and Maisur ;* the aardcuhmvkhi or ten per cent 
over and above the ehauth ;* and the svardjya literally Own Uolo 


' ChAn'ln, it in tbe Cuotr^ I'ruviiicK* Jtliont ■ liuuctmi uiilni Buuth »f NIkiiut. 

■Oraiit l>iitr« Munltli&4, 109, \Vli<;ii (Jniut I>ull wmtv (l62St tb« unumiil jpWita 
WON in t1i» [KiMcHiuu of tho Kija ol 8Ati)ni. Tbvy wnrt- in the DMUti uf MubiunDiad 
Sbili, clittV'l in thr Brtt year uf bin rrisu j. a. 1 131 {a. v. ITIS)). Th« •npacor \ 
MiUuRiiiiMl :ihab wu uot pbiMid oil tbe Iliruni' till 1T30. Doriug th« moutb* t^at 
tntormuwd bvtwofm tho dctbronumeiit of Fcrokhnhvr mid hi* ptuvatiun, two prfiwM 
had flU*d tliu thni&e vthnc lunim worv vxpuiii(ttil fmrti thr rciiariU, 

■Th« dwd for Oiudiauth dated 32Qd KAba' ]I31 gnaUd to Sliilul 
the fiiuith of the TovGunc of tho bii tahhiu uf thv Dixtoan lUDplj uu aoDditioa tliai 
h« kliouM muintaiii I.I.UOO horio to aid tho mjlitairy governors in ktejing onltK 
(iriU.l DiiraMttr.llhiUi. ll'O iixle. 

*l'hv rirJfahniulJti gnuit ii dntcd 4th Juiiiidi'iil-ATnl or tvclTo d>Jt mft«r Uist 
of the (liavtk. It doc* not ipccif)- in tho body of tiia deed tliktltii gnwtnl uka 
hervditary right ; but tho cii*UimtU7 fee on latb ocoMtoiw u *tat«d «iii Uia Imck of 
Ihfl initnimant u toUowii : 





Aunuar«bad »- 


BljiliUI,ou u t 

i,ia,H.Kit 1* a 

M.«i,n» It 1 

T.s>,K,ua U 1 


TuUl .. 

tT.ta,si» * 

!4.UE.i;.»ii 1 1 

T\» »artlrt^m«Jikl wwMtimatodntBa. I,80,31.T3IX /*r«UMA or Mt«blisb«d fco on 



tiuti b th« distriots held hy Shivilji nt the timo of hix d^^th, which 
were gntnted to Shibu, exceptini; the detaclied poescsuoDo in 
Eh&Doesh, the fort of TrirnViak with tlu' mijoiriiiic district, auil th« 
mquiuilR »oath ot tlio VAr«lha aixl the 'l^mgbh«ura rivoi-s, which 
ere not ced^l. Id liea of auoh of theae claims as lay to th« 

lorth of the BhtiiiA. districtii beyood tlic lino of forts from Tuthvnd 
to UAchliiiidragiul in ^iit4m, as far east a-s Pandharpur, were wholly 

:eded to Shiihn, and alao those districts which AlirAtlgz«b had 

troiuifcd to hill) at th« time of his iiiarriaf^' in that «mperor'» ciimp. 

[Tie country watvnHi by the Yvrla, &Iitn, and Nira, celebrated for 
ffood faorsGM and hardy mon, the home of some of the oldest familica 
lu Mahdr^Lslitra, who had not hitherto fonnjiUy acknowlt-d^red tho 
deacendautH of cjhi\*^Jt, includinf; the whole of the present district of 
SAt&ra, was by this eesdoa nlaced under Sh&hu's authority.* Tlnj 
MarathAs protcndwl that tlic couqiiwts of Berlir by Paraoji and 
K&nhoji BnoiLHle, and Unrir ri^ht to tntmte in Uujarfkt and M&lwa 
were confirmed at tht' »kme time ; but thon;e:h som« very iiiduGnito 
verbal promise may hs%'u been given and Biiliiji ViabvaiuUh h^ft 
an agent for the purporw ns in allegen] of receiving the tanads, 
Bubsiec|iient events prove tlie falsity of tJie assertion. ' 

When BiUji Vishvanith started for Delhi, he left hia divdn 
Ahiji Piiratidliarc mt hit tnutdlik or ib>putv in c]iarp> of his neal of 
office, and the duties of Peahwa continued to be carried on at the 
Munitha court in B&I£iji'K name. On BAl^i's return to SiiLtra with 
the Imjicrial dued thu Hchunic for collecting and distributing the 
revenues which all a^hnit to have been projectfld by BtiUji was 
examined, and the system which hail aln^ady been partially 
introdticed wiw now openly acoipt^Ki. The iardexhmukin or ten 
per cent on the revenues of the audhda of the Deccan was first aot 
aside and termed by the ministers tho Rija's vatan, a giatifyii^ 
sound to the oars of a Manitha wbt-tht-r prinei- or piiasnnt. The 
imposition of tlie *nnlr«fcnmfrA» reduce-! to a proportionate degree 
the actual collections from a country tho resources of which were 
already draiued to the utmost, but tho nominal revenue continued 
the aame. To have oollectod even one-foui'th of the standard 
■Baeasuent would prohaitly at this period have been inipossiblc but the 
Uarithas in all situations endcavoun-d to »ectiTi-, in lieu of their 
efuiuth, at li-a-^t twenty-tive pt-r Kt-ni. of the reaJ halances. Although 
they seldom could oolWt it, they always stated the eknuih as duo 
upon the tankha or standard asscssmcnt.'bocauso, even should a day 

Cbaptvr Til. 


1730- 1H8. 

hwvditaiy ri^ta ooaFMred. 651 p«r eoirt, unoniit«4 to It«. 11.79.10,702; tfaa 
Imncdiat* nayntnt cm dclivHuic tho dacii to »ue-foiirth gr Ril 3,03,7t),l!IO-tH) i 
Uia r«iD*ia<lWmTabIe tiy inaUlmciiU to Ra. ^Sl .37, 571 -SO. The ive ai> caltnlatod 
WM comumW to lU. 1.17.19,390 in cuiMWiiianvA of the d^opulAted sUta of tho 
eoanity. Qraot DoTg U&rttliA« 1<)!).200 ((untiioU). 

> 1V> lollowLaKnatiatutUisiixteen dL«trlct« inclvdedin tha gruit «f manlipa' 
PMNUkSosa including Blrtnutli, LiHApur, WiU, the HAnl«, SiUrm, lUthid, KhMiv. 
Mi^ Fhaltan, Mallclpur, Tiria, PsohiU, A'tra, Junnar, andKolhivur: thopnrfffrniK 
aorta of tbs TiuigbbMira iaulnding Kopitl, <la<Us, Haliydl, and au ths (orta wbiah 
war* eaptuToil hy Shiv&ji ; tlie Kontin Inalading RAiiiaagDr, Gnudovi. JawhOr, 
Chaal. RliiwTi<(i. KaXyia, Kitjpurl, IHbhol, J&vli, BAjipnr, [■honda, AakoU, and 
Kwl*l. Uruil Oa'S'% UaiMhia, 900. 



of rotribntion come tho Moghuls cou1<J make ao claim of p«*hkash or 
ti-ibute on that liwwl, ft.t none ■«■»» spi-cifiHi in the deed. In regftnl 
to the narAtuhmukiii, it ftuiteil hotli their foreign and dmnestic ■ 
policy to keep that claim nndetined ; but thtiir s^'^-ni in practioo, 
that of cxiwtitij; MM niucli Hs they ot>nM, wa» an simple fta it vtut 
invariiii'ic, Of the seventy-tive per cent which remained to the 
Miijjhiilrt. one-third or twcnty-fivi' per cent vtwt n-ceivcd according 
to established iir^M^i^ by thf jitit:<l<lr, and the t)&lanC6 was colb-cttut 
aomctiiii«'!S for the Imperial exchequer, htit generally on account of 
flO>ii« Jdgirdar, to wtiom mtyii of the Moghol conqticsts to the 
Deccan vrcro u^signttd for the support of troops. This general 
mode of appropriating the revenue explains the seizures, reaumptioan, 
Aiul cessions of territory under thu name of ja^ir during the 
later wars in thv Dcccan between the Nix^ni and the Pcshwu. It 
Hkcwiw explains the practice which prevailed in many villagea. 
even up to the British conquej<t.-i, of bringing fifty per cent of 
the net rcvL-nvm to at'count under tlm head uf ;'fyt>, for which tho 
kulfitrniii in less than a century conld assign no reaiton except 
the custom of their forefathers. The term nardji/a or Own 
RuTb, whieli iti thi^ first iiistancn was applied to that part of the 
territory north of the Tungbhadm possessed by Shiv&ji at liis 
death, on the return of BdlAji Vishvan&th vres extended to the whole 
of the MarAtha clniins exclusive of the san!eeltmukhi. Of thesa 
clniin.-! on.'.foui-th or twenty-tive per cent vn-s appropriated to 
tlie heaid of the state in addition to the mrdothmukhi. This 
Com-th WHS known by tliu name of the IWja's bdbti. The balance 
waN terinud jnukdna. Of tlie mokdiut two tdiunut wore left at ttic 
disposal of the UAja ; the one was tahoira or »ix per cent and 
the other tiadgaunJa or tlirec per cent, both calculated cm the 
whole tvar'ijya. I'he balance of the ntokn»a was sixty-six per cent 
of the whole of the Maratha claims exclusive of the tanl/thinukhL 
The aahoira wiw V-stoweil by 8hdhu on the Pant Sachiv as an heredi- 
tary HSNigiiuient ; it was coilecti^d by the Sachiv's own agcnt« only 
within the territorj- wholly possessed by the Manithia ; separate 
collectors were »ient by the Kaja to n-alizc it in distant districts, llic 
n-itlsaunda was graiiUtd to different pereons at the Rrijan pleasure. 


Lohogad. The Pratinidhi. the Peshwn, and the Pant Sachiv were! 
chargt«l with the collection of the tdhtt on the Rjija's account." 
Thus there wei-e .listinct agents for realizing the hibli and sar- 
tUehmukhi, for the sahotra of the Pant tSftchiv, for the nAJgannda of 
the assignee to whom it be!oiige.l. and foi- tlie nioAwM to different 
officers for maintaining troops. The mokami wa» distrilrtit^-d among 
a great number of chiefs a» militaiy jagir. bur.Iened acenMling to 
th<; circu instances wiUi dues to the head of the state, both of money 
and of troops. The districts of old Mardtha j.igiTtldn were freed _ 
from the chavth. but th(>y were Ronerally liable to the payment of i 
aardeihimtkhx, Uwidtyf furnishing their quota of horno. Such higir* " 
In a grant of inoMta for a large tract were always stated a^' 




deductions and long before district* wpre conquered, forinal granta 
and assiijnnicnU* of their i-evunne were diatributed. Numberless 
per»onal jiUfira and inama of lands and oE whole I'illugvs were 
aU«Dat<xl by ShAliu ; tlwJ foniiur commonly reciuired the perform- 
ance of nome service but the latter were entirely freehold, Tho 
Raja'a authority was considtTt-d np«y*«vr)- to collect the revenues 
thus concwlfd, Imt t(m aiitlinrity for which they were conatantly 
petitioning was a mockery. The Brihnians soon proved, at leant 
to their owTi satisfaction, that the Kriiji'-H tanad wiw sufllai-nt for 
levying tribute in di^tricttt not apeellied in the imperial deeds. A 
diitriot once overrun was said to be under tribute from usago ; 
other districts were plundered by virtue of lettent patent. 

Fariicular <jiiart<-ra of the country were assi^ed to the leading 
officers, which, as far as they caii now be ascvrlained. were us fol- 
lowa. Tiiu Pi'ishwa and Scnkpati, chnrgud with the command of a 
neat proportion of the lUja'a personal troops, were ordered to 
direct their attention to the general protection and d<-ffiicc of tli« 
territory. Ttiu Fcsliwa had authority to levy the government dues 
in Khinddsh and part of the ItiUiighat to the north-east of 8hoU- 
pur; the Senlipati was vested with similar authority in Bil^'lnii and 
a rielit to realize thu dues est«blt«hed by usage from (Jujarit. 
Kioihoji Bhonsle the Sena SfLheb Subha had chai^ of Ecnir Piijnn- 
ghl(t and was privileged to conquer and exact tributa- from (tondvun 
to the ea^t. The Hnr I^t-ilikar had (iangitiadi including part of 
Aurangabad. Fateh Sing Bhonsle was appointed to the Kamatak ; 
while the general charge of the old territory from the Nira to the 
Vima, and the eoHectiona from Haidarabad and Bedar were left to 
the Pratinidhi and the immediate agents of the Ri^a The Chitnia 
had narticiilar cliarge of scvcnd dlstriclH in the Konkan. The 
Pant Sachiv cnjoyeil the revenue of the whole tahoira beaidea hia old 
poeocsidons in j-i^ir. The agents for collecting the iUja's iamindari 
does were Hyletl niUb »onlr*hmuk}tx. K^iilioji Augria, rt^tuining 
hia districts iu the Konkan, lesied hia chaulh, as he termed it, by 
coDttnuiiu; to piuuder the ships of all nations that appeared on the 
OOasL £^ UMid tn pay a tribute to the Raja in giniM, niwtkcta, 
military store§. and amniunitiou. He also presented freipient 
rui^ra in articles from Europe and Oiina ; and Ite was sometimes 
ofaarged with the very extraordinary duty of executing state cri- 

All the principal MarfVtha officers as a further means of pre- 
serving intercourito and union had partictdarclium.'t assigned to them' 
on portions of revenue or on whole villages in the difitricti* of each 
oth<-r. The greatest Maritha commanders or their principal Bnihman 
agents were e.agcr to own their native villngi-; but although 
vested with the control, they were proud to acknowledge them- 
selves of the family of the paiil or kullafni: and if heirs to a 
miris Eeld, they woult] sooner have lost wealth and rank than been 
dispossessed of such a vatan or inheritance. Yet on obtaining the ab- 
SOlate tuvereignty, they never asstimcd an authority iu the interior 
village concerns bevond the right.'* and privileges actpiircd )>y birth 
or purchase, according to the invariablB rules of the country. Such 


[Bombar 0«Mf 



Ouipter Vn- 

1730 - IMS. 




IB a brief OQtlino of the system and arrangementa settlcil by the 
Mitrntlia iiiiiiistry vn tlic return of B&lSji Vishraii^th ; 
and 8uch waa the mode by which a coiiimon uiti'r«at wa« 
created, and for a time preserved, among the Maci&tlia chiefs ; ■ 
while the character of Shfthu, Uie tntlticnctt and power of B^l^i ■ 
Viabvknitb, the abilities of his sons lUjirir ant) Cliiinnfiji, and the 
prepoodvrancc of Brahman opinion aad authority paved the way, 
though by gradual niv\», for the supremacy and usuipittioa of tbs 'M 
Peabwds. 1 

In 17S0, NizAm-ul-MuIk the governor of M£lwa, throwing off 
hia dependence on the Syeds, determined to possess hijuaelf of 
ihe Ddccan. He overran Kh^ndcsh and defeat«d the Hoghal 
troops imtlcr Diliwar AU Kluin at Bwrhinpur slaying tneir 
ooiumaridt-r. The trooixi of Shahu under Kdnhoji Bh<nisle the Sena 
S&heb Subha. and Ilaibatrilv Nimbalkitr spoedily joiocd ShnnkrAjt 
Malhar who siiicti th« di^piirturu of Hu.swiii Ali Khiiii had liv«d 
with the deputv viceroy Alam Ali KhJui as the envoy of Shiho. 
Khand<>riiv DnbliiUlc who had just returned from Delhi was likewise 
dcKijatched from Siitdra with n \ioAy of horse- Ataiu Ali Khin was 
defeated at BilSpur in Ber^r Payinghitby the troops of Nix&m>al- 
Mulk. and full Hurroundod by Marathiis slam in hisdefence. On this 
ocGAition t)ii> Mar&thSs behavi-il ili faithful auxillaric-ft luid fought 
with bravery. They lost no person of note except Shankrdkj) 
Malh&r who wa.'^ iiiortully wounded and made prisfmcr.' Soon 
after events happi^nod ut Delhi by which the power of the Syedt 
van destroyed, Muhammad Sbwi was freed from their control 
and Niz&m-ul-Mulk cunfinned as Tic<>roy of the Dvccan.* 
McADwhilo several important changes had taken place at the 
Mardtlia oom't, chiefly owing to the death of taree leadiuff 
ministers Paraslmrini Triiiilmk, B&UJi Vi:<l)vuiiath, and Khanderav 
DibhAde. Shripatviv the .second son of the Pralinidhi had 
aacce«ded his father Paiasliuriim Trimbak l>eforc the returo of BiUji 
ViahvanAth from Dttlhi. The P«.tlnv»'s hvalUi hail suffered 
iram the fatiKue of the Journey to Delhi and the labour he bad 
bestowed on different arrangements after hjs njtam. Ho obtained 
leave from Shdhu to retirv for a .short time to Sltvail in Poona 
where his family resided, but his constitution was exhausted and he 
survived for only a few days. At the time of hia death (October 
172II) ho left two sotis Bojir'tv uiid Chimn^ji. Biijiritv wa.t not 
formally invested with the dignity of Peabwa for nearly seven 
monthw, duo perhaps) to the absence of the principal officers 
at the Mar&tna court, or Biijiniv may have joined the army 
which did not return for soma time after the battle of 
BAhipur. Tlic troops of Khanderfiv Dtibh^o behaved with so 
great bravery on that occasion and one of liisonicent Damdji (iSikw^ 
the ancestor of the Gdikwdrsof Baroilaso particulai'lv distinguished 
himself that on his return Bdjirav recommended hiiu to Sh&lm in 
the warmest manner. The Kiija incon.seimt-nce appoiiitet] him se- 
cond in command under Kbanderdv with tlie title of Samsber BahA- 



'Grant Duir* Mvithi*, 906-307. 

* Onnt Dun HtMUrffc 308. 



dor. Neither Dsm&ji nor Khandcrdv survived thvir return above 
a few months. The son of Kbanderdiv, Triinhakrilv Ditiiidc, was 
hoiKKtRd with thv ilrtsa of Scniipati in Mny 1721, the same inonlb 
in which B^jiriv reoeive^i hiH rolies as Ft^hwo. Piliiji Giikw^ 
•iicccflnl to his uncle Dam^ji, and Chimniiji the second w>ii of tlw 
late Keihwa, who K!0((ive<i 8iij>a iaja/firvtim appointed to a siuiUar 
ooiniiuind under his brother Utljiitlv. Ahijip«nb Piiraiidliun: thoir 
f«th«r'8 chief tnsni^;i?r, Mccording to the role of appointment, wtu 

invested by Shilhu with sicnipulou-s ceremony. During the tn< 
^.rval bvtwwn the death of Bdliiji Viahvanfith and the appointjntint 
of BAjirAv, Abdijiputit Purandbarc tr»n.siLc-t<il ordiuary atfura with 
the seal of the lato Pe^hwa ; but ft ^r«at pai't of tlin business fell 
into thu hands of Khando.Ball^l Chituis and Shripati'&v Pi-atinidhi. 
Khando Ballill gto-u hi.-; attention pritiei{ially to the Angria, tha 
Sidt. and the affairs of tlte Konkan ; while the Pratinidlti aidcl by 
AnimdrAv Sumant j'radhia conducted iniportant negotiations with 
Niziim^ul-Mulk. Anaii<Iriiv's iwn ItabtAji wait employed aa 
Shiihu'fi agent with Ntziini-uI-Mutk, who while he appivbrfhlcd 
an attack from Iluasain Ali Khin, conciliated Sh^hu by promyiing 
to give up all Uiat Uie royal graiiCs conceded. No sooner was he 
apprised ot the ascendaney acquired by bis party at Didbi and 
of the loss tb« Mar^hdA had aostainou in ttie death of Biiliiji 
VisbTan^th than h^ Ix^gaii to start objections to the eittablishment 
of Shihu's collectors, founiled on aome pretenaiotu set up l^ 
Satabhliji and Cbandrawo JfUlhav. The wLse pntcautioua of 
BiUji Viiihvanith, and the coiiiinunioQ of int«rest which the distri* 
butioD of the ceded revenue had produced, placud thu R&ja of the 
Afor&tliiis in a far more coiutnandiuij -lituation than that in which 
be had stood during the first perioa of NizAm-ul-Slulk's govern- 
ment of the Deccas. The agent remained nt Auraugubau where 
bis arrangements would proiiably have been of little avail, but 
a vast aj-my of Mar^th^ was aasembling in th^ Qangbhadi under 
the Sar Lnslikar, and their, appcamiicc hod considerable eSect in 
hastening the delivery of orders to allow Rdja 8hf>hu to establish 
hia collectors. A fresh order or farman obtained by the Mariitha 
agent at IVlhi from ^luhnnimnd Shdh opportnuely arrived to 
remove from Nizdin-ul-MuIk the appearance of having jitrlded to 
menace, and afforded an opportunitj' of evincing the promptitude 
with whidk he olx-yed tlie iiiijx-riitl cointnands.' 

BAjiriLv soon after his appointment aa Peahwa (May 1721) set 
out witJi an army for Kh&ndesh whcro he Icvie<i his mokata 
although not withootoppoaition. From the period of his accession 
be gave a considerable portion of his attention to oxtoiidingManitha 
conquests totlie north, and bi.'f aini^ were early turned to M^lwa. 
Circumstances generally obliged him to return yenily to Stitltra 
and Poona. During tlic tlin.'O expwlitions, before the rains of 1724, 
though ho had sent detachments into Millwa, it is not«rtainecl 
tliat he cros.sed tlm Narbada in person until the end of that year ; 
nor did he remain in MiUwa for any length of time until upwardu 
of eleven years after his accession as Peahwa Affairs in tha 


17-20. IMS. 

Biffirdr BaU4K 


nsi - 1740. , 

1 Orutt Dur* ilutth**, 210. 

[Bombay Qautuer. 




1720- 18I& 

Deccaa rcciuired hU prcscacc, iui<] with ih« lotriguea of Niz&m-ol 
Utillc nnd ooiniKtic o(:)p<Mution, restrained both liia iinibiUon and lii, 
erit«rprL'»e, At dilTeTcnt times before the yi'iar 17it Bdjir&v bw 
dof«atod the Subbi-iliir of Biirbiliipiu- mul uu ollicvr named IXiu 
Kbiin ncnt agaiiiHt biin by AKiin-nUa Kbin from Mdlwa. In oni; 
tbeao tuLttlcj two of BAjinlv's officciit who aftvrward^ rose to bi^l 
rank first CHiiie into notice. One wa-t Mallutrji Holkora «&ri«cui 
or aetf-horsed trooper who cominaaded a party of bis owu hOTM 
He was a Martttha Dhan;;ar, a nativv of tbv vnllo^ of IIol on th« 
Nira, of whi<:b bin father was ekaiiffula or jAiftfa aitiiiHlnut. Hi 
haii nerved under I^antdji Kadam B^de one of the RtLjf'* officer! 
and bail ^ratlit-rwd a jsmall body o( bor»c. Tlio other officer vai 
RAiioji Siiidia desci'iidwl from a yonngi-r branch of the family o 
Kannairkiied a villa^'e tifteou miles east of SiltAra. The Sindiil 
according to local legemU have lieen di.ttiiijjuinbeil bon(«'nien sioci 
the time of the Uahoiani dynasty. There are two ftlar^tha fau>iLi«t 
or rather clans named Sindia, the one distinguished by their here 
ditary jidtil village of Kanlintrkhed and thi! othi;r by thv title o 
Ravjrdv. Both families claim Rajput descent. Those of Kannaii 
ktied hful a mannab under Auraii^eb and Sindia's dau^^bk-r. wfai 
wa-s ^'iv-en in marriage by tliat emperor to SliAhu, died in euptivitj 
at Delhi. Sindia reiuaitkcd faithful to the Moghals. and, as his [al4 
was never known, it is conjectured tlmt he wa.-« killed ip somi 
ditttont country pofuibly with A'»ara SbAh in the battle of A;^ ii 
1707. The family had fallen into decay and lUnoji who ren,vi 
its fame was rtiluccd to a state of abjuct poverty strving as 
bargir or rider {irnt in the troop of Bdlitji Vifkbvan^tb and afterwardi 
in thatof BAl^i's i^oii. To contrast his ori^nal with his subM' 
qiiftttt condition, be is said to havi: carried tht; Pt-nliwaH idippcni 
and to have been marked by Bdjirflv as Stted for a place of trtu 
by th« care he took nf iii-t hiirnbKr char;je. 

Another officer. who gained frtuih honour at»o»t this time 
Udftji PovAr VishvAsntv, His father was fii-st raised by Rfiaichan 
drapaiit Amittya when he governed the country during the aee* 
of Gtnji, ana the young; coan joined Hh&hu and obtained t£l 
command of acousidcral>le hotly of horse. Ho was cmploj'cd on 
variouH serviceia and appears to have bt^n an active partisan. Lilci 
most contemporary Mnriitha leaders of eiperii'nce, such as Kantitj 
Kiulain Biinde, Piiiiji <^!iiikwitr, niid Kdiihoji Bhotislc, be calculate* 
on the surest advantage in the moat distant ventures where his sp 
pearanco was least cxpi'ctod. Ho made incursions into Goisrit 
MAlwa, phindered Oujanit a^ far as LunitviUta, and found lulwa 
drained of troops that he was able to remain some time in the countr 
intinuttiiig to the Ibtja that if KUpported, ho might collect the chattl 
and aarclesfimukki in every direction. How long he niaintain< 

station in the country on bis fli-st inroads is uncertain, bat 

probable that he was oUiged to retire from Dhiir a fortress in th 
west of Malwn where lie first c»tabli)>bed himself, upon the appoint 
ment of Uirdhar lJaliA<inr, wIios>! exertion in the dcfeneo of MAIw 
was the chief oiiusa which prevented the Mai^th&s getting 
firm footintf in that provijicc for mono than t«« years after 
accession of B^iriv. 




He pnvrees of TTddji Pov^. the succe»»os of EsDUji Kadsui 
Siait tniTriU jt GAikw^ in tiujntiit, oinl thv ilisscnsiotig between 
KbiiiHil-Miilk sod the Imperial court opportunely occurrod to 
fanor the Ptishwa's views of spread iiiKMarAthti coD()a<?stA in North 
WitBi^jtrfv whawaj(cairIylnun<'ilb)'lii;iraHii-rt'iliuHine«» was bred 
• •oUiN'tM w<-ll iw AHiat«ainaiL U<> united the enterpniw, vigour, 
and ktnlihood of a Marithu cbi«fwitl> th<? poH^h. astuteness, and 
addnm of a EmkauHth Biihtnan. Ho v>-a» fully ni?(]uaint«d wiUi 
Ui fallier'^ financial schemes and cboee tbe part of tlie plan which 
wu alculated to direct the predatorv horiivs uf MabiMsbtra in a 
common effort. The eeniiu of lUjirdv enlarged hit fathcra 
aehcnet, and unlike most Br^mana he had both tbe head to plan 
odthe hand to do. To tbe nacoMioE industry and minute watch* 
tAum of ht^ c«8t« he added a juagraent that taug)>t him the 
hdisg jMriuts of importance whicb tended to spread Marltha 
iway. mjifdv'fi views of sprwuling ^(nnitlin [lowrr in Upper India 
me at hmt dittpproved by Sh^hu, and from prudeoeo oa 
will as rivalry were opposed by 8hripatrAv the PratinidhL 
Jcalway in pnblic pUces in a pajwidn which ttiu subtlest Brtihiaan ^fio 
nnJv conunand or hide. The passion is bitterest among Br^tmans 
of ifiereafc tribea The rivain,- between B(ljii&v tbe Konkanasth 
I^waand ShripatMv tbe l)eAba}<lb FnttJoidtii ti^ndi'^l to preser\-e (ba 
B^'l aMKndancv longer. The i'esbwa'a first proposial fur vxiteting 
wutbe called tne esiablii^H-d tribute from MUlwa and extending 
Hudtha conquests into Noi-tb Imliawatt viol<-ntly &iid for a IJma 
nttesifully opposed by tbe Pratinidbi. SbripiitrtT repre3ent«d 
it aiiaah anci imprudent He he-Id that, Uiough tliv head of the 
Slate ntiglit not be called to account for catnial inroailn, to allow iJte 
Puhwa to make raids must dr&w on the Maritthis the whole power 
(■[{Im empire, and priMiipitate hontililii's with Niaitn-ul-Mit)k whoM 
rictorious iLriHy was titill at tlitir f^atea ; that so fai* f rnin being pre- 
p«»l for resistance there was a total want of regularity even in 
thdr arrangements, that they could ^scarcely ouell a coinnion in.sur< 
■wtioQ ; and that toenter on a war before they nad secured what had 
^BOiceded was the extreme of folly and of nuhnetw. The Pratinidbi 
'^•d that he won a soldier as well as the Peshwa. and when expo- 
'^ntoH r^uiy as Bdijirtiv to head an expedition; that fifter they hod 
^bliahed their colU-etors atid arranged other partu of the country 
*t *oitld be adv-isable, before pumaing tiieir conquests in the north, 
J^fBdoice the Karu<itak luul to recover the countries couqnered 
^ Shiv&ji ; that Fattehsing Bhonale's troops could searely 
""^■itiire to cms the Krishna, and that the first efforts should h« 
■^e in that quarter. 

-l^Bse were probably the real opinions of Shripatrav, The 
Jf'^iioro of BAjirav was of a highi-r onler. He comprehended 
■•le nature of predatory power; ho perceived it« growth in the 
^^liulenoe and anarchy for wbich the xyHtt^n of distributing the 
'"^'^noe was the tirsi remedy; he foresaw that confusion abroad 
''^Ulil tend to order at home; that ait coinuiander of distant 
*-^p*;ilitions he sbould acf]»ire the direction of a larger force 
^■1*11 any other chief of the empire ; that the resource* 
'" yiie Dcc«an would not only Improve 1^ withdrawing the hordes 



(^pter 7X1. 


of horec wliich unprofitably coiUfunaHl thoni, bot must/sll im<l«rtli« 
control of that periwii wlio cnuld mort i'<>adily procure ciiiployinenla 
and subsiatcnce for the troops. While B^jirav concealed liin privatflfl 
(Ifsigiis and partly mlmitted tht* juatioc of Shripstrav'* views, ho 
endcAvouri-d liy Iuh coiiimanding eloquence to aroiixM eiiihiuoai^u or 
ambition in Shihu. He went over the cooquesta of Shabn's famooB 
graiidfuth(T and reiniiidcd him of tbo powerful kings and th« 
mighty emperor with whom Shiviji had successfully contended. 
He paintfMl the present condition of India, the weakness indoleneei 
atidinilx-cility 01 UicMcH^hnlit.&ndtheacti^'ityenere'y and ent<-q>rL'(r 
of the Mardth&a. If, he »aid, the great Shivfiji had been of 
same opinion as the I'nitinidbi, he would haw thought it nccosMr _ 
before venturing into thu Kani^tsk to reduce Bijnpur ami Golkonda.' 
Aa to their domestic quarrels beyond the Krishna, it would be time 
to think of Uicm hcrt-after ; by the RAja'H good fortune every 
desire would I>e occonipliidie'l. Bajirdv ended a speech of conmderabb 
lengtli, with the words : Now is our time to drive strangcni from 
the land of tho Hindnx and to gain undying renown. By turning our 
efforts to North India the Maritha Bag shall fly from the Ki-ishna 
to the Attock. You shall plant it, replied Sb&hn, in the Kinnar 
Khaud btivond th« HimiilyaH; a noble aon of a worthy father. 
Let us strike, said BajiMv. at the trunk of the withering tree ; tbd 
branches uiu^t fall of theinrM-Ives. 1 

At what time ShiUiu'ii conaent waa obt^ned is not known. Th« 
form of obtaining the Raja's consent on all such occasions was rigidly 
observed by the Peshwas at a ittoge when their supremacy waa far 
advanced. By virtue of that authority and their station aa mtutAya 
pradhdng or chief ministers, even wucu their usurpation became 
complete, it Huited the Brdhiiiniicliaractertoacta» nominal s^rvanta 
and real masters to rule the Maratha chiefs as the delegate of theii 

In 1725, UiLuiid Khfin, the uncle of Niz&in-ul-Uulk. for the aid 
lie gaTe him against Mubariz Khan, granted the ehMtitk in Gujar^ 
to Kontiiji Kotlam fi&n<le and Piliiji Oilikwiir, who proceeded to levy 
their assignments. The division of the money led to perpetual dia- 
puteM. PiUji, m the agent of D&bhitde Seud.pati considered himself the 
superior authority in Clujardt and KanUlji n^an ofhci-r of the lUja 
despised his prctensious. An agi-eement was signed by which t&e 
ekauth east of the Mahi wan a.-$sigucd to Ftldji and that to the went 
to KantAji.^ Meanwhile Biijirdv took advantage of the confusioa 
caused by Moghal dissensions to carry his ai'ms into Mfilwu, where, 
though oppnst^d l)y Kaja Clirdhar, he was succu.t.sfiil for two seasons 
in obtaining plunder and contributions. It is probable that NizAm- 
ul-Mulk tiguJnst whom the Imperial forces were acting in Gujarat, 
may have connived at his incur»onM, but Uiere is no proof of any 
direct coniiniinictttion with the Peshwa, BiijiriVv, by virtue of the 
authority vested in him by Shdhu, gTTiiited deeds to Povir, Holkar, 
and Sindia to kvy chaufh and aardeshtatikhi and to keep half the 
mokdva in payment of tiieir troop*. Iq 1726, the Peshwa with 

> Qiant Dari Uwitlrf*, 214-215. > Onwt DMTa MuUhAi, Slft.217- 




larg« ftnn; nader Fattehsing Bhonsle. marched into the >Ift'lnu Kar- 
cUttak, plundorcd ttic tlUtricU, aud kvicd a contribution from Ser- 
ingapatani. Tlie MiiriUliiLD loitt a, iiuiiilxir of itiim without gaining 
the «xpvcU:d advantages. Bdjirdv had objected tothe expedition, ana 
VA8 dUAati.tficd wiUi the result, aud on returning to S&tarshc found 
more serious reAaon.1 of diKsatbtfoction in themcaHun-.spiirsucd by thu 
PrKtinidlti. The cause of his displeasuro originatea in the artful 
schemes of Nisiiitn-ul-Mulk, which, but for thi- pi-iictration and vigour 
of BijirAv, would probably have unlinked the chain by which HiiUJt 
Vlshvanith had joined the interests as well as the inclinations of 
tnoBt of the Himhi chicfUuim of th<.> Dvccan.* 

In 1727 I^izitni-ul-Mulk, though relieved from immediate appre- 
hcn-sions from the Delhi Emperor Muhammad Sh&h whose power 
was daily <)(s;lining, b»!caiin? (Uarmed at the »pre«diiig power of the 
Mar^th^. He beheld in their systematic and pei-seveiing encroach- 
tnents on the divided revenue of the De'Ccan and the Karuatak, the 
extinction of his own i-csourees art well an thosi; of the empir«, and 
took meaanrea to avert these e^'iJs by endeavouring to consolidate hU 
own power and to create divisions among tht; Slarflthits. In th<se 
nieasar«!t he overlooke«l the ability of hit oppuneiit BAjinlv and 
little thought that the pursuit of his own schemes sihould tttrengthea 
the power of the Pesliwa. He had fixed on Haidarabad, the ancient 
capital of the Kutb Shalii kings, as fittest for the Heat of his new 
government, and was anxious on any terms to remove the Mar&tha 
collectors from thatqiuirt'.r. Although NiMiin-ul-Miilk luulcmtirmed 
the iinperiul grant in Sh^hu's favour, a great deal of what was 
yielded was not actually given up, Numerous points had remained 
anadjnsted. ShAhu's part of the agrceniunt to prevent plundering 
wait Hot rulfilk-<l and constant discussions were the consequence. A 
new authority for a pai't of the old tt-rritory was granted by 
Niz&m-nl-Muik, which particularly spi#itied the fixed personal jiJyir* 
that Siiihu agreed to exempt from Be(|Uestratioii. Jdgir assignments 
in the old territory about Poomi which the NizAin bad givtn to 
Rambhiiji Nimtxilkar one of the disaffected officers who hail joined 
him, were exclianged for new giants to the eastward about KarmiUs, 
ft measure on the part of Nixtim-ul-Mulk particularly conciliatory 
to ShAha. After thia a siHtlemeut was concluded through the 
Prottnidhi by which Shdhu agreed to relinquish the chatith and 
gardeahmukhi in the neighlwurhnoil of Haidarabad. An equivalent 
in money was to Ix' paid for the ehanth, and for the sardeghnmklii 
Sb<Um rweived somejtij/r territory near IndApur in Poona of which 
di!(trict he jwas an hcrt-ditiiry dfahtimkk,'' and a jiitfir in Ber&r was 

^ conferred on the Pmtinidhi. Nizim-ul-Mulk had thus effected hia 
first object by negotiation, but the cKchango met with the decided 
d^pproval of BijirAv who was ever an enemy to consolidation 
and disputes ran so high between him and the Pratinidld that 
Ni2(Un-ul-Mulk, encouraged by appiuirances and the support and 
alliance of Chandrascn Jiilhav, lUv Rambha Nimbilkatydairddr 
I Otwt DulTs UaritlLl*. 318. 
1 lUit of this df<An«^i wu bought bv SbAhIji Bhonale the father of Shrrlji 
■fMr h« Antawd Dm Mrrioe of Mftlunod &dU Shdh. Gnol Oufi's MulthU. 22Q 




[Bombar 0«»tt«er, 






. the 

of Bint, aaii Sutnlihiiji EUJA of Ki>lhK|>ur, reM^red to complete 
<l«4ign h<! had foiroea. With this view he espoused the caate 
Satubhliji and endeavoured to crcat« a complete divLiion in the 
Mar^tTia f;o\'criini«iit by rerivjng tho former feuds betweea S* 
aiid SKiiibhiiJi. 

Nizdm-ul-Mulk beg&n by fonnally hearing the cUuniit of 
hhiiji in a iluiuond made for an ucjuaJ div-ision of the revena*? 
and, according to a prevalent custom in the Deccan, si.'^ueAr«ted 
the property in dispute by removing tho collectors of the aarde»h' 
tnuMiiind iltsptaciii^Uift mofcii#(f(Mr«of ShAhu until their respective 
rights tthould be atijuRted, Assnrain;; this pri\nlege »j« vict-roy he 
pretended to become the friend and nrhiu-r of t>oth parti<-.'>. BrijirAv 
vrmt not U> )>e <lup<^! by the old artittce of engaguw the Maratha 
consins in an hereditary dispute. He quickly tiim«d the \ixiin'» 
weapons tO his own advantage, for SliAhu, true to Uie feeling of a 
ManLtha, of whom tsven among the pea.tAiitry the mildest men became 
violent when s vataH U concerned, though for some time he had 
been reconcIK-'l to Nijiiim-nl-MuIlt.was at once on hearing of tltis 
interfei-ence roused to implacable niwMilment aErainst him. and for 
the tiiiH3 against all who had vindicated or who dared to justify hiaM 
conduct He looked Ut Bi'ijiniv for counsel and for vengeance ; fort 
these he would have bartered life, and for these he wtually aold 
the auprcmacy of his empire. At first he determined to lead his 
army, put it was reprcxeiiUil that to march in person would place 
him on an etjuality with SambhAji of Knlhipnr ; none but the 
emperor was worthy of contending with the king of the Hindus. 
Full powers were thiTi-fore (jiven to BAjirav. Ttie great influence 
which the Peshwa had gained was shown in the promptness with 
which many of tho rao.'^t Unruly and factious of the Shiled&r families 
gathered round the standard of tlit: nation. 

Niz&m-ul- Mulk perceived his mistake, and nought to amend it by 
writing to HhAhu iLiid tlie Prutinidhi that he was solely actuated 
by a wish to benefit thfi Riija in onler to prevent the usurpation erf 
the Konkani BrAlimans by whose creatunw every situation was Hllcd; 
that the mrt*ii«d(tir« an<l coUccborH of the aaninikmiJthi htul been 
replaced by others belon^g to tlic lUja's relation, Samhhdji, whom 
be had appointwl the RAjA^ deputy, as Sardeshmufch of the six 
nthkd* of the Ueccan ; on<l that tie Rdja when freed from the 
control of the Konkani Brihntans might ^torwards appoint agents 
entirely of hU own sflcction. But the animosity of Shihu, worked 
to the pitch bv the IVsIiwa, was not to ba oppeascd by ofTens, 
which, under thu colouring giv.-ri tc) tlieni by Bdjirdv. only ajJdtd 
in-iult to injury. Both parties prepared to attack each other as soon 
as tho rains should aulwifio and enable their horse to cross (Jio rive 
In tho war that ensued in Oujariit and Khtadesh (1748) betwe 
MiE^-nl-Malk aided by Sambh&ji on one side and Uie Peshwa i 
thcother the able conduct of Bi^irAv forced Niziini-uI-MuIfe toagi_ 
to a negotiation. Bfljinlv demantled that Sambhiiji should be »enl 
to his camp ; that secnrlty should be atforded for the future collec- 
tion of the Maratha share.-i of the revenue by giving up seven! 
fortified places ; aud tlkat all arrears not yet realized abould be 




Kood. Niiim-uUUulk agrccJ to all the articl*^ except that of 
aelivtfring up SambhijL B&jiriv r«nroAient<Hl lli«t he wm, u nmr 
relation of the lUja's and tliat he should be treated nith ef|Dal 
respect It wasatltuitHt'ttliil t)int Niziim-uKMiilk shiiultl ^arantee 
hix itafe arrival in Faiihiila, when Shilhu .tliouM Ih; at liWrty to 
take what steps he might think proper for the settlement of their 
fuiuily duipatc. 

Bi^iritv wftH then negotiating with Hot Bularnl Khltii in hopes of 

ohtainingtheceMioDof thecA(ifiiAsnd#ar<ff*Amf(frAi of fJujaMt. Aftpt 
the ratification of tht; trc4tty with NiKiim-ul-Mulk, Chinm^ji Apa 
tlu- Pr-shwu't bmilHT Hiarch.-il with a laivi: army ami exact«<l u heavy 
roiitribution from Petlid and plundered Dholka. but on promising 

that if the ckautk and tardcthviukhi were yieldeal the districtil 
uhould be ispcnrvd fruni deprt^lation, Sar Biiland KliAn agrucd to tho 
Peshwa's proposals, and in 172!) ^^ranted the mirdtthmuktii or 
ten per cent of the whole ix-venmi Ixjtli on the land and customs 
«;xcri)t the port nf Surat aii<l the <iistrict ronnd it, tojjetlicr with the 
chtuih or one-fourth of the whole collections on the land and 
cutitoms escept Surat, aad five p4.'r cutit oti the revenues of the City 
of Ahmada)«d, 

While Bijiriv"* preiscnce wna neceaaair In thft north to support 
Chima^i in Qujar^t, SambhAji RSja of Kolhfipur, imttigatt-d by 
XTdaji Chavhan refused to Vmtvn to owrtiiix^^ nu»ile by SliSiu and 
eocaiupol on the north rdde of the Vinia witlt all hiH lia^^giu^ 
women ami ecjuipments. and began to plunder the country, liie 

I'ralinidhi surprised Sanibhnji's eump and dmvd ihuni to raiihAls 
with llw loss of th« whnlt! of their baRgage. Many prisoners were 
taken, amons others TAriib&i and her daughter-in-law Rjljaabii the 
vridow of Shivflji of Kolhilpnr Both thwv persons were placed in 
coufinumftnt in tJie fort of Hfitira (1730). This defeat brought on 
an immediate accommodation. Except some forts, the Mariitha dis- 
tricts and claims in the tract of wliicn the river* VArn« and Krishna 
to thv north and thi,- 'I'unglihadrn to the Houth are the boundarii.TS 
were wholly ceded. Kopil near the Tungbhadra was relinquished 
by Shiiha in exchange for Batnitgiri, and tht; ti-rritory of the 
Konkaii, cxt<*niling from Sd!»)ii to Ankola in North Kitnara was 
comprehended in the sovereignty of Kolhttpur. The fort of Vadgaoil 
occupied by Udiiji Chavliiti on the south Iwink of the Vitrna was 
dwlroyocl. Mimj, TiLsgaon, Athni, and several villages along the - 
aorth Mnk of the Krishna and some fortified places in Bij^^ur 
were given to Sh&ha This treaty was olTeiisive and defensive 
tindj>rovide<i for the divTsion of further conquests to the south of 
the Tungbha'tra which, on co-operation, were to be equally shared. 

Irants of iivim land or hereditary riglitj* conferred by either party 

lithin their respective boundaries were confirmed. 

Alihongh enemies were not wanting to rb;tract from the reputa- 
tion of the I'eshwa and to extol that of his rivals, the success of 
Hie PnUinidhi did not ninteriully affect the ascendancy which Biji- 
tivhad attained ; hut Niziim-uf-Mnlk was still Ix^nt on opposing 
Him and found a fit instrument for his purpose in IVimbaknlv 
DiUtiiln. Ever since Uie Pcshwa had obtained the deeds from Sar 

• IU83-35 

Chaptsr VI 


ITeo 174S. ' 

[Bombay Ouettetf. 

Cb&pUr 711. 





Bututd Khto, D&bh&de had been ni^Uatuig with otli«r 
chk'fg and aitsembling troop» in Uujanlt. At length liiidiDg 
Bt t)io hi-nd of 35,000 in«n tie had resolved to ruKreh for thu Deocu 
the next season. B&jirtlv won wii uwurc of tin Sea£pitii't 




enmitr, hot was not nlaniietlhy hittpi-eporAtiona until he diACovered 
that NiMm-til.Miilk waa to support him in the Deccan. On 
learning their int^^ntion he at ohk dctormintnl to uiticipatv them, 
though, when joined hy all his adhi-rent^t, hi» whole army did not 
amouut to nioi-n thttn half that of Dabh&de. D^bhide gave out 
tiiat he was proceeding to protcH the Riija's authority, and was 
AUpjKirted by Pil^i Utikwir, KaiitAji and Kaghuji Kooaio Bfod^ 
TJuAjiand Anundr&v PovAr.ChininftjiPandita very active marauder, 
and Kur Bah&dur with many others, b/ijir^v proved that Dtthbide 
Senipati was in alliance with Niz&m-ui-Mulk and dvclare*! that ha , 
WU8 leagued for the purpose of dividing the MarAtha aovvrrigntj 
with thtr Riija of Eolhdpur. a measure inconsistent with ftot 
policy and contrary to the divine ordinances of Utu Shjlstras. 

Tlie pnipai-ationit of Nbiim-ul'Mulk hastened the march of BAjirAv, 
anTl as his army, though so inferior in number, was comjKMMKl of 
the old PAep, hone or tlie Rija's bouiiehold troops and some of 
the best Mardtha Mdnkarii, he moved rapidly towards GujarAL. 
At the same time he began negotiating from the day he left f'oona 
and continued until tlio hour of attack. In the battle which took 
place (Ist April) lintwfiai Baroda and ]>a)ihol in Guiardt, the death 
of Trimbaki'^iv D&bbide tbeSemipati and many who commanded 
under him left complete victory to BAjir^v with all but nonii&ol^ 
control of the Mnnitha sovereignty.* A treaty was conclude<i iiM 
August and at the close of the monsoon the Pesliwa returned to" 
8at<lra. He would have punished Nialm-ul-Mulk's trt-achery, Uit 
the Niz&m warded otfthe blow which he could with difficulty Lati-e 
withstood by directing iis aim against the head of the empire. BAil- 
r*v roodilv agreed to the Nizilm's views. It suited hLi favount« 
policy, an<) it gave employment to pcrxons likely to diaturb tbu 
domestic arrangements ho aimed at establishing. 'IVoopa were im- 
mviliatelv sent towards Miilwa under bis brother ChironUji whJU^ 
he himself remained for a time engaged in the int«rior arrancoioMt^l 
of government at Poona and S^t&ra. Such appear to have b&en tli*^ 
liM tod progress of the events and intrigues which ended in a 
secretcompact between Bitjiniv aiid Nixdm-ul-Mulk which m 
to B&jir^v supremacy as Peshwa and to the Nisini a kingdc 
the Dcccan. 

;dom iiM 
Bfar, leffl 

The victory over DdbhAdc, like tlio issue of every civil war, 
impreeaiona on the minds of many not easily efiooed. The Peshwa 
adopted every means of conciliation in his power. He continued 
Dibhtide's chai-itable practice called daJcshina of feeding thousands of 
Brdhmans for several days every yeai- at Poona, and gave sum* of 
monej- to the assembled Sbtistrisand Vaidiks. Va.tbvanti-&v thesm.. 
of Trimliukrfiv IWhlii^di; was raiaed to tho rank of Kenipati, bol 
being too young to take the mouogemcnt on himself, hia motbel 



UmJtb^t became his guardian and Pildji Oliikwj^r their former 
mtU4lik or deputy was confirmed in that situation with the title of 
Sena Kha$ Khrl or Captain of thv Sovereign Tribe in addition to his 
hereditary title of Samaher litJuidur. Au agreement waa drawn up 
under the authority of ShAhu and subscribed Ly the Peahwa and 
Senapati, tliut nvitlitT party shoul<l viitvr the boundary of the other 
in Gujarit and MAlwa. Within the limit-t uf Giijurllt the SeiiSkpati 
waa to have entire managL-mcnt, but he bound himself to pay 
onc'half of tJiu rcvcnuu to gcvi^mnivnt throur;h the Peahwa. AU 
contributions levied from countries not Hpocitiod in the decd« 
^vcn under the authority of Sar Buland Kh&n wore to be made 
ov«r to the lUJa after dt'iiucting oxi>cmtcs.' 

Pvin-iving iWjiriv'fi complete aacendancy, the appointment of the 
Hindu prince Abhayaing to aupersede Sar nulaiid K)i;Su, the imbeci- 
lity of the emperor, and thu trcochvry as well as venality of his 
courtivn, and knowing also that he hod rundoi'ed himself in 
the highest degree obnoxious, Niz^m-ul-Mulk had good eroonds for 
apprehendintf that the Pesliwa might be able to obtain tn« viccroy- 
alty of ihv l)oecAn. The plan which undvr theao circum»taiic«s 
ho ad(»>ted belongs to the higher order of politics. It neema to have 
been named (or the purpose of diverting tlie Mar^thfis from 
deetrc^'ing the resources of his own country and of making hi^. 
own power a balance between that of the emperor and the Pc^w& 
BeCore invading Mdlwa in person B5jir&v had on interview with 
Nizam-ul-Mulk and endeavoured to induce him to advance a aubaidy 
for tliu tu<l he was ntfording, but the Niz£m considered tho induce* 
ment sutEciently strong without paying his auxiliariea. The dis* 
tricts in KhindetA were to be protected by the prvsenl agreemeat 
of the Pe-thwa in hi.i passage to and from Mulwa and nutliing more 
than til e usnat tribute was to be levied in the six au^/mIii of the 
Decean, a proposal to which Bfijir&v ri^adily acceded. Bijirfiv cm 
croasing ttw Narboila assumed command of the army in Mihva and 
sent his brother and Piliiji Jdldhav back to S^tAra to maintain hia 
influence at court and to concert mcaKUrcs for settling the Konkan 
■which was vi-ry diKturbed. In Oujor^t Piliji G&ikwir, who was 
asMUwinatcd by Abhaysing's emissaries, was succeeded by Dam&ji 

In 1733, Muhammad Khin Bang&sh the new governor of HAJwa 
having entered Bnndelkhand and established himself in the territory 
of Bija Chiturail, the Rujput prince solicited aid from Bijii-6v. 
Aid was readily granted. Bongatdi Khi^n was reduced to the 
reateAt distress and the province was evacuated l^ his troops, 
.QTB&l in return for this service conferred on Biijirtiv a fort and 
in the neighbourhood of JhrtJi-tbi worth £25,000 (Rs. 2J 
of yearly revenue, adopted him as his son, and at his death, 
happened soon after, bestowed on him one<third of his poa- 
se«aions or an equal share with his two sons the Rdja of KAIpt and 
the RAja of Bundelkhand. In 1734, R^ja Javsing was appointed to 
the government of the provinciiB of Agra anJ Mdlwa and nothing 

Chaptar m. 

1730- IMS. 

I Qrant Dntf* lUrtUil^ SSll. 

tBombay Ou«tt 


Chapter VII. 

1730- IMH. 


amiii be more fAvoiiniMo to the vi«ws of BijirAv. As Jaynins 
situwU'il Ihe honour of tho Rnjput vemn ut vanuine with the ma 
ing arrangcmpot Lutwc-cn liim «i>d the M&rJith^ This may aocoi 
Cor his hmtntiri^ tocomplv with their clemaitdit ; bat h« at taut came 
to ail lurrt-ement with BAjirfiv anil yiuldvd him the governmont of i 
H&lwa in the following year, and for the tiuiii th« emprror, bn 
Jaysioj^s pcmuuion.'*, tacitly acquiosc«il in the arntngoiuent.' ™ 

Ptiriiig tht! I'eshwa'a alisencc Kinhoji BhonsU', th« ScuaSiUieh 
Subha, had been tt«:(U'"fi of iliwalwiicnce and confined at Siit^ra, and 
Raghuji tlio koh of KAiihoji'-i cousin Binibtlji had bean appointed 
Sciiu 8fiheb Subha in his Gtea<). Haghuji )iud accompanied Sh^ha 
in hiB excursions anil Vty hi-t boldness and skill as a hunter had 
ingratiated hinixuif with Shiihu and obt4uncd a great ascendancy 
ovrr him. SbiUm married him to the M)tt«r of onv of ha own wivu 
of the Shirke family, which, except their haWng theaame suTname, 
Mill that possibly they may have been originally relations and rivals 
for the hei-eilitaiy right otpiUH of Uieir villagt-, is the onlj' connec- 
tion which can be trac<-i) l>«^tween the Bbonnle families of 8it<is 
ai>fl NAgpur.* On receiving the ganadi for ficrHr. Kaghuji ^ve ■ 
bond to maintain a body of .'iOOrt hor-tu for th« wrvico of the stat«. 
to pay yearly a sum of £90.000 (Ka. 9 Idkht), and, exclu«ivB of 
glia«<fdna or forage money, a tribute which since the time of KijArin 
the Sena Siiheb Snbha had Iteen allowed to roscr^'e, to pay to the 
head of tlie governnieiil half of all other tribute, prisse property, 
and contrihntion.'*. He also bound himself to raise 10.000 hor#ft 
when r<r(]uir«*d and to accoinpauy the Ptvihwa or to proceed to 
any (jnartor where he might be ordered. Thin arrangement was ■ 
eficctcd during the absence of ShripatrAv Pratinidhi who had been" 
Kent into the Konkan by the Rija Tliu Pratinidhi being the frieud 
of EAnhoji Bhoii.>!lv iimlt^avoured to obtain m>me mitigation of his 
aontciicc, but failed. Kdnhoji, who was an officer of great enwrprtsc 
died at S£t£ra after having lived tli ere many yuan a prisoner at^ 

Whether Niz&m-uU&Iulk had made any preparations in consa*' 
quence of these dissensions is uncertain ; but ChimnAjt Apacon< 
ccived or affected to Vwlieve tJiat he niuditated an attack. He thi 
fore pitchod hit camp about forty miles east of S&tAra, leaving' 
PilJiji JSdhav with an incDn.siderablc Wly of horse, being Uic 
only troop.i nt Riliirn in thi> immediate iiiter^M of the Peahwa. 
When Biijiriv advanced into Mfilwa, it was bit de.<tign to engage 
the RAja'a mind with petty afliiirx in the Konkan. Diviaiom 
of authority, contt^iiding factions, and thv turbulent dispomtioo 
of HODKi of its inhabitants aSorded ample field within th« small 
tract from Goa to Bombay for engaging and fatigoiog attoitJon. 



* Oriint Ihitr* Mamthd*. S2S. 

• Oiwit Duff** Mkrathti, 230. There ha tradition oltbrirhanu bean rrrala fa i 
fcandltwT diHiDte which tiiny hnTo lioni inT«i(*il to prajadieeUa Bajaef: 
uiUnat th* BliDiuIca of KjiKpur ani) to pivvant Uinir dwira to admt wftf BWmlwr I 
lEattamiljF. It iia poiut ofluaourtA luaiiiUin th«b(.n.slitai}-ditr«rtn« 

' tie bod modo igme i«rtiftl cooiiUMti Is Ooodvmii and beaded cna iueuruHMi lateJ 



Sdvaiit Uit! principul dr^hmttkh of V^i occupied Ms bereditAry 
territory in IhAt ()iiarU>r but luiving .ttilfcnxl Uoin KAiihoji Angria'a 
attaclcfi before the late peace (173U) between the Hijii of Siiuim and 
Kolliiipur ho always bore an onmity to Angria's family. K&iihojj 
Aiigriii'it ili-alh lmpp(tiK-4l iti 1728, luid all alti'iiipts to reduce his 
power before that time on the part of the Ensliab, the PortUfjucw, and 
tbi; Diltcli bud t'nik'd. In the quarrolH Ifctwueu hia sons which 
followed KAuhoji'.i dirath, Biiiir&v nelped M£u£ji and obtained from 
him tho oeesioo of Kotaligad in Th&na and {UjmtUihi iu Poona. Tho 
Sidi, IwKideJt defending; aguiii^t the MarlithlEfi thu districts which hail 
beeiiplaot:d under his charge by AurancTeb, including Mubiid, tUygad, 
C&bhol, and Anjanvel.fretiuontly levied contributiooti from SliMin's 
districts. As forcu was not lik<tly to prox'iiil, the Pratinidhi, 
JivAji Kbanderdv Chitnifi, and others of the Kiia'.t ininL-itct^ formed 
Bchcmois for ruining the Sidi bv intrigue. For thin purpoese tho 
Pratinidhi ^niniid one Vnkub KniUi n during pirate who poasessod 
tJie entire eonlideiiee of the Sidi. To aid tliLn ncb«nic a lotxie was 
H«nt into the Konkan in 1733 under tho Pratinidhi, hU cbiof 
agent Ynm^ji Sbivdev, and Ud^Ji Cliavb^n. The )ntrigae.i were 
uiisuceewiful, and a war ensued in which the Pratinidhi was worsted 
and the fort of Oovulkot in Ratn&giri though strongly garrisoned 
was disgracefully »urpri.sed and taken. ChimnAji Apa incurred tho 
RiLja'a ouspleasure for not sending asaiatance to Snriptttritv after 
repeated orders, Pili^i J^bav was at k^ngth deapatched, but m 
none of the other officers at S£(^a would undertake to support 
the Pratinidhi except on condition of receiving the conquered 
diMtrictfi iu jagir, he was comnolled to return to Sdt&ra with groat 
loss of reputation. About tnitt titne the Sidi died and a quarrel 
aoBtied between bis .ton-i. Yikub Kh&a immediately embraced Uie 
eaaso of Sidi Rohman one of the sons and called on Shihu for 
BU[rport (17.1^) ; but nothing ooald be done until the return of 
B^iirAv, who, after lea%-ing Hollcar and Sindia in MiUwa, returned 
to the Dcccan, Bad on crossing tho GoiMvaii intimated .to Uie Kiija 
that he should march .striught to DamUi-Ritjpuri. All tho disponaliie 
infantry were directed to join the Peahwa, and PiUji Jtldhav woa 
sent off, reinforced with a body of horse, to support Malhiixriiv 
Hotkar in MiUwa. Sidi lUdiiiian and Ylikub Klidn Joined B)(Jir&v 
who began operations bv attacking some of thit forts. Fattehaing 
BhoHtde and the Pratinidlii proceeded to co-operatv, but the only 
help they gavi? •n-a.t to recover Shivtiji's capital liAygad, tho 
oommanilaDt of which bad been previou-tly corrupted by YAkab 
Kb&ii. The Peshwa reduced the forts of Tola and Ohosdla and 
beoieged Janjira but wa» obliged to listen to overtures made by the 
besieged, who ceded to the Marith^ the forts of K/iv^mkI, Tala, 
Qhosola, Aucbitgotl, and BirvAdi. After thia succeasful close o£ 
hostilities, Mjirav, with atlilitiimal power ami influence, returned to 
Sdt&raand was appointed Snbhed^r of the late acquisitions.' Holkar 
completely overran Mdlwa and the country south c^ the Chambnl and 
took poMomion of several plac«s. Afterwards, on the persuasion (A 

Chapter vn. 

1720- Iftta. 

1 Glut DuTs MortlUi. SS3. 

(Bombay QaMtt««' 

kaptar Til. 

IJ72f IMS, 




Kiintitji Eadam Bdnde, he made an incursioD into O^jariit, uud Ui 
boUi levied oontributioDs us far ta the Bati^ and plundered strvcn 
towns to tti« imfU) of Ahmfidabod inclading Idar and PiUapur. 

In 1736, B^jii'&v, owing to the vast amir lie had kept up to 
securo his conuuosts and bo overcome his rivaU, had Imjcohic dvcply 
involved in debt. Hi» troops were in arreara; the bankers to 
whom he already owed a personal debt of many Idkht of rupees, 
refased to make further mlvauccs, atid^he complained bitterly of 
thft conntajit mutinivN and clamours in htn camp which occa^oncd 
him much vexation and distresm.' Part of the distrcsH originated in 
the hi^li rates of interest which he was obliged to pay in order to out- 
bid Nizi(m-ul-Mulk uud »^rcun; thol>eet of the Deccan aoldierv. He 
levied the chauth and mrdethmtikhi in Milwa and applied torougb 
lUja Jaysiiig for their formal cession in that province, and likewise 
for s confirmation of tho dvi>c]R granted by Kar Buland Khin for 
Qujamt The Tur&ni Moghala who formed a considcraUc parkin 
the ministry were dvcidedly against a compromiM; »> dtsgnecfoL 
EhAn Daurtiii and the vmperor, by whom it had already been tacitly 
yicWcd, wore disposed by the advice of Jaysing to acknowledge 
tilt) titli.! in duo form ; but in the course of the ncgotitttinn which 
ensued between the Imperial niini»ter and the Peshwa both parties 
went beyond their original intentions and hastened the advancing 
reconciliation between Muhammad Sh&h and Nizim-ut-Mulk. The 
emperor in Uiu first Instatice agrotrd to rvlimiuUh in the form of an 
asmgiunent £1»0.000 (Rn. ISMA/m) of the revenue of the districta 
aoutti of the Chambal for the ensuing (1737) season, payable by 
throe instaltiieiits at stated periods ; ancl to ^ant an authority to tlie 
Peshwato levy a triliutt? ironi the Rajput states from Bundi and 
KoUi on the west to Budavar on the east, fixing the annual amount 
at £106,000 (Rm. 10,60.000). This concession, Kh&n DauMa 
probably expected, was more likely to create enmity than estsbliah 
friemlship Itetween the Rajputs and the Mariithds. Tlii.t minister 
imagined himself superior to a Manlthu Bnihman in Doliiical artifice 
and continued to negotiate when he should have nad no thought 
but to cliattise, RAja Jaysing was the medium through whom 
Khiln Dam-fin sent an envoy of liis own naui«;<i Yidgir Khin to treat 
with Bdjir&v. The iinjiad» for the ehautk and tarJethnukiii were 
secretly prepared and given to the agent with instructions to 
reserve them. But Dhondopant Purandfiare, the Pcshwa's Vakil 
residing with Klidn Dauriiii, discovered this preliminary admission 
and appriKed Bdjirdv of the circumstance. Bfijinlv's demands now 
exceeded all Vjounde ; and after great discussion Iw succeeded in 
gaining the gaideithpdndfgiri of the Oeccan a grant similar to the 
tardethmukhi but of five per cent instead of ten. Tliis grant 
was a stroke levelled at NiiaLm>ul-Mulk by Khiln D«ur£n. It ~ 

t OrurnufTt MarltU^ 2M I hive Wlon tnb) that hell ntlMlnil b«Ml b; < 
and to pacify Klvidrt ildiI th^tdrlrii I am [nlliiig itt their fo«t tUI I h*vi rnbb 
til* (kill from my (orehGw). Thus wrute Bljir&v to Ms moJMiniriut tlu StA 
of Dbavkdshi a villa^o vitliin • few uiiIur o( Silttra. Tk* Srtmi wm a ruocb 
TMitntwl jwnon in tho couotrj. Thu PmIi*'*'* laltersto tb*8v<iaidrtftiltiieaotMHM 
of )uttt(ciiiaUmtliarinuiiierwllhnutilb«uiM»Ddueiavaliubl«. KII0.S3S. 



Qe immediate fiflcct of rouung tho NizAm's jealousy, while 
ncounLj;i:m«nt From tlio Mt)gh«l faction and prcwung invitations &om 
Mutiammad Sh&b to repair to D^lhi and save the empire at leDfiih 
inJacod MizAm-ul-Mutk to think of turning thi) aouu ogkiust nia 
prv'iatory ullifj^. In the ineuii time ite^otiaLiona produced no cessatioa 
of activity on the part of B^jirilv and nis demands were so exorbitant 
that, after pnjtiact<.'d consultations, it wua dctcruiiiit-il to a.-)!K!liiV>Ie 
a va»t army by th(^ iiii.ti.^ cHspky of which it seemed as if they 
expected to aimihilate tlie MardthfU. The Peshwa on hearing of 
Khan Dauriln'a advance deposited his heavy bitf^«j;o with his ally 
Lu Biindellchai)(l, awl ailvauccd to a poaition on the banks of the 
Jamna forty miles south of A^ra. ue had attacked the lUja of 
Budltvar for refusinj; to settle his claims and levicti coiitribotion.t in 
©very ilinwtion. Malhirrilv Holkar, PilAji .liitlhiLV, and Viihoji Bole 
eOBUnitted peat depretlationx in the Ooab until driven across the 
Jamna by SfUlat Khitn who marched from Ou<ih and unexpectedly 
UKailed th« MniAtli&s. He wrote an exin^^'oratt^ account of his 
auceess to court stating that he hiul wouuiled Malhirr&v Holkar, 
killed Viihoji Bole, and driven the whole Marfltha army acTDsa ^he 
Chatubul ; tliat 2000 weru killed and as niany wcru ilrowned in the 
Jamna. On SiUlut Khiin'.s arrival at Agra, B&Jir^v (iuitte<l his 
ground oa tie hanks of the Jamna and moved north-east to a more 
Opca country. Nothing wns talked of in Dolhi hut the hero Siidat 
(Uuin who had drivi>n Um Miintthif--* \Mck to the IX-ocaii. I wait 
resolved, said BAjiriv. to t*ll the emperor the truth, to prove tliat 
I wa» still in Hindu8tdn and to show him Uames and Mardth^ at 
die gate«t of Wm capital. Hi^^ a<lvaiiced at the rate of forty niiivs a 
day and pitched bia camp in the nubarba of Oelhi. Ue inflicted a 
aevcrcdcfcat ou the Imperial troops at the very gates of Delhi, and 
npoii a promiiuiof obtuiniiif^tln- govumnmiit of Mdlwa and £130,000 
(Rs. 13 2(ii(:A«), Aet out on hi» return to Kntdra. where be paid hirt 
respects to the RAja and immediately proceeded into the Konkau to 
a-pel an attAok of tlie Portujjni'*^ mi M&u£iji Angria (1737). The 
Paabwa succeeded and took Ittllniiji under hia protcctJOD on 
condition of bis paying a yearly sum of £700 (Ks. 7000) and 
preAenting annually to the Raju foreign articl^x from Europe or 
China to the value of £'lOO (Its. 300O) more. The war with the 
PortugUOHo led to the invasion of Silsette. and Bijirdv, to secure his 
oonqnesta in Thunu and maintain the war against the Portuguese, 
entertained some Arab^ and a verj' Ijirgi- body of infantry principally 
3lii\-alis and Hetkaris. News from Delhi obliged him to withdraw 
part of his forocs from thi; Konkan. Niz<Un-ul-Mulk was restored to 
favour and ordered to drtvii the bfaritbtti from Mitlwa and 0^jft^At> 
-Bijiriiv ass<7mblcd all the troops he could collect and by the time he 
■■cached tlie Nurbada found himself at the heail of 80,000 men, 
UoDgh Yashvautrdv D&bh&ile and Kaghuji Bhousle had not joined 
lMm(l738). In the affair at Bhopdl, the Nizam on the IlthFebruaiy 
vtas compelled to sign a convention at Durai Sur&i near Serorye, 
VRnnising in his own bandwritiog to grout to BiijirAv the whole of 
Milwa and the complete sovereignty of the territory between tlio 
^»bada and the CbambaL To obtain a confirmation of this 
*Sn«iiient {torn the emperor^ and to use every cudeavoor to procure 

Chapter ' 




IBombjLjr Oawt 



Chapter Vn. 


War Am in. 

t))« payment of a mitiAiay of £300,000 (lU 50 Wchu) to defray hi^ 
expenses,' the Peshwa rf^niAiriMj for a time levying oontnl>iitiiviij 
Boutli of tht' Oiaiiibal and earnring on D«goUatioiu at oourt wlit-re th( 
tlircjit4tiii'Nl inv&tion of NAiiir SltrtFi wius cri'tttinff alann. At the i 
time the war with the Porliijrin«»e was U-ing vigoroiwly 
on by the Pfshwa's brother Cliimnilii and several forta m Th&iK 
wero t«kt,ti by the Manlthfls. Raght^i Blionslu niadv an incuraic 
to the north as far an Allahaluul, (li;feat«d and alew the Su)>1h!<]j1 
Shuja Khdii and retomed loaded with booty. These exp«<litic 
uiidi'i'takf.-n without rt-fjular sunclioo worv higliiy resented __ 
Biijinlv. Ho iuarchf<) from Fixina for the punKMie of piiiiinbuig' 
B^hiiji'a miseonduct anil sent forward Avji KAvre to plunder 
in Bvriir. Avji wai; defeated by Raghiiji in tliv end of February 
1739. ItAjii'iv waa preparing to aveiu^ bin Uwa when nvw» 
reached him of the arrival of N&ir Sh&h, the defeat of the Mi^baH 
the deatli of K)uln DautHn. tlic capture of Si^lat KhAn, and muiUy 
that the vicloriouH Persian was dictating the t<-ritiH of nuiMm 
at the gatea of Delhi. The^e accounts exceedingly alarmed 
Bitjinlv. Tlio subsequent intelligcncti which h« received at 
Nasirahad in Khitndesh infm-iniiit^ him of the iiiipriitonment of the 
emperor, the plunder of Delhi, and the dreadful mast>acre of many 
of itno inliiiliitaiitH s<>emcd for a lime to overwhelm him. Our 
quarrel with Ita^huji Khunslu is tnttieniticant, itaid tlie Peahws; 
the WEI with the Portuguese ia as nau^t ; there is bat one enemy 
in HiudnstHn. He appears to have conceived that NUdir Shui 
would liimself a.-^ cuipi.-ror, but he wa^ not dii«raayi-<l when 
he h«ard reports that a hundred thousand Persians were advancing 
to the Houtl). Ilindas and Musalmtlns, said B.'ijirAv, the whole 
powur of thu E)i;cc«n iiniNt u.vieiu)>le, and I shall .Hpnead our 
Marftthds from the Naibada to the Cbambal. lie called on Nisir 
Jang the Mizttin's .-^t-cond son to arm ocajnst Oie common foe, and 
Chimuf^i Apa wn-t oriiere<l to desist from the Konlcau warfare 
and Join him with all speed. CItimnAji waa now in poaae«.tion of 
the whole of Sfilscttu and hud begun the siege of Baasetn^ 
Notwith-stnndiiig offers of aubniiwdon, Cbimuiiji prosecuted 
siege and on the Itith of May Ila^tein fell. Holkar and Sindia : 
soon as Ba^ein fell wctv Kcnt to Join IMjiritv with all speed, but h\ 
that time newa arrived of the retreat of NAdii- ShAli. N'Adir ShAli 
restored tJie throne to ita degraded owner and wrote lettei-a to all 
the princes of India announcing. the event. Among others, be 
addreKsvd a UiU^r to Sh^hu and ouc io Biijintv. Ho informed 
Bdjir&v that he had reinstated Muhannnftd ShiUi and now conaidered 
him as a brother ; that although Bfljintv was an ancient servanVJ 
possessing u large ariny, lui hail not ntl'ordwi the ciniKtror a.'wi.-itancc ;| 
but that all muat now attend to Muhammo'l HhiiVa commanda for 
if they did uot he would roturu with his army and inflict puuiahment^ 
upon the disobedient.' fl 

Shortly aft<'r tlie departure of N^dir ShAb R^Mt Bpnt a letter 
to the emperor expi'easive of his submission and obedience, and a 

Itinat Duff* M*t*U>Aii,239L 

t Grant Dufl'a MuMhi*. 9U. 



nasar of 101 gold mohara. His wan acknowlet^ied in saitable 
t«rm3 and a splendid kkUlat was sent io return.' Ue waa asaurcd 
by the emperor that the rank, possessions, and inheritance already 
conFerT4.'<) on ))iin would be confirmed, and thai lie might depend on 
findin;^ hift tntcresta beat promoted by continuing steadfast in hut 
duty to the Imperial goveriuuent^ 

Although no new subhtdir nor any deputy of Niz&m-al-Mulk 
was appointed to Maln-a, no tanad was »cnt conferring the 
eovurnment on Bjijirtiv. This omianion the Peshwa cou»idcrod a 
breach of faith on the part of Niz4m-ul-Mulk ; but as the Niziim's 
army was atill in Uiadustdn, and as some of Bdjiriv's best officers 
•nd troops were in tbu Kouknn ho iK-fcrrcd enforcing his cluima 
until u fitter opportunity, fn the m<tantitiii.' Im was busy arranging 
the afTaint of tht; province of Mdlwa and Btrengthening his connection 
with the Kajput princes in the W€»tvru cjiiaitor along the banks 
of the Cbamijal from Kotu to Allnhabud, but e.tpt'ciully with the 
Hijia of BuudelkhaU'L 

These arrangements to secure the northern froiitii^r were 

preparatory to a war with Nizfim-ul-Malk or an expedition into 

the Kam&tak. The late nuccctu against Nizam -ul-Mulk, his 

departuro from the terms of ogrvemciit, his gri-at age, the 

proiiability of contentions among his sons encouraged or stimulated 

the Pcshwa to attempt the subjugation of the Dcccan. The 

deficiency of his resourot'S was the chief oWtocIe which deterred 

him fn)m this umk-rtaking. On the otlit-r hand the prospect of 

conlrihutiom and plnnder by which he might liquidate his debta 

and perbaps some secret encouragemcut from Arkot. where according 

to Colonel Wilks the MarathAs were invited by the Divun oi 

Safdar Ali, were strong allurements for venturing into tho 

K&mdtak. But Bdjirdv was critically situated, and circumstances 

compelled him to choose the Deccaii as the theatre of his operations: 

DAboAde's or rather the Gilikwiir's party who possesserl very 

COQsidorable resources was always hostile to the Pe-shwn ; Raghuji 

Bhonale was jealous of the Hr^hman ascendancy ; he meditated a 

revolution by getting the lUja into his own power ; and as Shihu 

liad no pKK^pect of an heir, Raghiiji might have contemplated tho 

aofini^ition of Manttlia supremacy by W-ing adopted na his son. 

f att«bsing Bhon.tle, tlie only Maritha likely to snpernede him in 

^he Rdja's choice, po^tessed neither ability nor enterprii^e, and bad 

f ulcd t/j create power by acquiring popularity among the soldiery. 

Saghnji ha>l many difficulties to overcome in prii.seeiiting a scheme 

of the kind. Although a party exLited hostile to the Peshwa, 

S^tiiv's friends and dependents surrounded the RAja and posso-iLsed 

lti> ear, if not his entire confidence ; nor could Rughnji Blionsle or 

I^amiji Ci'iikwir concert a plan or transact the slightest business 

■^without Brihman agency. Should BdjirAv quit the position which 

Cliapter Tir 



'Craat Ihifl** UwHthli, 244- A khillnl ortmvnhea'lath^ Mrpdo or \t*iul to tnntdmt, 
^*1 (• eloUu for tba tarUui trouiera girdle kud uuwii [4iiiiplet«, knil jowol* linr** 
'"phnt Mu) vma soocirding to cir^u ma uncus nail ruDli o[ tho partirfl. KajirAv 

praat Ihifl** UwHthli, 244- A khillnl ortmfnhea'lath^ Mrpdo or \t*iul to tnntdmt, 
ba tarUui 

. . Booordiiu to cir^u ma Uncus nail ruDli o[ tho partii 

**J*(TCd two onuawnta o{ jowtU (or the turban uid « poorl ooeUiMC togcUMr wilh 
* MiM Mid an alcphuit. tntt« footnote. 



[Bombar OuattNT. 

Chapter VII 




he occupied between th« territorira of thoso two, there wouM Le uo 
oliNUclo to their unitiog a^c&inst kiin. The nulisistuie iliffvn^im 
betweea Rn^liuji Kitrl B&jir&v aroeo from Ue^huji's hnvi&i; 
pltindi'n->l lli« prot-iDce of Allnhttbad «i»] not hAving joinixl Bajirit 
wl)i-n ht; WW ordered keeordinic to thv t«rnia on wBicli lu- held liu 
laads and title. ThePeahwa affirmed thftt ItasliinihadDoautlioritT 
to levy contrihutioDK »urth of tlio Xarbrcal and declared Iih j 
di-tonuinatioa, at the time of marching from Poona in the entlolfl 
173^, to enforce restitution not to the owners but to the HanUlu^ 
•tate and to panish the a^rpx-ssion. A temporarj- compromise tocl: 
plaoe on tho arrival of iXw Purtiiuut at Delhi ; but tliL< disputo wu 
onsettli'd and nothing bat a sense of injury to their mutual intcrod* 
prevcated au open war. 

This state of aflairs laid the fouDdation of schemes which hal 
a great eflToct in extending tlie spreading but unstable pow«r of 
the Munitliis Though there ai-e few direct proofs to illuattate 
this part of their history, it i§ certain that l^jinlv and Uagbnji 
had a meettRfi and that tlwy wen reconcilH), and there is reuMm 
to pipipOM that HAjii^v unroldcd as mnch of his eeheuea te 
Eagnuji aa were neeeMar)- to engage his OOMtpention, and tbt 
plunder of the Kartuttiik, an eventual addition tonis own territortM 
in the TV-ociui, and a future partition of Ben^ and North Iiitf 
may have U-cn urgtii by the Pwhwa to excite Ragliiyi's atubiti> 
and curadity. In this couference may also be aeeu tliv real ao 
from which a host of Matithis were poored into ^e KaroAtaJc. 

lu prosecution of his plans of ounqoest in the Oeccan, Biijtrfv 
seizim; tin- opi>ortwnitv arforili'd by th« absenee of Nizi^m-ul-Mulk 
at Delhi, about the end of 17tO Itegau ojKTalionsagaiiuit the Niziiiu's 
aon Niisir Jang. The war provwl unprofiubie and thu WariltJii* 
gladir ent4>nMlon tcnns of accummodotioa and a treaty wan concluded 
at ifunfji-PaJtliaji by which both parties pk-«lg.rd thfinselvea to 
BUiintAin peace and mutually to n'frain frum plundering in tht 
Deocan. Hindia and Kirkaun. di'^tricl.i on tlte Ixuiks of tho Karbada. 
were oonferrvd on BAjiriiv in jdgir, and the Pealiwa without visitinc 
Poona orStitAra, in <,'reat vexittioii anioonting almost to de«ipur, set 
off with his array towardn Nortli India.' 

In the meantime UAniji Anpria nttacltcd by ht» brother had 
applied to the Peshwa's ««> Bitlaji liAjinlv. goneiaUy called Nitut 
Siuieb, who wns with the Raja in Uie nciju'hbourh(x>d of Sitara. 5u0 
men were aent to support the garriaon and an express despatched U> 
ChimnAji Apa for instructions. Cliimniiji had ordered hia nrpbtw 
to repair to KoUha in person and applieil to theGovemorin Conoeil 
at Bombay with whom he had concluded a treaty and maintained a 
friendly intercourse since hia hite campaign in the Konkan to 
support the garrison at KoIAba. The English and B^ldji hail 

nd UM 
ritoftM ^ 

I liidta^ 

■ Gnat DaFi M^rdtliAs, 247. Thiu be wroto t« hfi maKdp^ru^ dlnst tbia Um: 
I ui iovUved in <)ilBcu1li«(i, in dcbu, anil in diMppoiatmexu kiid likeamui rawh 
to awkllow puiwin. Near the ItAja we nj RiuiniM. and ihoald 1 «i tlila time n W 
8**4i» tliav vill pui Uieii feet on my bnuc I shmiU be tlutahful i^ I omM b* 



jmI id htiiubling SambhAji, M£n£ji's brother whvn Ctiimndji 
ipijoiiictl tbi'Wi. Thtiy were concerting plana for tlie n-Juction of 
^idaoiJa when news r^aohcd Uioiii of tne desUi of BdjiiAv which 
Dcd on the banks of the Narbada oa the 28th of April 1740. 
I Reviving this intf^^ilif^cncc Shankraji Naniyuu was sjipointMl 
-Jibedir of the Konkiiu ninl Khftifliiji Mankar wa.i left in 
eODuaiDdof a body of troops, while Chium^ji Apa and hia Qoph«w, 
rflcr the Usual tnotinmig ceremonies, rvtumi-d to Poona and 
ibnrtif after to SiltAra. Brijirdv hit thn-c mm Il^Utji BAjirtv, 
l^^aiidthrflv aft«rwardA so w«ll known to th« Enftlish. and 
Jiaiidan BAba who died in early youth. He also left on« illefntimat« 
MO by a Huliunimadan mother, whom he hrvd a Miuolm^n and 
nuDM Samsher Buli^or. 

The army which entered the Kamitak under the command of 

Bidn^t Bhcmale was contpoacd of troops beloDfjing to the lUja. the 

fwiwa, tb« Prutinidhi, Fattchiuti]|; Btionslo, and variou.t cliivfs of 

les DOte. lite Uliorpiidcs of Soitdur and (tuti were innt^d to join 

by leltcn from Nh^tiu and tin; IVshwa ; niid Mui^&rrdv the grand- 

nphevr of the famous SanUlji (Ihorpade and the adopted ison ^nd 

litirof Murtrr^vof Gnti appeared n ml tr tl)>- national staiidatri for 

Ike first time, sincv thv dealJi of hiit di.ttin|rnished and ilKreijuited 

•Atico. The whoh- foreii amoimted to &0,000 men. Dost Ali the 

I'tw^ of the Kaxniitak fell and the Div^ was inadu a prisoner. 

Afttrthi» the Mnnlthtbi began to levy contributionH all over the 

Ktmitak until bought off by the Nawib'tt twn and heir Safdar Ali. 

•ik whom, before retiring, Iht-y entei-ed into a svcret compact to 

'tattoy Chanda S^ieb then in posseasion of TrichinopoH. Whil« 

Uiemain U^iy of his army remained encamped on the Shivganga, 

Bvkuji Bhonsle ntnnieu to SitAra and endea%'our<_-d to prevent 

M^i B^irav'e succession as Pe^wa by proposing BAnuji N6ik of 

wunati, a connexion hot an enemy of the late Peahwa, for the 

v*eiDt oSlce. Bj'i|>uji Nilik was potsMK^ed of great wealth and his 

oiaily toBsljirfLv aratefrom a very common cause that of having lent 

•awy which hb debtor could not repay. Rdghnji'spaiiy used tJie 

■Rilled cffditor »s tlieir tool and very largn buihs were offered to 

^hnon condition of Hiipiiji'^licliig raised to the vacant Pc^liwajihip. 

'liePrstinidhi, although avei-se from the supremacy of the Pf.-sbwa 

*>i ttill more hostile to the pretensioiu of Bagliuji, and as he did not 

*gigc in the intrigue, Ualiji BijirAv aided Ijyiiia uncle Chimndji 

*>i at last invested in August 1740. A more serioua cause of un- 

**«neas to Baliiji arose from hia being answerable for his father's 

•btoondliitptijiNiiik en forced his demand witli baro-tsingpertimicity. 

"«n this per^cutiou Baldji was relieved by the iiilluence and 

"(ditof hisDirin MahAdajipantPurandhBre, a service of which the 

«»hirft ever after retained a grateful rtrco I lection. Raghuji, on 

jbiiiDg bis schemes abortive, carried BApuji Niiik with him towards 

"16 Karniitak and returned to reap the expected hardest at Trichi- 

*jpoIi accompanied by ShripatrAv the Piatinidhi and Fattelising 

^Senile. Trichjnopoli surrendered on the 26th of March 1741, and 

P»D^a SAheb was Drought a prisoner to Sitdra where he remained 

^ the custody of an agent of Kaghuji Bhonslc's till he was set free 

Chapter ni- 


BdWi B^ir4w 





to f 
to Im 

lb te- a a^meak w«n fthoi dnwo op ta 

tfc* IWhwA ami Oimm^ Apa is which Umt 

bcvs ih* ftriiiiniiM «(liit«», lAieh, on the death d 

taaiemd oa Aaaa-^Da EbAn. If the 


>gtaa«ed tWy f iwhi nl to pay tfaar nrnpetta totk 
r; t» arvvMl aar alh« Ifartth* eniadi^c tha Niiladt; 
to Mad » body of SOO haDaandcr an oSnr o( nak to muto 
■B iMHMsaee on the cBpenr ■ ptnon ; and to aak no taon thtn 
the pH of moncT- already iMlavcd. Tbejr agraed to Mead 4000 
IwnB Cor fl«rvioe who woold va^ttt refiaetorjr landhoUen as br u 
ttair wnnhrri wooU caabk umb, aa-1 thri- prcMmi«(Ml not to nqoes- 
ftnte tibe KB^free laads ar>ff>f« asuj^neJ fur chantAble orreUeiuai 
■ ■fp o a. l i . Xo notice wene to hare beta taken of the applimjoa. 
BiA B4fa^i, wboae d k yw it iBa was coociliatorr-, was aaxioos to 
bare the govcnuneni of JUlva eoofemd u a ri^t acoonliov to 
iht treaty with bis father. With thb otj««t whan >*uAm-al-Malk 
was maroiiag to the Deecan, in onler to aupt aw M bia ooo Htm 
JaOff** revoH, Ba^ji paid (1741) htm a re^Metfol visit near Uu 
Karaada and aent a body of his trooM to join him. At this tima 
be Hutained a great loes in ih« deatA <rf hu uncle Chimniiji Apt 
which happened in the end of Janoaiy 1741. Elwea days befon 
thia event, Kbandiyi SUnkar imder Oiimniji's directioa had rednoed 
Bordanda the ImA place remainii^ to the roctogaeae between Got 
and Daman. Cluutu^ji Apa from his sneoeases aeainst iho Porta- 
roMe has a mater r^nitation among the Mai^Jh^^ aa an ofiev 
{ban he probably daaerred.' 

On the death of his ocde, the Pvxhwa rctumcd from the 
Mrtheni districts and Hpent nearly » year in civil arrangenieittl 
at Poena and S&Ura. Continuing to show the gnatest respect for 
the BAja, he utrtaini"! from Sh&u a grant by which the whole 
territory conquered from the Portuguese was conferred on him, 
and sl-so, except in Gujarat, the excTasive right of collecting the 
revviiuee sod of I«vying coutribationa north of the Narbada. In 
1742. Bhiskaquint the Divto of Ragh^ji Bhonsle of BenUr. carried 

t (Irmnt I)ur« UaMUiii, SS£. Chuul* SAhob or Haaua Dart KUa doee 

apl"*' to likve bMn MoBmd tn tha (ort nor to b4T« Mutniwl a eJoM UoprMaanah 
be» pnnljr to hara k*il ui attMdant cuud *li«r«*«r Im T«al T^ kuppMiti<«i it 
SM Wei ed bjr Ibo mm witli which DnplcU sppMnto bare iatrintd wiUi him dsriiu 
mt. i Gnat D«ri HanUbte. M 


D b I 

fell Mra of hnpriaennnit. 




la uma efltttwards, but tho Peshwa cof^r to cstoblish his power 
owrihose t«rrikiri<» for wliidi the authnrity ohUinod from the 
Rijs was OB usual Msumea) a» a right, marched though late in 
tliF icasoD, towards Hindustto and made hinuolf master of Garha 
ud Muiidcla before the raiiia set in. Ho was ublj^d to eneainp 
ni the banks of th« Narbnda during (Jie rainy season, and probably 
mtiiiuted an expedition into Allahabad when he waa called upon 
to defend hi« rifjli(« in MAlws which was invoilcd by Damaji 
Oiilcwir and Bilntr^v HiKhLshiv. Thui inroad seeni.t to hare been 
iDitigtted by Kaghuji to obstruct the Peshwa's prooreas eastward ; 
ud on B&Uji's arrival in H&lwa tlie army of Gi^arat retired. 
On tliis oecamon Auaiulrdv Povir was confirmed by the Peshwa 
in r^i° poese5)sion of Uh^ and the surrounding districts, a politic 
D. into which not only secured Pov&r in his interests, bat opposed 
• carrier on the western side of MAIwa to incursions from Gujardt. 
Sac8 the Pt^.thwa'^ arrival at ?kiundi-!a a n<^gotiation had been 

«ng c«i betwepij hira and the emperor through the mediation 
._ ilija Jaysing supported by Nizam -uI-Mulk. The chauth of the 
UBMnal territory was promi!scd and a khUUU more spU-ndid than 
W ever been conferred on hi.s fattier was transmitt^^d to B&tAji. 
It docs not appear that any deed for collecting this general chauth 
*u ever granted by Muhammad Shilh ; sums of money and 
oonrenient afsignniflnts wn: tin- mode of payment. The object in 
toe pending treaty wa^ on the Penhwa's part to obtain eanailt for 
lie promised government of Malwa. and on the part of the court of 
Delhi to procri^tinat* and to widen the breach between the Pc^hwa 
^ Baghuji Bhoniile. 

In Uie meantime Bh&skarpant had invaded Bih&r. The 
Knitha army consisted of lO.iiOO or 12,000 horse and report had 
**«Ued their numt>cr» to nearly four tinier tliat amount. Bhfis- 
^ttpant obtained the pos8ea,iion of the town of Hu'di and most of 
tte towns from Katva to the neishbourhooil of Midnrfpur fell into 
ti» hands of the MorithdU. Raghiiji al.->o advanced to Bnigal, The 
topenr ordered Safdar .lang the NawAb of Ondh to drive out 
KUjdtarpant. and at the same time applied to Billaji lUjir&v to 
*^ird his aifL As inducements to the rc»liwa uii assignment for 
tbe arrears of cAauM due from Azimaliad was sent to Dim by the 
onpotor and an assurance of con^ming him in the government of 
**lwn. The reward was prized too fiigiily and the service was 
too desirable to be refused- On BAIAJi'm approach. Raghuji decamped 
■nd retreated towards the hilU. BAlAJi overtook, attacked, and 
■Wetted Raghuji'a armV- BhAskarpant retreated through Orissa 
•04 BilAji returned to JiIAlwa in order to secure the long- promised 
!!'>r«mment. The Peshwa's conduct left no reasonable excuse od 
t^sport of Sluhammad Shahfor refusing to perform the engagement; 
^'it w save the crwlit of the imperial name, the feeble palliative 
"' confi-rring the appointment on the Peahwa as the deputy of 
Prince Ahnia«l. the emperor's son, was ailopti'^l. The rest of the 
tttaty differs little from the former proposals made in the joint names 
of BAlAji and his tmcle ChimnAji, except that instead of 4000, BilAji 
2|(Qdaed to fnrni.-d) 12,000 horse the expense of the additional 
"^ being payable by the emperor. Jaysing between whom and 

Cbaptflr Tn. 



htj OuftMr. 




] ia J 

ffoumntee for 

Pa%i J^hmr dachnd in <liw fona tint 
Reede tnm ka datMB tliejr wookl quit his 
Id Sttfam ts f»j Ins rei^ecta ud 
■0 tbnn^ Ik* tea tf MdMing W» aeoHutis of (he nvenad. 
Tbeae ■eeooBto me mm oat Ij tfM hi&WB u a gencsaJ ia 
eamaaBd o< » hoAy of tlte B^'s tropk.* 

In 17M J U A iy Bhonfe mbI i^tati to th« Pednra aMnring kb 
of htsniMcndeKrectfneaMifiiiiaaaBdaC Ins eonnelwn UiKti' 
bImw fl( BijiiAt van thoss bokwDted to hi* own wad to the ml 
mteRota <rf Uw UaiAlha aakka. B* oootiinwd tltc nme prof mood 
viUi mfftnUL ■nemtr, b«t w ha wtm on full mmrco tgwirii 
SAt^ the Pednm tboocU it ntegn— fjr to be on hui gani. 
pucicitUriT as D«M$ Qi&wmr vae also aj^machiag. The Pia- 
tinidhi had bc«onK mfinn hy wekwi , bat his mmJdHk Taia^] 
StiiTilrr «ras an activ« able man, advene to the Peshwa't saprt:tnac]r, 
•nil. altboojih not lewaad wtth Ba^nm, intimately cotuiMrleJ 
with thd factioa at Dehhtfda. TTader these drcunisL&Dces 
Bfjiriv had to cbooee between a war with the MartUha chief i or i 
tawnatkMi of BeDgal to BagfaajL The qneatioD did not admit i 
himtatii'm: b"fh~r tnf nHyitiUnit "f '*mgil fr~Rir''"j' Attbeaan 
time aa it waa ondi-rstiMxI that the eoon fa T oortfa ci the Mahinadi i 
wellaa gf the >ar)«da waa co m prehenoed in bis tgn^mvA wilb 
IIm cnpeior, he toade a merit of cnaoeding his right oC wvying trib^ 
to Ba^aji, atwl a secret coiopact in whidi the lUya was used u * 
mediator waa finallj ooneluded. The olJMt oc the eontractiBg 
parties wenu avowedly to have been not so mocfa an '''JirT-ft ai sB 
agr ee ment to aroid iotcrfereaoG with each other. The Raja's autbo- 
n^ was in this iostanoe convenieot to both. A mtnad was ciw 
to the Peahwa conferring on him bis m^nal awAttaOt all the jd>_ *' 
beatowed on himaelf or acquired bv his fitther orgnmdfnih<>r, ._ 

govemmeDts of th« Konkan and MiU«-a, and the shame of n-vanue i 

tribute from Alla h abad, Agra, and Ajiuir ; thn.-e mb-divinii>ni« Id th« ' 
district of P&tna, JCSOUO (Ra. 2U,O0Oj from the province of Arkot. ud 
a few detached villages in Raghi^i's districts. On the oih«r hand, '' 
was Mettled that the re%'cnue«a!ndcoiitributionsfrom Lakhnau.r 
and Lower Bengal incla<)iogBtLhAral)ould be collected bvRagh^jii 
was also vested with tho sole anthority of le^-ring tribute £rom i 
whole territory fr')ni livTix to Katak. It wok afeoagreed that Daml^i 
GlUlcwiir nhoul'l be obliged to account to the Peshwa for tlwaaiowil 
of tlin contributions hu had levied in Milwa, bat nothing waa arged 
at this tim<! re«pi;ctiiij' llic large arrcant duo by D&bhidc to the bead 
of th<! govcruiuent It does not appear that any settlement was 
concluded but Paioiji seems to nave remained in the l>eooaii. 
although hi« pn-s«,>uc« vas much n.'()niT«d in Gujnrtft^ The Pesbwa's 
koutliurn and eastern boundaries in Nortli India were well defiiwd 

1 OnatDarallHUlite 2M. It (■ > nauukkUi r«e( thM aftw th* Rtji* «r Sitin 
hsd bMMna Mifeet dpbon in tho Muitha govtnunaut, tha Paaltwa's aooonsta iW 
(laaad to UkTImI t« b« hukIc out io the maaair ducribM. Ditto. M 




If Uie Narbwis, tlic Son, and tlic Uaiii^^ bnl the «anad delivered 
on ihi« orcoAion aulhorb'xtil him to pa.ih his contiuest^ to the north* 
vanl as far as practical>le.' 

Jla^uji BhoasW was intent on rc% ivin*; hj.i loKt footini; in Bengal ; 
K)ii uie I'l-shwa iit ontiT to cxcu.te hittiwilf to tlie uinpuror for not 
uting against Raghuji remained in the Deccan. As ROon as tJie 
MUOD opened Bh^karpant was sent with i!0,OUO horse into B«ngal 
1;)'Racliuji. but aJongwith twenty otiicurs WON treacfaeroualy murdered 
1^ Ahverdi Khiin in an ent<Ttainmeat and the army n^treated 
t«Bcmr. Kaghaji himself proceeded to the scene of action, and, 
pariially defeated wliile returning, succeeded in annexing Devgad 
aod CWida to his territory', shortly ufttn- Raghuji IhuI entered 
Beqgal, B&t^ji Bitjii-^v went ( 174.^) to M^iwa, addre^teil lt;ttera to the 
•operor full of assurances of perpetual 6delity, but excused himself 
bm paying his respects lu the royal presence. Uc expressed sur- 
pn«st AJivcnli Khitn's inoctjvity in not repulsing Kaghnji, which 
tbe i^niperor in hi.i reply aecoante<l for by charging B&liji with not 
tuiing stopped the passes in Ba^buji's rear as preconcerted. But 
the agreement which lia<.l taken place with Raglmji pn-cludGd>all 
interference ; tlio Ftidhwa i>vinli:d the <Ji»cu»'ion, and on pretence of 
baiiaess in the Deeean, after making his yearly collections speedily 
Petumed to Po<aia. 

In 1746 till? Pcshwa wnt his cousin Suilssliiv Chiinrmji Bhda 

AccompanicxI by Hakhiiriini Hiijni the wnter of Mah&liljipant Pumn- 

diure on an expedition into the KarniitAk to punish some of the 

fiahmukhs wlro had driven out the poets of tlic Pcshwa's old 

cwiiitor B^puji Niik Biirnnrntiknr. Tliat pi^raon by thu intermt of 

lUghuji Bnonsle had obtained the rAaulh and mrdenhniukhi 

Ixjlweon the Krishna and Tungbhadra in farm from the R*ya for 

^•he yearly sum of £70,000 (lis. 7 Idkha) ; but the opposition ho 

ejtperienoftd and the heavy ch»rce« for lumiitainiiig the troops totally 

CViMd him in a few years. 'Ine expense of the present expedition 

^dded to his embarrassment, but ho would not, as was proposed 

to liim, agree to give up the contract in favour of ^^ud^lshiv 

C^liimniji. SJaditshiv Chimiiiiji levii.-d contributions as far as 

the Tungbhadra and reduced Bah^ur Benda to which the Mar&thtta 

atd a claim of long standing. On Sadftshiv Chimruijl's return 

from ihia expttdilion, he was invwted by the RAja with the 

satse rank as had been enjoyed br his father, that is second- 

■s-eommand under the Peshwa, ana being ambitious and bolder 

Uisa hia conun the Pe-ihwii he began to assume considerable 

Ever. Ue chose as his writ<;rs ViirdKlev Jcihi am) Hoghunith 
wi, two able men brought up under KAnhoji Angria. In 
17*7 the Peshwa himself concluded a new and more specitic agrce- 
i^fQt witli iiiff K&}&.^ uf Bundetkhand, by which, after deducting the 
district which hod been ceibnl to the late Peshwa, one-third ot the 
Ilerrito^ estimated at £1(55.000 (Rs. liSJ tdkhn) was made over to 
B*Uji Blijir&v beside.'? a like share from the pn^tiU of the ilianiond 
"Wins of Panna. During this peiiod of comparative tranquillity 

Ch^ter TIL 


1720 -1849. 

I Onnt DuII'i Mftrlllilr. 290. 


or tm iK i Biil.' wmi th» Jiiml rf tl» 

(MM. ■■■ tl^B BBHV hw wnBRWCDti COB* 


WMd* CorHMfiMl I 11 1 I of Tithim Ibc tOTtbtf 

faMdjr aaife. Sat bodb wm Jha orefw I . It vas ibtn itt mwt d 
IktheAoaU tdu tk MB if MM nmcteUe ■fc.lrfjr^ tU 
TUB brvpimL ShAs Mid. b* h^ m iAvaoK tmsm 
At 1m« h* teU MifclihgiiMil Pttna&K ud 
Ooviadrir CktaM tfaai TfaiUi ^i» «m id fira^ ta Sltiim, bid 
■OMewhCTB Ud bar gmdaoa lUm the md of tin Moood ShiHji 
w1m> «m ban to tfit aAm tlw dcMh of hb btha. It » lui 
koowTt hy what neam Sbibii l-rraiM poMSMad oC this went; 
•Dd tbt Mittieet. iBtncale in iUeU, bad bwa m atodioaslf iavolvnJ 
in oiTslcrT a* to ezctte a saspidoo that the Pesbwm was conviDcrd 
«f tba hg itu naCT of B<n ftiys, and tonoA h neccssaty for tbe 
|>Ufyo M of nadaring Wm umgiuScaat to invtot or at iMrt l« 
eoBoIva at tltc nwiimatioQ tbai ibe wbole was a trick of suta 
tMha oo bearing of the inteoded adoptkn of SanbbAji of KoltuU 
par WM heard to aajr ' I will pr^rcnt tbat.' and on being cIom-Ij 
qoeationed and enoovragrvl dixUivd th« existence of h«r ifrwidwa 
The elder Barvirfaig wife of ShAhu. SakvirUi of the Sbirkc fuai 
on bein? Bcqiiiunt«d with thk dccUialioa on the pan nf TiH 
which (T^Dnved ber of all ehaDOB of power, inriU-J Saubbaii M 
oppoM tuo alleged grandsoa of TinlbiU wliom abo deuartd 

1 Orut Dnr* Marithii. 38S. SU)mi wm tor •»«• Urn •SlcMd wtth that hanOm 
■lUf Bi»dnc« whkb ■■ ntnatimcB ladiorooa, tT*m whUw It wwiWa eoiMi— wlicB. 
It fint apiwarcd oa an oonuom whn h« bad to r«o«lT« • vUt from two Martlka 

••fdirm iD'fiUI dnbir. bjr U* dwiaf out bit tavovrftadag la gold bcMads, vonml 
wllh Jtmb and pnttiag Us om tartan on tbe dott Ha mtw rwaoaMl aav e 
Ib( lor kb b«>d after be noinntd U> •eaae*. TUa d«g had ohm Mtrad bia lita wbM 

wllh Jtmb and pnttiag Us oon I 

tag lor kb bo>d ^t«r be noorercd ! 

hmU^ a *'(*'• "^ aMKincM otber traak*, b« uaaed aoaoili oeal*fTi>g a fagir ^m 

bbn. and antluteg fctin to «n a (ijiluiqma ID all wUeh tta Bija WM kniacNiNd a^ tki 

priMmfa MUWbbMMit kaM. Ditto, lootoote. 

■ nthabadaovw wttaadbkreplf taal«tt«irabo«tt)iu tinobwnlUJa JayalMi' 
Jqrpartkimt^tkatslaiiiadlttotbelMt. Tha Rljaadtcd wlut bo had Mrfarvod 
lor tba Diada laith aad wfaat obaritMi h« kad bartowed. I bare, iwpliid SUba. 
•oiH}!!* rad from tko Moaahnla* tlia whole eoantrjr frvm BAtnealirar to IMlii lal 1 
ha'afiran UtolbaBrthman*. Grant DnfTi Uaritkta, MM footnote. 


an impostor. She promised to aid Sarobh<ji to her utmost, 

Bjid engaged Yam^Ji Sliivdcv in her cause. Js^ivan tbo 

younger brother of ShripatMv who had been appointed Pralini< 

dhi oa thu death of Shripatniv in 1 747, aUo promised her all the 

roppoit in biii power. Dam^i Otiikwitr gave his asM-nt to the 

propwul, and emisaariea were deapatclied into the Gh^tmitha and the 

iConkan, a tract ever proiie to insum^ction, to raise men and be 

prepared for her purpose^ Bdlitji Biijiriiv ivpaJrul to S&tJira witlt 

an nrmv of 35,000 men, bat so cautious was he of committing any 

act which might outrage tliu Miinitliu feeling, alnMidy ji'ttlous of 

Biihman power, tliat he did not attenipt to neparati! Hukv^bAi 

from her nusband or to impose any restraint likely to arouse the 

wtive enmity of hor n-lationit. Altliuugh he knew the extent of 

her plots, and was also aware that Sakv^rh^i had a plan to acuiaii- 

liliat« him, be was at the same time suspicious of Tarab&j, whose 

blown enmity to BiUJi Bitjirdv U iiulrcd tlicjirincipiil evidence 

in support of her extraoniinary story. The pregnancy of 

Blt&vdnibdi the wife of the second Shivaji, was strongly suspected 

t^Bijasb^ the younger wife of EUy^riim at th« time of ShivAii'it 

■uath, and it required all the care and circumspection of TflrfilMi 

tokccpllKi infant from <k'struction. She found means to convey 

ttu duid from the fort of PanbiUa and having given him in charge 

!■> the )ri«ter of Bhavinib&i he was carried to "niljlipur and thence 

toB&rai in SlioUpur w}iere he was roared in obscurity. The Peshwa 

«u at a loAs what to do. During three months spent at Sdtiira 

Were Shithu's death, ho was alternately swnyed by ambition and 

■ppreben.tion. He thought of at once (i.s'<i-rting his supremacy by 

Setting aside the Rija entirely.' But on the whole he considered it 

tooit expedient to support tlie assertion of T^rftbai. Yet, tliough 

tht was scrupulous in every outward form of reapect towards the 

'pnnco whom he acknowledged, he was not afterwards desirous 

_ >f suppresting a current report at Poena that the whole was fioti- 

^OUB. When tbe power of the Peshwa was complete, and the end 

^m gained, such a pageant as the Rdja, in some respects, was incon- 

Vaoient to the usurper, and to countenance a belief of the imposture 

*fa» the 6rst step to his being wliollv -let aside. But the voice of 

the ooimtry was too strong and an Tieir of the house of Shivaji 

^rould have been joined by thousundR. Sakvdrhii, to conceal her 

t^lot, always gave out that in the event of Shihu's death she 

^ould bum with Uic body- This declaration proved her ruin, for 

the wily BnUiman atfectoil to iHslieve it, and took care to circulate 

tfce report until it became ao general that its non-fulfilment would, 

•»i tbe eyes of the whole country, have been a reflection on the 



1 Qnat Dtir* Ihnttlit*, 2ffT. The folloving letter fnim S&dftjihiv Chimnlijilotlio 

y«UiW> raCOOimCnili hU u«ur|iiiiK tlie power at oncp. AlWr omjilimeiiM ; It ■enma 

^maMlbl* to iwtgnotwbu willbe the nwalt ot nil this. ThH luia licjinsi i>re not 

*o b* dap«wl«d u(;Oii ; kmp ooutmaftlty on yuir gnitd Tha B*l ii ant % pennn to 

*>>siiil«r la l^kt obich ahe wt^about. Lrt o'ltliing indocB you to act Mntrftry to 

^k>t tuu liltliRrIa bMD profciwil. or kt «uy thing nppnu napocting ymir tntsn. 

■Atau I but in th« wrant of the Kkja'a dpctaie. yoa matt take th« appi^i: hiiitl of 

^OL WUU th« RA}* is in exiitsDoe, do not Mow to moch u * grain of oilseed 

*<> ■pptAr difleninl inyoiir eondunt, A> m«ttnra proo«*d uunlinue to write to m« 

"^rtMtlji. Detpatched lUtb SftvtL Ditto footnota. 

■ isga-s; 

[Bombay OuMtwt 


Ckftpter TIL 


bouoUT of the funily. Although Sakv^b&i seldom quitted (ha 
Rijtt, hnd kept )kim coostuitlj surroundwl by pcrHOOA ia hti io- 
t«r«at, B&Uji looud means to obtain a private interview, at wlikh 
be induced the iUja to give him a deed etnpoweiuog the Pcahm 
to manag« the whole government of tha Varatha emptr*. oo OM- 
dttion of hii p<^rp«tuatine th« RAja's name and kaepuig op tlit 
dignitT of the house of Shiviji through the gruvlsoo of Tiiiitf 
aira hi* d«aoeadanls. This paper also dirvctvd tliat tk« KolhApoi 
stat« should always be coniiidered an iudependtnt sovereiffBty j 
ttuU the jAgin now existing were to be confirmod to tbe bwdvik 
Itftving power with the Pcahwa to conclude such arraDgetnents with 
the^ytViianasmight bebem'ticial for extending Uinaa power, (ot 
protecting the temples of the gods, the eoltivatora of the fiekb^ uJ 
wKatAocvcr was aaetod or oaeniL 

The lUja had scarcely ceased to breathe when a body of bans 
galloppfrd into the town of SUArs, surrounded and seized tke 
Pratinidhi and hit) vtutAiik Yamifji Shtvd<<v, placed them in irons, 
and sent them oS strong^ escorted to distant hiU forts. Every 
auenue about the town was occupied by troops, and a garrison of 
the Peshwa's was pUce<l in t\w fort, wliile a party was detached W 
reinforce the escort of lUm iUja who had not arrived wKn 
ShAhu died. SakvArbAi had not recovered from the first emotioBt 
of consternation and rage at fin<)ing her whole plans uomaskttl 
and defcatod, when the Peshwa seut her an insidious tscwagB 
bcgcing that fthv would not think of burning with the body of he 
husD&nd for that he and all her servants were ready to obey \m 
commamU. Not content witli working on tho mind of an ansfty 
woman to incite her to self-destruction , he sent for her biotMf 
Koirji Sliirkc, represented the dishonour that threatened to attsd 
to hi» hoiLS)*, and promised him a ta^iV in^thc Konlcao if h* 
persuaded his sister to hum hcn»el^ not only for the hoeoor 
of the family of Shirke. but for the honour of all India under t h^ 
swaT of the' tate R^a. By the<*n arts BiUAji UAjirAv iw«ure<) l^| 
victim.' n 

Uefore Shithu's death, orders in bis name hod t>e«n sent t« 
TashvantMiv IMbhAdu and Raghtyi Bbonale reiiuiriug their prcae&M 
at 8itAra. Yafihvantrfkv lulhhMe had become totally imbe " 
from debauclien*, an<l as had probably been foreseen neit 
IMbhido nor l>amiji QAikwiir tJie commander of hia 
attettded. Most of tho other jii^iWdrs were prccent, but if a 
ware disposed to reJiiAt the Peshwk's authority, tbcy remain 
passive until they should see what part Raghuji Bnoosle would dIm' 
Boghuji'fl ambition wiut now controlled by the caution of am aOQ tw 
teauiing of esperietice. Ue was not only intent on directing j'earlf 
raids into Bengal, but owit^ to the absence of his son Jinoji in W 
£amAtak with 10,000 hontc and to tliu number of trot^ which hi 

I Gnct DofTi .Stuith^ I68l ThaMof BAUji'iconntoyBian who know tba«M«t 
b1l*M7 of thu trkosMtloo and whow iwinJ«L»di>oH»t<np « » w« «Jby UiaoshaxiUiiM 
of a Br4)unui eoaiX diJ not *tl««pl to palllata it H m wwlKca ia «enfcniut]r wM 
tbdr (kith. On tke cootiuy Utty niMttJODMl it with det«HatlM Mid Hid tlMt wi» 
tfa* onliurjr dioiU of riMnttloo wou Id >ikt# l>f#n atm man); kdd kw nhjnnliiiintl* fl» 


compelled to leave in his ovrn territories He arrived fti SitArn 
___Ji6 month of ilAnuarj' 17S0, with a force of only 12,000 men. 
^ik disposition was pacific towards B^riji but he made some d«mur 
in Kkouwlcdgin}; lUm Kiiju. Hv re<)uir«d. in t^tstimony of liis 
hduij a Bbooala and the grandwn of lUjto&m, that TtLrAb^i ahould 
Gnt eat with him in presence of thocflstu, dvpustn^ ou bh« food they 
ito tag«thttr that lUm lUja wan her grandson. When tJiis wm 
comfitied with in the iuo«t solemn manner, Rajfht^i declared htmself 
Ntia&edi and after a long confvrenct' wit)i t)i« Ptrntwa he save fail 
inentto the propriety of Un^ plnit.'* submit t«d for hi.<i eonaiileraUoa. 
A» a proof of the good understaiKling which eubsistcd betweea 
then, BiUji took occtuion to prooiMd in advance to Poooa, leavina 
Qm Bija in Kaghuji'n charge, and requesting that he would 
Moompaoy him to Poona with the wlic^e of the jdg\rddr», for the 
inupose of concluding the arrangementa niad« by the will of the 
WSh&bn BAja. From thin periM (1760) Poooa took the place of 
&Ura as the capital of the Mardthfo. 

la the KuoceMt of hts Hclieiii^.1. Balaji almost overlooked Tnr4Mi, 
who thoagh upwards of seventy years c£ eco, soon convinced him tjiat 
H waa daiii^roux to slight a woman of her spirit. On pretence 
of paying her dtivotion^ at her husband's tomb in KinligniJ ncnr 
IWia sho went there and endeavoured to persuade the Pant i>acbiv 
(0 (Ibclare for her as head of the Mar^itiia <-iiipiru. BAlAji, after 
Kodb persuasion, induced her to come to Poona, and having tlattered 
Ut ambition witli the hope of a lup^'.- share iu the adniiuistratimi, 
at kst obtuned her influence with lUm Kiija iu coutirming tho 
nuy schemes he had now to carry into <'tf?c(. ilagliiyi Bboosle 
(iceived new dcod^ for Beritr, Gondvaii, nnil Bengal, and »onie lands 
*Uch bad belonged to the Fratinidhi adjoining Ber&r. The title 
■Itvlsforlialf of Uujaritt wore sent to Toshvantriiv DAUi^dc, which, 
•) be bad never yet accounted for a .ihare of the revenue to the state, 
pit9 Damaji Qaikwar to understand what he mi^ht espect from the 
growing power of the Peshwa. About lhi.t time Kiinoji 8in<lia di«d 
*bl his eldest son Jay&pa woa oonfinned in his estates. The whole 
(< MMwa cstiniat'.'d at nbuut Zir, millions (Rs. l£0 Wcks) of 
Jtttly revenue except about £100.itOO (Ks. 10 /jijtA«),was iliviik-d 
Mtwoeo Holkar and Sindia, and £7'^.OiiO (IU74) Idkka) were 
K«ferred on Uolkar and i:6:>5,000(K«.6i>iZa'M4i) on Sindia. The 
tnuuning £luo.UO0 {tts. 10 Idkks) were held by various idgirddra 
stwhom A'nandriv Povir was the nio^t considerable. All of tJbem 
*»rB aubservient to the views of the Peshwa and from them he bad 
W opposition to fear. BAh'iji B.Ijir.Iv, without intending to 
t&ploy them, conlimied the i-ighi Pradhiini^, and for a short time 
luniinated Gang.idhai Shriniv&s as PratJnidhi ; but on the 
*Pptication of iSighuji Blionslc nod of aome other jdtfiTdArn^ 
vben about to return to their districts, he made them a promise 
'<|rdeasc Ja^ivan Parashnr^m and «ccunli)ii;ly re^itored iiim to 
^ rank ana ]ii>crty. Aa the lUja's establishment was to be 
much reduced, and it was oeccssoi'y to suciirc iu hitt interests 
*<ich of hia officers a.** he could not employ, the Peahwa reserved a 
(tMt part of the Pratinidhi's lands as jdgirs and assi^menta 
w the (tersons in question, particularly the tract west of Karhfid 

Chapter m. 

1730' IMa. 
Sum BAjtt, 








betma tfc« Dnmsfi aad the VAniK wben be ^HveheiMM an 
iMametMawppartcdbjrUteBiJBafEoIhApnr. FaU^Mb« Bbosab 
Uw adt^ited boo of SbAbn wm uBflimd ta Uie |iiiwiMioti of hia 
jdffir, m various ubiar duau, in afcaiai of RV«ira». aod to 
tb« title o( IU> of Akalkoi, whkb, csMpI lh« dttacbed eldiw 
aUtklfld to, arv ttm rajojrBd l^ hit rfiweBniiatitii An ■muntAent 
cnated b^ ShAfaa for • retntMO of Ibe Haatri, and wkich was 
tensed J^MmI AtrAdbwittt or gtoenl aeent far eoOecting tbe 
aoniMAmuJUi waa nomTnalPy preaenred ; Mtt j*gir lands wei* 
Maignetl is li«a of the right o[ interfeiVDee in the collection (if tb» 
ten per c«nt on the six mMd» of tlie Dcvcan. The apprintnent of 
^r UMbknr waa taken bom tke bmity of So ai v an ani and giveo 
to NimMji Niilc NiaUUcar. All tliese changes and appointnieDts 
Wen Buwle in the naew of RAm Rija, but it was now well 
ondentood that tlu Pbshwa's atttboritr 'was supreme in the stale 
•od generMy admHted without dtmatiafaction. Yami^ Shivder. 
who recovered hid liberty mt the same time with the Pratiiudhi, 
threw himself into tbe fort of Stogcrfa new Paodbaninr whpre he 
rai«c<l nn irMurrectioa and made head agidnst the Peahwa until he 
WIA snppreased by th« Pediwa's eonan SadCsbiv Chimniji. In the 
lliwiimi«iii which have bv«n detailed the Peshwa owed much of his 
■o eew to his Div&n MabAdiyipant, who, next to bis coaaa 
Sad^iTiiv. possessed the ereateot influence cn-er BAUji BAjinlT of 
any of his ad\-iscre. Sa«Uj«hh-n(v on his expedition to SAngoIa ww 
aeoonpaniud hy fUro lUja for the pnrpose of gi^inc Yanuljt 
Sbivdev no excuse for resistance. During; their stay at that ptM**, 
ttic TUJM Bigrccl to renounce the entire power and to lend bb 
HsiKiion to whatever measure) tbe Peshwa might piuvne, provided 
a small tract roaud S^tAra was nwif^netl to hi" own maoaj^ement, 
conditions to which BdUji xtiliscrilied but which he nerer fulfilled 
Tbe lUja und^r a strong escort returned from Silng«^ to SitAra. 
The Peshwa in order to soothe T<rftli<i whose great age di<l not 
render her less active and intriguing, incautiously removed bis 
troops from tlte fort of SAtAra, and haTiiig ptnced in it the gnSkarit 
and old retainers who had great respect ^r the widow of R^ijirim, 
gara up the entire m&na^eiuent to her. The lUja was kept with i 
separate establihliim-rit in the town of SfUdra, but perfectly nt larce. 
and a splendid provi<iion was aligned to him and hi^ officerH, Uw 
Mtpense of which amounted to the yearly sun) of £(150,000 
(Es. 6« Idkha)} 

Ih 1751, when the Peshwa left for Aurangabad, 
claims of Ghitd-ud-din tho elder son of the 
vioeroyatty of the Deccan, T&r&Uli sounded RAm 
to his assuming the control usurped by his «er\'ant BAUii"lhe 
Peshwa ; but not Bnding hiro fit for ht-r purpose^ she pretended to 
have had no serious inli-ntions in the proposal. At the »une time 
■he sent meiueii^rs to Diunitji GiiiKwjr, rcprettentinf tbo 
nngnarded state of the country and reeowmending bis immediate 
march to SAtAra to rescue the RAja and the lionltha state from tbo 

t Orant DnlTs UM*tU*, 272. 

[D of £050,000 

to support UmI 
NixAm to tJiJ| 
EAja in regard^ 



inMns. Damiji at once acted on this reqaetit 

■.(xjfi as oert«D accoimij* wcrw received of the 

Uukwar't* apprnacli. iuvjted the Kdja iuCo the fort of SMAra aod 

msde him pnaoner. Sh« th«j reproached him with hia want of spirit ; 

twicU«<l tliut ahu had ever rescued liiiu from a Itfv of ohncurity for 

which only he could have been fleatined ; declared that hn could ' 

lUil 1x1 her ^ftud^n OT lli« d^Aocuduiit of tlio great Shiv^ji; that 

be was Dcitiier a Bbonsle nor a Mohite, but a hosebom dundhali 

danged in the bous« vrhcru hu had boon tirst conveyed^ and that ahe 

maid make atonement on thi; bauka of the holy krixhua for ev«r 

baring acknowledged him. She ordered the liavildir to tire apon 

hitattcDduita, rno^t of whom iinoon^oiu of what had happened 

mained near thv gate of the fort ; and slie direct«d Uic guua to 

\k pointed at the hoQsVM in the town below belon^g to the 

nrttsans of the Koiikani Brahmnnx. Trimliakpaiit commonly called 

KtaaPorandhare, Uo\'iiidriv Uhitnis, and the officers in tin: Pvxhwa'a 

uttrcsta at Satirs wcru at tirst disposer) to ridicalo this attempt 

astbatof a niad old woman, but, on hcAnn^ of tht- approach of 

SmutjiOiikw^r from Sonj^, they quitted the town and a.T<vinblcd 

Inopsalthc village of A'ria on tnv bniiks uf the Iviishna. *Ud 

tie advance of ih« U&ikwdr by the Sdlpa pax*, although they had 

*>^>00 and their opponent only 15.000 men they made au irre»olut« 

atUckand rrtired t'> Nimb about eight inile« north of Sdttirawbera 

&t;f were followed the next day, attacked, and dcfeattNl by tha 

Ca;uit troops. DamdiiGiikwiirinimi'diati'iy went topay his respects 

fc^Tiribii, anil wtvonil forl.i in the usighlHUirhotvl were given to her. 

SiUnt was well .ttoi'ed with proviaions. and the Pratinidhi promised 

lotidTdnib^i'H catu(.\ News of thc»« procKcdinp* rccallwl the Pcthwa. 

Btfore be retnrned Nitna Purandliare had redeemed hiH lost credit 

V Attacking and compelling the army of Damjiji U&ikwir to retire 

ktbeJod valley about twenty-five mile.'* nortb-wwtt of Sritdra where 

tfiey expected to be joined by the Pratinidhi from Karhid and by 

Iniopa from tinjanit. In this bop■^ tbey were disappointed ; and as 

SWakrajipant Sul>bo(Urof the Konkanwa.ta»«nibling troops in their 

•Sar and tne Peahwa's army which haci mtrched nt'ai'Iy 4(10 miles in 

'Urteea days wivi tloeo upon them, f Jainilji sent a messenger to treat 

"Itb B^l^ji' liaUji i«olenitily agreed to abide by the teniis proposed 

*Bd enljcod Damaji to encamp in his neigh Ijourbood, where, as soon aa 

^got him into hijt power, he deniandtul the payment of all the arrears 

^He from Gt^jarAt, and Uieccasion of alai-ge portion of his terrilorj*. 

^&mAji reprcMinti;)! that ho waH but the agent of D&bhiide the 

Sen&pati. and had no authority to comply with what was required. 

On tlii.-i reply tbc Peshwa sent privato orders to seize some of the 

^aoiiiy of the (iitikwitr and Ddbhade who lived at Talegaon in Foona, 

<Ui(l trcjichcrouaty surrounded, attacked, and plundered the cnnip of 

bam^ji CifUkwiLr and sent him into confinement at Foona.* The 

^eahwa uuxt tried to induce Tllr&bdi to givv up the fort and the 

Chapter Til- 




■ Omit t>iiS'> Muithla, 374. BAm Rtja vm flnt coooMlod b tho bouM ot m 
OouUikU or ■ ffOBdIai daaacr. Ditto, (ontnote. 

* GnntDiUTa Muitliia, 374. In ooD««quoDcc ol thU IrMcIicrj, it !« mIiI that DuDiji 
r tltw rWdMd l» Mloto Ih* P««hir& ticipt «ilh hit left luud. Ditt<s lootaow. 

During BCU^b 

I Mat to ioTvrt SAUn Aad Mam her into I 
MAat, Ibe ca wwwUnt of tbe fact* co n T iD ew l 


A hf^foR* 
I. AoandilT 
of tbe f 0U7 of 
, tmmui th» dwipi af carryiae tb< B^jaoot erf brr poww. 
VIko tlm ems to bar kaovk)%B ahe orilemi lum m be teb— dcd ; 
ft «ot«BCB vUdt Ibe pr r i MD ezeealed on their ovit eoaaaader.u 
mil % 00 M^vcfal fltiicfa wbin— riy faBplkatol in • lik« tAtm^ 
BAbaiiT Jadhav, a panea SMOMMeM with Uie Utc comnaiHlail 
•nd a rdWaaa <rf tb« Jidhavs at Sindklxd waa appaintfHl to tha 
ecnmnaDd ol tlw fort. Id 1753 Ibe Peakwa befon iMving for tlif 
Karnktak eodcaroiircK] to pave tbe wmj toaeoatpmoiue trithXAri fail 
On bis lOMnh to tbe Kanuitak fae srat to aMvn TbAb&i t>-* ■' -^■' 
wool'! nitjmit tlw cootrol of th« BAja's penOQ »»•) e«t*' 
aboolil mnain at her dI>>p<Mal. To Uiia TAriUi woold tt..t 
onleM BAUji Bdjiniv woul<l contetoSitAra.acknowlwlge her antli 
■nd give audi personal aaanraDoes aa would aatiafy bar.* Eccoonfjiki 
t^ ttw approach to Poona of Jinoji Bboosle (be boq uti) heir of 
lUghiiji [lhoosle,aod 00 aasaraaees of ^ctj Mad protection from 
tb« PeJiwa, Tiriidi, leaving lh« garrison of iSatAra an.l llic custody 
of KAin lUja's pcrwMi to Biil>ur&%- Jidhav repaired to the Fmhwat 
capital accompaoiM] hy BimbAji Bhoiwle the youngest brother of 
Jinoji who had attached hinutolt to her party and marrivd one of 
lN;r ri;lnlioi« of the Mohit* family. At Poona TAr*h*i was received 
witli to much att';RUon and considrrstion that she agm«d to tbt 
Peahwa's propoaala as formerlr made, provided he woaM pronUM 
to acconpany hei to the t«mple of Jejuri iui-1 thi-rv soU'tmily swear 
to aU<le by bia prvMnt declaratioiu- The Peehwa acquiasoad on 

t Onal OttTi UirttU^ 374 • STA. 

1 Orul Darri HMilfcte, 



lilJon that BAburAv J^hav ahoold be dismissed to which 
ihta reluctantly tigrced. Taking advantage of her obstinate 
temper, he gained his end of kc«:ping the RAja a piisoner by 
pret«DdiQg a great desire to see him released. lUm B<ija was a 
prince dvScicnt in onlinary ability, and the miscrnble thraldom he 
underwent during a long confinement broke his spirit and ruin«d 
his health.' 

B<fore Shihti's death (1749) littlo improvfmont hail tak^-ii place 

iuthe civil aduunistration of thecountry. UAlAji Bdjirdv (I740-I7GI) 

appointed fixod iniimhitdirH or subhodllrs each of whom had charge 

of »cver»l districta. The territory between the GodAvari and tno 

Krishna including the gi-eater part of S&t&ra, the best protected 

and tno»t prcluutivc undi-r Mar&tha rult-, was eutnistL«d to the 

F«ahwa's favouritt^8 andcourtiern some of whom were his relations. 

They heW absolute o)iarg« of the police, the revenue, and the civil 

•nd mniiiint judicatuiv, and in mott ca>^>---i hml power of life and 

death. They were bound to furnUh regular accounts, but they 

always cvadc<l n-ttleinent- They govorned by deputies and remained 

•t court whetlier in the capital or in the fluid m attendance ujKin 

the Poshwa. Their dLstricta were in consequence extremely ill 

iRauagc<l and in very great disorder; the supplies furnished for tho 

exigencies of the state were tardy, and in comparison with tlie 

established revenues insignilicant. Tho beginning of a better 

syftt^tn i.4 ascribrd to tUUucnandni BAba Shvnvi and after hiit death 

Sad&ahivr^v lihau improved on his snggestions. BdUji B&jirtiv 

Feshna was sen-sible of the ailvatitage to V^ gaiiR'd from bringing 

the ci3)h>cU>r3 under control. H» hud not sutKcient energy for the 

Qodeitalcing himself, but he supported his cousin's measures. 

Panchtli/alg the ordinary tribunals ot civil justice began to improve, 

becttune the supreme power if it did not always examine and 

uphold their decrees, at least did not intL';rfere to prevent the 

dvci.-dous of the cmnuiiinity. Mast of tli<> principnl BrAhman 

families ot the Deccan date their rise from tne time of Bal4ji 

Biijinlv. Jn short the condition of the whuK- populntion was in 

his time improveil and thu MurAlha peasantry nttiuihle of the 

comparative comfort which they then enjoyed have ever since 

blessed the days of Nitna Sdheb Pcshwa. 

In 1760 the Mariith^« .tiutnini^d the crushing defeat of Ptoipat, 
and Peshwa Btilitji wlio never recovered from that terrible blow 
died in 1761. In the end of September 1701, MAdhavnlv the 
second son of tlie Fivhwa BttUji Bajiriiv, then in his seventeenth 
year, went to Stit^a acoonvpanied by his uncle RaghunAthrilv and 
received investiture m Pcshwa from the nominal RAja, who 
remained in precisely tlie same Ktate of imprisonmont under the 
obdurate TiirSbii, until her death in tho following Decemiicr at tho 
age of eighty -six. To the last moment she maintained her inveterate 
hatrtsi against lUlitji Ililjiriiv and Sad&diivr&v, declaring that she 
died contented having lived to hear of their misfortum'S in the 
battl« of Pituipat and their death. The Raja's condition was 

Chapter Jit 



Baalt o/Pdnipat, 



I Unal Dnir* MarMhi*, 3S& 

Oiapter VII- 

■ftcrw*ni» SO far Improvcil tlmt ho was brouglit from the fort 
and aufitinxl to hve s priiK>n(M' al large Wi Uiu town of Sit^ra. At 
a later period, M&dhavriv allowed him to appoint flffeats for th« 
mana^icmcnt o( h'vt pdtil tlut^ in mvoral v'tOages aad toe e<^ection_ 
of tkit other hereditary clainta as dethmukh of Iiid^pur.* fl 

In 1762.' Raxhutinthr&v, who had aasumed chief ooDtrol over the 
Touii^ Pexhwu, di.tplaced Shriiiivii-4 Gaof^har, more commonly 
known by hin original name Bhav^rdv, who had Kuccvedvd hia 
UQcIe Jagjivan Pratii)i<)hi, niid raisod hia infant son Bhiskairiv to 
th« dignity of Pratinidhi and apnoiutod Nilro Shaukar B4js 
Bahildar to the office of mutdUk, which was in effect conferring the 
office of Pratinidhi upon him. In 170-^, when this and other acttt of 
Ra^hun&thrAv had made him unpopular, K&xa PratApvnnt Vilhal 
Sundar a Ynjurviidi BriihniaD the Divan of >iizAm Ali. pt:rfiuade<l 
his mft>it<T that he had now an opportunity of oompIeUrly reducing 
tilt; Mardth^. and that hia best policy waa to overthrow the 
power of the Kunkani BrAhmans, to depoae Riim lUja as unfit 
to govern, and to appoint J^noji Bhoni«le regent. To this acheme ■ 
Jinoji readily aj^o«d, but Kiz&m Ali, whoee duplicity rendered ■ 
hini true to no plan, white hiit minister was negotiating, secretly 
renewed a correspondence witi) the lUja of Kolhipur by whieh he 
intended to have an eventual competitor in reserve in case Jftnoji's 
clsfaoa ahould prove inconviiiii<;nt' Rverythln;; siTined to promise 
■uecess. Bhaviinr^v the dispossessed Prntinitlhi andmnnrofthe 
Peabwa'a officers joim-i) the Moj^haU and hostilities were renewed. 
In tlie war which followed J&noji du9t.-rt<!il and the Moghals 
beini; defeated entered into a treaty with RaxhaiuUhntv, who wa» 
mncli aided by the young Po.iliwa. Bhavtinriv wao restored to tlie 
rank of Fratiui<lhi upon the death of Bh£akari4v which happened 
about the same tJmc* Po^tiwu MiidhavrAv after regaining bii [wwcr 
trom Raghunatbr^v seized every interval of leisitrv to improve the 
civil government of his country. In this laudable object he bad 
to contend with viol>-nt prejiniiciy* and with general corruption ; but 
the bcnciicial effects of the reforms he introduced are now universally 
acknowledged, and his